Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,191 results found
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Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis

Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis or silent thyroiditis is a thyroid inflammatory condition. Clinical presentation  Usually characterised by recent onset of symptoms and there is usually an absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness. On examination there can be a normal to modestly enlarged and fi...
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Subclavius posticus muscle

Subclavius posticus is an accessory muscle in the root of the neck, lying between the subclavius muscle and the inferior belly of omohyoid. It has an incidence of ~ 7.5% 2,4. Summary origin: first costal cartilage insertion: superior margin of scapula nerve supply: nerve to subclavius or sup...
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Subconjunctival fat prolapse

Subconjunctival fat prolapse is an acquired herniation of intraconal fat due to the weakening of the Tenon capsule by normal aging, surgery, or trauma. It presents clinically with a fat-containing epibulbar mass in the lateral canthal area. Epidemiology  Subconjunctival fat prolapse occurs mai...
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Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It most commonly occurs after vacuum assisted delivery, but may also be seen following head trauma. In patients with intracranial haemorrhage or skull fractures, the incidence o...
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Subglottis

The subglottis is the anatomical region caudal to the true vocal cords, and is a subsite of the larynx. The inferior arcuate line of the vocal cord marks the cranial border whilst the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage marks the caudal border of the subglottis 1. The inferior arcuate line is...
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Sublingual gland

The sublingual glands are salivary glands that lie in the floor of the mouth anterior to the submandibullar glands. They secrete predominantly mucous saliva that is drained by a collection of 8-20 excretory ducts collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these ducts, the major subl...
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Sublingual space

The sublingual space is one of the suprahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck. Gross anatomy It is like an inverted V with its apex pointing anteriorly and is located between: tongue musculature superiorly and the anterior one-third of the mylohyoid muscle inferolaterally which separates it...
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Submandibular duct

The submandibular duct (also known as Wharton's duct) allows the passage of saliva from the submandibular gland to the sublingual papilla located anteriorly. The duct extends anteriorly from the submandibular gland superior to the lingual nerve and submandibular ganglion curving over the poster...
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Submandibular ganglion

The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to submandibular duct sitting on the hyoglossus muscle ...
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Submandibular gland

The submandibular glands are paired salivary glands located behind and below the ramus of the mandible in the submandibular triangle. They secrete mixed serous and mucous saliva that is excreted into the oral cavity via the submandibular duct that connects the gland to the floor of the mouth. G...
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Submandibular space

The submandibular space is a U-shaped compartment of the suprahyoid neck.  Gross anatomy The superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia encloses the submandibular space.  Boundaries anterolateral: mandible medially: anterior belly of digastric muscles (separating it from the submental sp...
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Submental space

The submental space lies in the midline below the chin, medially to the U-shaped submandibular space with which it freely communicates.  Gross anatomy Boundaries superiorly: mylohyoid muscle inferiorly: superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia laterally: anterior bellies of the digastr...
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Submental triangle

The submental triangle is the single midline triangle, part of the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spa...
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Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid is one of the more frequent complications of acute otomastoiditis and results in coalescent mastoiditis extending through the external cortex of the mastoid sinus. This can occur in any direction: postauricular: common as the bone is particularly thin ("Mace...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit

Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit occurs as a complication of acute sinusitis. Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain, visual disturbance, proptosis and/or chemosis. Pathology Bacteria can extend via neurovascular foramina or bony dehiscences. More commonly occurs from ethmoid...
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Substernal goitre

Substernal goitre is a goitre (enlarged thyroid gland) with intrathoracic extension. It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goitre that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete removal or an intrathoracic compone...
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Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
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Superficial temporal artery

The superficial temporal artery is one of two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. It arises in the parotid gland and runs between the deep and superficial lobes, over the zygomatic process before terminating in three branches - parietal, frontal and transverse facial - to supply pa...
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Superficial temporal vein

The superficial temporal vein arises in a plexus on the side and vertex of the skull and, in the substance of the parotid gland, joins with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein. Gross Anatomy The superficial temporal vein originates from a venous plexus on the side and vertex of...
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Superior labial artery

Superior labial artery (old name: superior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is bigger and more serpiginous than the inferior labial artery. It supplies the upper lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch...
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Superior laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid muscle. It pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. ...
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Superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue

The superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres ...
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Superior nasal concha

