Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,224 results found
Article

Spiral lamina

The cochlear spiral lamina is a thin bone structure that projects from the modiolus, separating the cochlear canal in two main components or scala, the scala tympani (lower portion) and the scala vestibuli (upper portion). At the cochlear apex, the spiral lamina ends in a hook-shaped process ca...
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Splenius capitis muscle

The splenius capitis is a strap-like muscles that, along with the splenius cervicis, comprise the superficial layer of intrinsic back muscles. Gross anatomy Attachments origin: ligamentum nuchae, and the tips of the spinous processes and associated supraspinous ligaments of C7 and the upper t...
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Splenius cervicis muscle

The splenius cervicis is part of the superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It is one of the two muscles in this group, the other being the splenius capitis. Summary origin: spinous processes of T3-T6 insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3 innervation: dorsalrami of the lower cer...
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Squamomastoid suture

The squamomastoid suture represents the articulation between the squamous and mastoid portion of the temporal bone. It may form a ridge.
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Squamosal suture

The squamosal or squamous suture is the cranial suture between the temporal and parietal bones bilaterally. From the pterion, it extends posteriorly, curves inferiorly and continues as the parietotemporal suture. Along with growth of the pterion, the asterion and at the frontozygomatic suture, ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (head and neck)

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck are common, being the sixth most common cancer. They can have a cutaneous or mucosal origin. As such there is a wide array of clinical and radiographic manifestations, and are separated into: squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the head and...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx is the most common primary malignant tumor that affects the laryngeal framework (98%). Typically it is categorised by the laryngeal subsite affected, which affects presentation, treatment and prognosis.  Epidemiology Male are more affected than females, an...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (staging)

Staging of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma uses the TNM staging system. Primary tumour staging (T) Tx - tumour cannot be assessed T0 - no evidence of primary tumour Tis - carcinoma in situ T1 - tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2 - tumour greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm i...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (oral cavity)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is the most common (by far) of the malignant lesions affecting this region.  As they share epidemiology, pathology and general principles with other squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, those topics are covered there. Below are a ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (tongue)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue has tobacco smoking and alcohol ingestion as major risk factors and spans two regions: the anterior two-thirds (oral tongue) is a common subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity whereas the posterior third (base of tongue) is considered part of ...
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Squamous part of temporal bone

The squamous part of the temporal bone (or squamous temporalis/squamous temporal bone) is a very thin bone and forms the anterosuperior aspect of the temporal bone. Gross anatomy The squamous temporal bone's outer convex surface provides attachment to the temporalis muscle and forms a boundary...
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Stafne cyst

Stafne cysts, also known as a static bone cavity of the mandible or lingual salivary gland inclusion defect, are cortical defects near the angle of the mandible below the mandibular canal. Strictly speaking, it is not a cyst since it does not contain any fluid. It is usually an incidental findin...
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Stapedius

The stapedius is the tiny muscle in the middle ear that attaches to the posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes, which when contracted dampens vibrations passed to the cochlea via the oval window.  The muscle is anchored within the petrous temporal bone and emerges into the tympanic cavity at...
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Stapes

The stapes is the smallest and most medial of the middle ear ossicles. It is the smallest bone in the standard human skeleton. It has a base (foot piece / footplate) which seals the oval window and conducts vibrations to the cochlea. The base is attached to the neck via anterior and posterior a...
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Stapes prosthesis

Stapes prosthesis are used in the stapedectomy surgery procedure which aims to improve conductive hearing loss due to oval window closure secondary to otosclerosis or post inflammatory conditions. The procedure is also performed to correct congenital abnormalities or discontinuity or fracture re...
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Staphyloma

Staphyloma is the term given to an eye whose scleral-uveal coats are stretched with uveal protrusion. This most commonly occurs posteriorly, although anterior staphyloma also is recognised. As opposed to coloboma, staphyloma defect is located off-center from the optic disc, typically temporal to...
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Stellate ganglion

The stellate ganglion is formed by the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia and is located just anterior to the head of the first rib. It receives input from the paravertebral sympathetic chain and provides sympathetic efferents to the upper limbs, head, neck, and heart. The stellate ga...
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Stellate ganglion block

A stellate ganglion block can be used to treat a number of conditions by reducing stimulation of the stellate ganglion, which is part of the sympathetic network. The infiltration of local anaesthetic/neurolytic around the 1 cm ganglion has been used to treat a variety of disorders. Indications ...
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Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
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Sternocleidomastoid muscle

