Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,393 results found
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Floating teeth

Floating teeth is the description given to the appearances on imaging of teeth that appear to be floating as a result of alveolar bone destruction around their roots.  Differential diagnosis They are uncommonly encountered, with a wide differential diagnosis - albeit that the underlying cause ...
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Floor of mouth

The floor of mouth is an oral cavity subsite and is a common location of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.  Gross anatomy The floor of mouth is a U-shaped space which extends (and includes) from the oral cavity mucosa superiorly, and the mylohyoid muscle sling 2,3.  Boundaries superiorly:...
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Florid cemento osseous dysplasia

Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a sub type of cemento-osseous dysplasia. It is a rare condition presenting in the jaw refers to a group of fibro-osseous (cemental) exuberant lesions with multi-quadrant involvement.  Epidemiology There maybe an increased female predilection and tends to be ...
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Focal calvarial thinning

Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include: bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common arachnoid cyst mega cisterna magna peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma) See also calvarial thinning calvarial thickening
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Follicular thyroid adenoma

Follicular thyroid adenoma is a commonly found benign neoplasm of the thyroid consisting of differentiated follicular cells. It cannot be differentiated from follicular carcinoma on cytologic, sonographic or clinical features alone 1. Epidemiology Follicular thyroid adenoma is more commonly fo...
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Follicular thyroid cancer

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the thyroid gland after papillary cancer and accounts for ≈10-20% of all thyroid neoplasms.  Epidemiology It typically occurs in women and in an older age group than papillary (i.e. 40-60 years of age). Pathology Un...
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Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum represents a primitive tract between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal space. It is located along the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable...
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Foramen caecum (disambiguation)

Foramen caecum can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: foramen caecum (tongue) foramen caecum (anterior cranial fossa)
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Foramen lacerum

The foramen lacerum is a triangular opening located in the middle cranial fossa anterior to the petrous apex, which forms its posterior border. Its anterior border is formed by the body of the sphenoid bone at the junction of greater wing and pterygoid process and medial border is formed by the ...
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Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Foramen rotundum

The foramen rotundum is located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Its medial border is formed by lateral wall of sphenoid sinus. It runs downwards and laterally in an oblique path and joins the middle crani...
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Foramen singulare

The foramen singulare, also known as the singular foramen, is a small opening at the posteroinferior aspect of the fundus of the internal auditory canal (IAC) 2,3. It carries the singular or posterior ampullary nerve, a branch of the inferior vestibular nerve which carries afferent information f...
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Foramen tympanicum

The foramen tympanicum (also known as foramen of Huschke) is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a foramen tympanicum in the asym...
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Foramen Vesalii

The foramen Vesalii, also know as the foramen of Vesalius, sphenoidal emissary foramen, foramen venosus or canaliculus sphenoidal, is a tiny variably present foramen in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, located between the foramen ovale and scaphoid fossa. It transmits a sphenoidal emissary...
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Fossa of Rosenmüller

The fossa of Rosenmüller, also known as the posterolateral pharyngeal recess, is the most common site of origin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Gross anatomy It is located superior and posterior to the torus tubarius (the posterior projection of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube),...
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Fourth branchial cleft cyst

Fourth branchial cleft cysts are very rare, and parallel the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. They are most commonly on the left side (80%) and usually form a sinus which extends from the apex of the piriform sinus, as do third branchial cleft sinuses, but passes inferiorly rather than s...
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Fovea ethmoidalis

The fovea ethmoidalis is a portion of the ethmoid bone and represents its superior portion (part of the ethmoid roof) which is seen as a continuation of the superior orbital roof to the cribriform plate.  
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Foveola pharyngica recess

A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2. 
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Frenulum (disambiguation)

Frenulum (plural: frenula) is an anatomical term and refers to a small fold of soft tissue that checks the movement of an anatomical part. frenulum (clitoris) frenulum (ileocaecal valve) frenulum (labia minora) frenulum (penis) frenulum (tongue) History and etymology Frenulum derives from...
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Frontal bone

The frontal bone is a skull bone that contributes to the cranial vault. It contributes to form part of the anterior cranial fossa. Gross anatomy The frontal bone has two portions: vertical portion (squama): has external/internal surfaces horizontal portion (orbital): has superior/inferior su...
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Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
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Frontal bullar cells

The frontal bullar cells are a subset of variably present frontal recess cells located above the ethmoid bulla. Terminology They are nearly identical to suprabullar cells. The distinguishing features with the latter are that the frontal bullar cells are located above the frontal ostium and ext...
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Frontal cells

Frontal cells are anterior ethmoid air cells located along the anterior aspect of the frontal recess. They are a subset of frontal recess cells and are classified into four types according to Kuhn's classification. They are seen on CT in 20-33% of patients 1. See also functional endoscopic si...
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Frontal infundibulum

The frontal infundibulum is a term that refers to the funnel-shaped inferior narrowing of the frontal sinus. Together with the frontal ostium and frontal recess, it forms the frontal sinus outflow tract.
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Frontal intersinus septal cells