The superior nasal concha is one of the conchae in the nose and refers to a bony projection on the posterior surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid.
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Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. Summary innervation: trochlear nerve (CN IV) origin: lesser wing of Sphenoid bone and is outside of Annulus of Zinn located supero-medially. inse...
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Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, suprat...
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Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
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Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Its primary action is constriction of the pharynx (in coordination with the middle pharyngeal constrictor and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles) to deliver a bolus of food into the oesophagus. Sum...
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Superior rectus muscle

Superior rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. Summary innervation: superior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: Annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, superior surface) primary function: one of two ocular elevators ...
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Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is a recently described inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSC). Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10%...
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Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly.  Boundaries posteri...
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Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies the larynx and thyroid gland. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the hyoid bone branches hyoid artery sterncocleidomastoid branches superior laryngeal artery cricothyroid...
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Supernumerary teeth

Supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia) are additional teeth that are in addition to the normal number of either primary or permanent teeth. Terminology The term supplemental tooth may be used when the supernumerary tooth resembles its associated normal tooth and the term peridens may be used for an...
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Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes are a paired group of lymph nodes located on either side in the hollow of clavicle close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous system. They oversee transport of lymph from the thoracic ...
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Supraclavicular nerves

The supraclavicular nerves are three cutaneous nerves that emerge as a common trunk from the cervical plexus before branching to innervate the skin over the upper chest and shoulders.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraclavicular nerves arise from the ventral rami of C3 and C4 spinal nerves, alth...
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Supraclavicular triangle

The supraclavicular triangle is one of the paired triangles in the posterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep sp...
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Suprahyoid muscles

The suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles in the neck, named because of their position to the hyoid bone: anterior suprahyoid muscles anterior bellies of digastric muscle mylohyoid muscle geniohyoid muscle posterior suprahyoid muscles posterior bellies of digastric muscle stylohyoid m...
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Supraorbital artery

The supraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplying part of the orbit and face.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraorbital artery originates from the ophthalmic artery, upon branching it lies medial to the optic nerve. Course The supraorbital artery courses superiorly and med...
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Supraorbital foramen

The supraorbital foramen or notch is the small opening at the central edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone just below the superciliary arches that transmits the supra-orbital nerve, artery and vein. It is lateral to the supratrochlear foramen, where the supratrochlear nerve, ...
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Supraorbital nerve

The supraorbital nerve is the lateral and larger of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superior aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit it exits the orbit through the supraorbital notch to supply the conju...
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Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge, also known as the supraorbital margin or superciliary arch is the superior margin of the bony orbit. Part of the frontal bone, the supraorbital ridge contains the supraorbital foramen (or notch). The corrugator supercilii muscles arise from the medial end of the supraorbi...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Suprasternal space

The suprasternal space (of Burns) is a space of the inferior neck. Gross anatomy Inferior to the hyoid bone, the superficial or investing layer of the deep cervical fascia divides into anterior and posterior leafs to attach to the respective borders of the suprasternal (jugular) notch, forming...
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Supratrochlear artery

The supratrochlear artery, also known as the frontal artery, originates from the ophthalmic artery as one of its terminal branches. Gross anatomy After arising from the ophthalmic artery, it pierces the orbital septum and courses in the superior and medial aspect of the orbit, medial to the su...
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Supratrochlear foramen (head)

The supratrochlear foramen is the small opening at the medial edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone that transmitts the supratrochlear nerve, artery and vein. When incomplete, it forms a notch. It is variably present, and when absent the neurovascular bundle will simple exit th...
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Supratrochlear nerve

The supratrochlear nerve is the medial and smaller of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superomedial aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit, it passes over the trochlear and exits the orbit under the sup...
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Sutural diastasis

Sutural diastasis is an abnormal widening of the skull sutures. It may be physiological in a neonate during a growth spurt.  Pathology In non-traumatic scenarios accelerated growth of the sutural connective tissue without concurrent ossification is the underlying pathology.  Aetiology trauma...
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Sutures

There are many sutures of the skull, which are where skull bones meet. In general, sutures don't fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Sutures are fibrous joints with the periosteum externally and outer la...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
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Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
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Teeth

Teeth can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24.  Gross anatomy There are twenty deciduous (primary) teeth in young children, with ten per jaw and five in each quadrant, which consist of (distal to mesial):...
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Telecanthus

Telecanthus represents increased intercanthal distance. It is often used interchangeably with hypertelorism, referring to increased distance between the eye. Causes and associations trauma: naso-orbito-ethmoidal (NOE) fractures ethnic variation acquired sinus and orbital tumours sinus poly...
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Temporal bone