The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is a muscle of the neck. It has two heads that meld to form one insertion. SCM, along with the trapezius muscle, is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it. SCM divides the neck into anatomical anterior and posterior tri...
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Sternohyoid muscle

The sternohyoid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus receiving fibres from the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves. The sternohyoid is a paired, flat strap of muscle that serves to fix the hyoid bone as well as depressing the...
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Sternothyroid muscle

The sternothyroid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus receiving fibres from the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves. The sternothyroid is a paired, flat strap of muscle that serves to fix the hyoid bone as well as depressing...
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Stuck temporomandibular joint disc

A stuck disc refers to a TMJ disc which does not translate anteriorly out of the mandibular fossa onto the articular eminence, but rather remains (thus "stuck") in the fossa. It is a form of TMJ dysfunction and is typically associated with restricted range of motion. Treatment is with arthrosc...
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Styloglossus muscle

The styloglossus muscle is one of the extrinsic tongue muscles.  Summary origin: the apex of the styloid process adjacent to the origin of the stylomandibular ligament, and deep fibres of the ligament itself insertion: merges with the hyoglossus and inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue ...
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Stylohyoid ligament

The stylohyoid ligament forms part of the styloid apparatus. The origin is at the styloid process of the temporal bone and it inserts into lesser horn of the hyoid bone. The stylohyoid ligament provides part of the origin for the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle and styloglossus muscle. It ...
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Stylohyoid muscle

The stylohyoid muscle is a muscle in the neck. origin: styloid process of temporal bone insertion: hyoid bone action: draws hyoid bone backward and elevates tongue nerve supply: facial nerve (CN VII)
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Styloid apparatus

The styloid apparatus, found within the parapharyngeal space, refers to the structures derived from the 2nd branchial arch along with associated ligaments and muscles: styloid process of the temporal bone lesser horn of the hyoid bone stylohyoid ligament stylomandibular ligament stylohyoid ...
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Styloid process

The styloid process (or styloid part of the squamous temporal bone) is a slender pointed part of the temporal bone. It projects anteroinferiorly from the inferior surface of the temporal bone. It serves as an anchor point for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx: styloglossus ...
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Stylomandibular ligament

The stylomandibular ligament is a cord-like condensation the deep cervical fascia that extends from the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible. It is one of the 2 extrinsic ligaments of the mandible. The ligament separates between the masseter and parotid g...
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Stylomastoid foramen

The stylomastoid foramen is a rounded opening on the inferior surface of the petrous temporal bone, between the base of styloid and the mastoid process of the temporal bone. It transmits the facial nerve.
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Stylopharyngeus muscle

The stylopharyngeus is a muscle of the head and neck, and one of the inner longitudinal muscles of the pharynx. Summary origin: styloid process of the temporal bone insertion: thyroid cartilage innervation: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) action: elevates the larynx and pharynx; swallowing ...
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Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis

Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis or silent thyroiditis is a thyroid inflammatory condition. Clinical presentation  Usually characterised by recent onset of symptoms and there is usually an absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness. On examination there can be a normal to modestly enlarged and fi...
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Subclavius posticus muscle

Subclavius posticus is an accessory muscle in the root of the neck, lying between the subclavius muscle and the inferior belly of omohyoid. It has an incidence of ~ 7.5% 2,4. Summary origin: first costal cartilage insertion: superior margin of scapula nerve supply: nerve to subclavius or sup...
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Subconjunctival fat prolapse

Subconjunctival fat prolapse is an acquired herniation of intraconal fat due to the weakening of the Tenon capsule by normal aging, surgery, or trauma. It presents clinically with a fat-containing epibulbar mass in the lateral canthal area. Epidemiology  Subconjunctival fat prolapse occurs mai...
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Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It most commonly occurs after vacuum assisted delivery, but may also be seen following head trauma. In patients with intracranial haemorrhage or skull fractures, the incidence o...
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Subglottis

The subglottis is the anatomical region caudal to the true vocal cords, and is a subsite of the larynx. The inferior arcuate line of the vocal cord marks the cranial border whilst the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage marks the caudal border of the subglottis 1. The inferior arcuate line is...
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Sublingual gland

The sublingual glands are salivary glands that lie in the floor of the mouth anterior to the submandibullar glands. They secrete predominantly mucous saliva that is drained by a collection of 8-20 excretory ducts collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these ducts, the major subl...
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Sublingual space