Frontal intersinus septal cells, also known as interfrontal sinus septal cells, are a subtype of medial frontal recess cells. Gross anatomy The frnotal intersinus septal cells lie within the intersinus septum between the frontal sinuses. They usually drain in the medial aspect of the frontal r...
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Frontal nerve

The frontal nerve is the largest and main branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It divides off the ophthalmic division just before entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure outside and superolateral to the tendinous ring, where it lies between the lacrimal nerv...
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Frontal ostium

The frontal ostium is an opening of the frontal sinus below the frontal infundibulum that drains into the frontal recess. Together with the frontal infundibulum and recess, it forms the frontal sinus outflow tract.
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Frontal recess

The frontal recess is an opening in the inferior aspect of the frontal sinuses that allows drainage of the sinus. Terminology The frontal recess is also known as the nasofrontal duct. However, since it doesn't have bony walls of its own, it is more appropriately referred to as a recess rather ...
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Frontal recess cells

Frontal recess cells are anterior ethmoid air cells that pneumatise the frontal recess. Their clinical relevance lies in their potential to obstruct the frontal recess outflow. As such, they should be reported by the radiologist preoperatively, especially in cases of frontal sinusitis. Named fr...
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Frontal sinus

The frontal sinuses are the paranasal sinuses within the frontal bone. They are lined with mucosa and are most often two in number. Summary location: anterior frontal bones on either side of the midline behind the brow ridges blood supply: supratrochlear, supraorbital and anterior ethmoidal a...
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Frontal sinus fracture

Frontal sinus fractures are facial fractures that involve the frontal sinus, either in isolation or more commonly as part of more complex facial fractures. They can result in cosmetic deformity, functional impairment, CSF leak, and/or intracranial infection (e.g. meningitis). Epidemiology Fron...
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Frontoethmoidal encephalocele

Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles are second only to occipital encephaloceles in terms of frequency, representing approximately 15% of all encephaloceles. They represent meninges or brain tissue herniating through a cranial defect in the anterior cranial fossa and typically result in facial deformi...
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Frontoethmoidal suture

The frontoethmoidal suture is a short cranial suture located in the anterior cranial fossa, between the orbital process of frontal and orbital plate of ethmoid bones. It forms part of the medial wall of the orbit. The anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina are seen just superior to it, throu...
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Frontolacrimal suture

The frontolacimal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal and lacrimal bones.
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Frontomaxillary-suture

The frontomaxillary suture is the site where the nasal process of frontal bone meets the frontal process of the maxilla.
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Frontonasal dysplasia

Frontonasal dysplasia, also known as median cleft face syndrome, is a rare disorder characterised by midline defects involving the face, head, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Frontonasal dysplasia is considered to be a very rare condition, with approximately 100 cases having been repo...
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Frontonasal suture

The frontonasal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal bone and the two nasal bones. This suture meets the internasal suture at the nasion.
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Frontozygomatic suture

The frontozygomatic suture (or zygomaticofrontal suture) is between the frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a type of paranasal sinus surgery performed intranasally using a rigid endoscope. Its primary objective is to restore physiological ventilation and mucociliary transport 1. Paranasal sinus imaging is crucial in preoperative planning and is also incr...
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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery preoperative variants (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the variants to report on pre-functional endoscopic sinus surgery studies is 1: CLOSE Mnemonic Cribriform plate Lamina papyracea Onodi cell Sphenoid sinus pneumatisation Ethmoidal artery (anterior) See also ostiomeatal complex narrowing due to anatomical variations
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Fungal sinusitis

Fungal sinusitis is a collective term referring to a number of entities, which can be divided into two groups, depending on the presence of fungal hyphae within or beyond the mucosa 1: non-invasive: hyphae do not invade mucosa allergic fungal sinusitis sinus fungal mycetoma invasive: hyphae ...
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Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the Galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly o...
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Garrington sign (teeth)

Garrington sign is thickening of the periodontal ligament/membrane space of involved teeth in the setting of gnathic osteosarcoma. Symmetrical widening of the space can be seen early in the disease process due to infiltration of tumour cells. 
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Gene expression classifier

A gene expression classifier (GEC) test is a developing technology in the analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules, using cells from a fine needle aspiration. The most common commercially available GEC in the United States is known as AFIRMA. The test is designed to use molecular markers to he...
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Genioglossus muscle

The genioglossus muscle is a fan-shaped extrinsic muscle of the tongue which makes up the bulk of the tongue. Summary origin: superior mental spine of the symphysis menti (posterior surface of midline mandible) insertion: entire tongue mass and body of the hyoid bone nerve supply: hypoglossa...
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Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is one of the suprahyoid muscles of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. Geniohyoid draws the hyoid bone up and forward during mastication and assists the opening of the mandible. Summary origin: inferior mental spine of the mandible also known as the g...
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Genioplasty

Genioplasty or in more simple terms chin augmentation refers to a surgical procedure performed to improve facial balance and/or rejuvenate the lower facial third - mandible. An osseous genioplasty refers to surgery which is performed by creating an osteotomy and then mobilising an inferior segme...
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Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen in eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterised by destructive lytic bone lesions, the edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent. See also geographic appearance
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Glabella