The temporal bone is situated on the sides and the base of the cranium and lateral to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum. The temporal bone is one of the most important calvarial and skull base bones. The temporal bone is very complex and consists of five parts: squamous part mastoid part petr...
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Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
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Temporal bone fractures

Temporal bone fractures are usually a sequela of blunt head injury, generally from severe trauma. Associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, shear (or diffuse axonal) injury, and cerebral contusion are common. Early identification of temporal bone trauma is essential to m...
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Temporal fossa

The temporal fossa is located in the temporal region and communicates inferiorly with infratemporal fossa deep to the zygomatic arch. Gross anatomy The temporal fossa is bounded by a few anatomical landmarks, anteriorly the frontal process of the zygomatic bone, superiorly and posteriorly the...
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Temporalis muscle

The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. It is responsible for both closing the mouth and retraction (posterior fibres). Summary origin: temporal fossa between the infratemporal crest and inferior temporal line insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible innervation:...
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Temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an atypical synovial joint located between the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular eminence of the temporal bone. It is divided into superior discotemporal space and inferior discomandibular space by the TMJ disc (or menisc...
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Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualisation of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.  Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...
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Temporomandibular joint disc

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc (or meniscus) is made of fibrocartilage and divides the joint into two compartments.  Gross anatomy The disc is composed of fibrocartilage, with crimped collagen, thought to better absorb impacts. It has a biconcave shape with a thicker periphery attached...
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Temporomandibular joint dislocation

Temporomandibular joint dislocation represents the condyle of the mandible being abnormally displaced, with a loss of the normal articulation with the glenoid fossa. Epidemiology Dislocations of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are common and occur in as many as 7% of the entire population, a...
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Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is characterised by an abnormal relationship between the disc and the adjacent articular surfaces (condyle below with mandibular fossa and articular eminence above).  Epidemiology TMJ dysfunction is far more common in women (F:M 8:1). Clinical present...
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Temporomandibular joint effusion

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) effusions are unusual in asymptomatic patients, and thus should trigger a careful search for underlying pathology. It usually precedes osteoarthritis of the TMJ. Effusions are seen in: TMJ dysfunction septic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Radiographic featu...
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Temporomandibular joint inflammation

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation may occur as a result of an inflammatory arthropathy or secondary to TMJ dysfunction. Since the TMJ is a synovial joint, it is susceptible to inflammatory arthropathies that affect other joints.  rheumatoid arthritis (RA) : is by far the most common  ...
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Temporomandibular joint pathology

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology encompasses three main entities: temporomandibular joint dysfunction: relating to abnormal TMJ disc relationship to condyle and temporal bone, which can lead to osteoarthritis. temporomandibular joint inflammation temporomandibular joint trauma See als...
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Temporomandibular joint trauma

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be affected by trauma in a number of ways: condylar process fractures temporomandibular joint dislocation fracture of the mandibular fossa
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Temporozygomatic suture

The  temporozygomatic suture (or zygomaticotemporal suture) is between the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. It can mimic a zygoma fracture.
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Tendinous ring

The tendinous ring, also known as the annulus of Zinn, is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). The tendinous ring straddles the superior orbital fissure and through it (from superior to inferior) pass: superior division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) nasocilia...
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Tenon capsule

The Tenon capsule, also known as fascia bulbi or bulbar sheath, functions as an extraocular muscle pulley. It also provides a socket which separates the globe from the surrounding fat and allows free movement. It merges posteriorly with the dural sheath of the optic nerve and extends anteriorly ...
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Tensor tympani

The tensor tympani is a short muscle in the middle ear that arises from the superior surface of the cartilaginous part of the Eustachian tube, the greater wing of the sphenoid, and the petrous part of the temporal bone. It passes across the tympanic cavity and inserts into the upper end of the h...
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Tensor veli palatini

The tensor veli palatini is one of the 5 paired muscles of the soft palate. It is triangular in shape and it's tendon wraps around the pulley of pterygoid hamulus to alter the shape of the soft palate. Summary origin: it has 3 sites of origin: scaphoid fossa of the medial pterygoid plate med...
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Tentorial angle

The tentorial angle is measured between a line connecting the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the the angle of the straight sinus. Normally it should measure between 27° and 52°. Abnormalities of the posterior fossa / base of skull can alter this. For example this angle is elevated in ach...
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Tentorial nerve