The sublingual space is one of the suprahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck. Gross anatomy It is like an inverted V with its apex pointing anteriorly and is located between: tongue musculature superiorly and the anterior one-third of the mylohyoid muscle inferolaterally which separates it...
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Submandibular duct

The submandibular duct (also known as Wharton's duct) allows the passage of saliva from the submandibular gland to the sublingual papilla located anteriorly. The duct extends anteriorly from the submandibular gland superior to the lingual nerve and submandibular ganglion curving over the poster...
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Submandibular ganglion

The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to submandibular duct sitting on the hyoglossus muscle ...
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Submandibular gland

The submandibular glands are paired salivary glands located behind and below the ramus of the mandible in the submandibular triangle. They secrete mixed serous and mucous saliva that is excreted into the oral cavity via the submandibular duct that connects the gland to the floor of the mouth. G...
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Submandibular space

The submandibular space is a U-shaped compartment of the suprahyoid neck.  Gross anatomy The superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia encloses the submandibular space.  Boundaries anterolateral: mandible medially: anterior belly of digastric muscles (separating it from the submental sp...
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Submental space

The submental space lies in the midline below the chin, medially to the U-shaped submandibular space with which it freely communicates.  Gross anatomy Boundaries superiorly: mylohyoid muscle inferiorly: superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia laterally: anterior bellies of the digastr...
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Submental triangle

The submental triangle is the single midline triangle, part of the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spa...
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Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid is one of the more frequent complications of acute otomastoiditis and results in coalescent mastoiditis extending through the external cortex of the mastoid sinus. This can occur in any direction: postauricular: common as the bone is particularly thin ("Mace...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit

Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit occurs as a complication of acute sinusitis. Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain, visual disturbance, proptosis and/or chemosis. Pathology Bacteria can extend via neurovascular foramina or bony dehiscences. More commonly occurs from ethmoid...
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Substantia innominata

The substantia innominata, or substantia innominata of Meynert, is an area of mixed grey and white matter located within the anterior perforated substance in the basal forebrain. It contains the acetylcholine rich basal nucleus of Meynert. Gross anatomy The substantia innominata is a thin ban...
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Substernal goitre

Substernal goitre is a goitre (enlarged thyroid gland) with intrathoracic extension. It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goitre that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete removal or an intrathoracic compone...
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Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
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Superficial temporal artery

The superficial temporal artery is one of two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. It arises in the parotid gland and runs between the deep and superficial lobes, over the zygomatic process before terminating in three branches - parietal, frontal and transverse facial - to supply pa...
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Superficial temporal vein

The superficial temporal vein arises in a plexus on the side and vertex of the skull and, in the substance of the parotid gland, joins with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein. Gross Anatomy The superficial temporal vein originates from a venous plexus on the side and vertex of...
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Superior labial artery

Superior labial artery (old name: superior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is bigger and more serpiginous than the inferior labial artery. It supplies the upper lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch...
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Superior laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid muscle. It pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. ...
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Superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue

The superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres ...
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Superior nasal concha

The superior nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is a bony projection on the posterior surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid.
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Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. Summary innervation: trochlear nerve (CN IV) origin: lesser wing of sphenoid bone and is outside of Annulus of Zinn located supero-medially. inse...
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Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, suprat...
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Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
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Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Its primary action is constriction of the pharynx (in coordination with the middle pharyngeal constrictor and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles) to deliver a bolus of food into the oesophagus. Sum...
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Superior rectus muscle

Superior rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. Summary innervation: superior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: Annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, superior surface) primary function: one of two ocular elevators ...
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Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is a recently described inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSC). Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10%...
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Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly.  Boundaries posteri...
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Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies the larynx and thyroid gland. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the hyoid bone branches hyoid artery sterncocleidomastoid branches superior laryngeal artery cricothyroid...
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Supernumerary teeth

Supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia) are additional teeth that are in addition to the normal number of either primary or permanent teeth. Terminology The term supplemental tooth may be used when the supernumerary tooth resembles its associated normal tooth and the term peridens may be used for an...
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Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes are a paired group of lymph nodes located on either side in the hollow of clavicle close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous system. They oversee transport of lymph from the thoracic ...
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Supraclavicular nerves

The supraclavicular nerves are three cutaneous nerves that emerge as a common trunk from the cervical plexus before branching to innervate the skin over the upper chest and shoulders.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraclavicular nerves arise from the ventral rami of C3 and C4 spinal nerves, alth...
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Supraclavicular triangle

The supraclavicular triangle is one of the paired triangles in the posterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep sp...
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Suprahyoid muscles

The suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles in the neck, named because of their position to the hyoid bone: anterior suprahyoid muscles anterior bellies of digastric muscle mylohyoid muscle geniohyoid muscle posterior suprahyoid muscles posterior bellies of digastric muscle stylohyoid m...
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Supraorbital artery

The supraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplying part of the orbit and face.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraorbital artery originates from the ophthalmic artery, upon branching it lies medial to the optic nerve. Course The supraorbital artery courses superiorly and med...
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Supraorbital foramen

The supraorbital foramen or notch is the small opening at the central edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone just below the superciliary arches that transmits the supra-orbital nerve, artery and vein. It is lateral to the supratrochlear foramen, where the supratrochlear nerve, ...
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Supraorbital nerve

The supraorbital nerve is the lateral and larger of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superior aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit it exits the orbit through the supraorbital notch to supply the conju...
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Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge, also known as the supraorbital margin or superciliary arch is the superior margin of the bony orbit. Part of the frontal bone, the supraorbital ridge contains the supraorbital foramen (or notch). The corrugator supercilii muscles arise from the medial end of the supraorbi...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Suprasternal space

The suprasternal space (of Burns) is a space of the inferior neck. Gross anatomy Inferior to the hyoid bone, the superficial or investing layer of the deep cervical fascia divides into anterior and posterior leafs to attach to the respective borders of the suprasternal (jugular) notch, forming...
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Supratrochlear artery

The supratrochlear artery, also known as the frontal artery, originates from the ophthalmic artery as one of its terminal branches. Gross anatomy After arising from the ophthalmic artery, it pierces the orbital septum and courses in the superior and medial aspect of the orbit, medial to the su...
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Supratrochlear foramen (head)

The supratrochlear foramen is the small opening at the medial edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone that transmitts the supratrochlear nerve, artery and vein. When incomplete, it forms a notch. It is variably present, and when absent the neurovascular bundle will simple exit th...
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Supratrochlear nerve

The supratrochlear nerve is the medial and smaller of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superomedial aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit, it passes over the trochlear and exits the orbit under the sup...
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Sutural diastasis

Sutural diastasis is an abnormal widening of the skull sutures. It may be physiological in a neonate during a growth spurt.  Pathology In non-traumatic scenarios accelerated growth of the sutural connective tissue without concurrent ossification is the underlying pathology.  Aetiology trauma...
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Sutures

There are many sutures of the skull, which are where skull bones meet. In general, sutures don't fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Sutures are fibrous joints with the periosteum externally and outer la...
Article

Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
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Teeth

Teeth can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24.  Gross anatomy There are twenty deciduous (primary) teeth in young children, with ten per jaw and five in each quadrant, which consist of (distal to mesial):...
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Telecanthus

Telecanthus represents increased intercanthal distance. It is often used interchangeably with hypertelorism, referring to increased distance between the eyes. Causes and associations trauma: naso-orbito-ethmoidal (NOE) fractures ethnic variation acquired sinus and orbital tumours sinus pol...
Article

Temporal bone

The temporal bone is situated on the sides and the base of the cranium and lateral to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum. The temporal bone is one of the most important calvarial and skull base bones. The temporal bone is very complex and consists of five parts: squamous part mastoid part petr...
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Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
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Temporal bone fractures

Temporal bone fractures are usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damaging hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of t...
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Temporal fossa

The temporal fossa is located in the temporal region and communicates inferiorly with infratemporal fossa deep to the zygomatic arch. Gross anatomy The temporal fossa is bounded by a few anatomical landmarks, anteriorly the frontal process of the zygomatic bone, superiorly and posteriorly the...
Article

Temporalis muscle

The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. It is responsible for both closing the mouth and retraction (posterior fibres). Summary origin: temporal fossa between the infratemporal crest and inferior temporal line insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible innervation:...
Article

Temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an atypical synovial joint located between the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular eminence of the temporal bone. It is divided into superior discotemporal space and inferior discomandibular space by the TMJ disc (or menisc...
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Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualisation of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.  Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...
Article

Temporomandibular joint disc

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc (or meniscus) is made of fibrocartilage and divides the joint into two compartments.  Gross anatomy The disc is composed of fibrocartilage, with crimped collagen, thought to better absorb impacts. It has a biconcave shape with a thicker periphery attached...

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