The tentorial nerve is the first branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Va) which is the dominate dural nerve supplying most of the supratentorial dura. It specifically supplies the falx, calvarial dura and superior surface of the tentorium.
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Terson syndrome

Terson syndrome refers to vitreous haemorrhage associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, however some authors include retinal haemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Epidemiology Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-5...
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Third branchial cleft cyst

Third branchial cleft cysts are a very rare type of branchial cleft cysts. Although they are extremely rare, they remain the second most common congenital lesion of the posterior cervical region after cervical lymphatic malformations or cystic hygromas 3. Pathology Location By definition, a t...
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Thumb sign (epiglottitis)

The thumb sign in epiglottitis is a manifestation of an oedematous and enlarged epiglottis which is seen on lateral soft-tissue radiograph of the neck, and it suggests a diagnosis of acute infectious epiglottitis. This is the radiographic corollary of the omega sign 1-3. See also Thumb sign is...
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Thymic cyst

Thymic cysts are cysts that occur within, or arise from, the thymus. Epidemiology Thymic cysts are uncommon lesions and are estimated to account for approximately 1-3% of all anterior mediastinal masses 4. Approximately 50% of congenital thymic cysts are incidentally discovered during the firs...
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Thyrocervical trunk

The thyrocervical trunk is one of the 3 branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives of numerous branches to supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles and the scapular anastomosis. The trunk arises lateral to the vertebral artery from the anterosuperior wall...
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Thyroglossal duct

The thyroglossal duct is an epithelium-lined connection between the foramen caecum and the thyroid that develops during the descent of the thyroid. It usually involutes in the 8th-10th week of gestation.  Gross anatomy The thyroglossal duct arises from foramen caecum located at the junction of...
Article

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common congenital neck cyst. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Epidemiology Thyroglossal d...
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Thyrohyoid muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. The primary function of the thyrohyoid muscle is to depress and fix the hyoid bone and larynx though it may also raise the larynx when the hyoid bone is fixed. Summary origin: oblique line ...
Article

Thyroid acropachy

Thyroid acropachy is an unusual presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease, (~1% of patients with Graves disease). It can occur in hyperthyroid, euthyroid, hypothyroid, or even post-treatment patients. It is almost always associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy.  Epidemiology The majority of pa...
Article

Thyroid cancer (staging)

Successful treatment of thyroid malignancies highly depends on accurate preoperative staging. Ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies; CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodu...
Article

Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx, with its superior pole sitting at the level of the C4 vertebrae. Gross Anatomy The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that are fused anteriorly in the median plane to form the laryngeal prominence. Each laminae posses...
Article

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.  Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...
Article

Thyroid image reporting and data system (TIRADS)

TIRADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an American College of Radiology (ACR) white paper 1. Its use is being advocated similar to BIRADS category for breast lesions.  In 2017, a white paper 2 was released by the ACR committee on th...
Article

Thyroid inferno

Thyroid inferno refers to the colour Doppler appearance of the thyroid gland in active Graves disease (inclusive of variants such as Marine Lenhart syndrome), and consists of multiple small areas of colour flow seen diffusely throughout the gland representing increased vascularity and arterioven...
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Thyroid inflammatory conditions

A number of inflammatory conditions can affect the thyroid gland, which are commonly described as thyroiditides: acute thyroiditis acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST)  autoimmune thyroiditis​ subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis: silent thyroiditis or painless subacute thyroiditis  postpartum t...
Article

Thyroid lymphoma

Thyroid lymphoma is rare, accounting for a minority of both thyroid malignancies and lymphoma in general.  The thyroid may be affected primarily or secondary to lymphoma elsewhere. This article is concerned with primary thyroid lymphoma.  Epidemiology Thyroid lymphoma accounts for <5% of thyr...
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Thyroid malignancies

Thyroid malignancies are most commonly primary thyroid cancers but can rarely be metastatic deposits. Pathology Classification Thyroid malignancies can be categorised into the following key subtypes: primary thyroid cancers ​papillary thyroid carcinoma: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular thyr...
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Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
Article

Thyroid scan (I-123)

Thyroid scan (thyroid scintigraphy) is a nuclear medicine examination used to evaluate thyroid tissue.  Clinical indications functional status of a thyroid nodule thyrotoxicosis: differential diagnosis thyroid cancer whole body scan for distant metastases estimation of local residual thyro...

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