The glabella is the smooth midline bony prominence between the supraciliary arches of the frontal bone, representing the most anterior part of the forehead when standing erect and look straight ahead. The metopic suture traverses the glabella, between the two frontal bones. Just below it is the ...
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Globe

The globes or simply, the eyes are paired spherical sensory organs, located anteriorly on the face within the orbits, which house the visual apparatus. Gross anatomy Location The globe is suspended by the bulbar sheath in the anterior third of the bony orbit.  Size Each globe is an approxim...
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Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
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Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otolaryngology services. If no cause is identified or if nasoendosco...
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Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...
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Glomus jugulotympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus jugulotympanicum paraganglioma is a glomus jugulare paraganglioma that has spread superiorly to involve the middle ear cavity. The term can also be used clinically when a suspected glomus tympanicum paraganglioma involves the hypotympanum as its inferior extent cannot be established clini...
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Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus tympanicum paragangliomas (chemodectomas) are the most common middle ear tumour.  Epidemiology There is a female predominance (M:F = 1:3); presentation is most common when patients are more than 40 years old 1,2.  Clinical presentation May be incidental but symptomatic masses produce ...
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Glomus vagale tumour

Glomus vagale tumours are glomus tumours that occur along the path of the vagus nerve (CN X). They are a subset of extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumours that are derived from the nonchromaffin paraganglion cells.  Clinical presentation Typically presents as a painless mass behind the carotid ar...
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Glossopharyngeal nerve

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve and has sensory, motor, and autonomic components. Gross anatomy Origin The sensory ganglion cells lie in the supe...
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Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is due to irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve and presents with repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils, which can last from a few seconds to a few minutes. It is far less common than trigeminal neuralgia. Epidemiology Glossophar...
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Goitre

Goitre (rarely thyromegaly) refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. Clearly the absence of thyroid enlargement does not preclude significant thyroid pathology. The definition of a goitre depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for ...
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Goldenhar syndrome

Goldenhar syndrome (also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS), Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome or facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) is a complex congenital anomaly characterised by abnormalities of the ears, eyes and vertebrae. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at  1 in 3000-500...
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Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as the basal cell naevus syndrome, is a rare phakomatosis characterised by multiple odontogenic keratocysts (KOT), multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and other abnormalities. Epidemiology The condition is thought to occur in ~1 in 60,000 live births while 0...
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Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: petrous apicitis abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...
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Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. Epidemiology It is typically seen is in children with ~60% occurring in individuals less than 15 years of age. There is no recognised gender predilection. Granulocytic sarc...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (orbital manifestations)

Ophthalmologic manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis), both ocular and orbital, have been reported in 40-50% of GPA patients 1-3 and can occur in either the classic or limited form of the disease.4 Ophthalmologic disease occasionally...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (upper respiratory tract manifestations)

The upper respiratory tract manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis) are common and affect most patients. . Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a multisystem systemic necrotizing non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small t...
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Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, sometimes termed granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis. Reports describing the imaging findings have been uncommon 1. Epidemiology It is rare and been mainly reported in Sudan, India, Pakistan and sometimes in t...
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Graves disease

Graves disease (in mainland Europe it is called Basedow disease 9) is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There is a strong female predilection with an F:M ratio of at least 5:1. It typically presents in middle age. Clinical p...
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Greater auricular nerve

The greater auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin of the auricle as well as skin over the parotid gland and mastoid process. The greater auricular nerve also supplies branches that innervate the deep layer of the parotid fascia.   Gross anatomy O...
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Greater (descending) palatine artery

The greater (descending) palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery which passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply most of the hard palate. Gross anatomy After branching off from the third (pterygopalatine) part of the maxillary artery, the greater palat...
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Greater occipital nerve

The greater occipital nerve is a cutaneous nerve, the thickest in the body, that innervates the skin from the upper neck, over the occiput, up to the vertex of the scalp 1-3.  Gross anatomy Origin The greater occipital nerve arises from the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of C2 1-3. In cont...
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Greater palatine nerve

The greater palatine nerve (or anterior palatine nerve) is a branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and contributes to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The greater palatine nerve divides off the maxillary division just after emerging from the foramen rotundum to en...
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Greater wing of sphenoid

The greater wing or ali-sphenoid of the sphenoid bone is a process which projects from either side of the lower part of the sphenoid body, at a common junction with the pterygoid process. 1 It is a paired structure, which curves upward, backward and laterally from each side of the sphenoid body,...
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Griesinger sign (mastoid)

Griesinger sign, named after Wilhelm Griesinger, a German psychiatrist and neurologist (1817-1868) refers to oedema of the postauricular soft tissues overlying the mastoid process as a result of thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein. It is a complication of acute otomastoiditis and may be asso...
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Guardsman fracture

A guardsman fracture, also referred to as parade ground fracture, is one of the common forms of mandibular fracture which is caused by a fall on the midpoint of the chin resulting in fracture of the symphysis as well as both condyles. It is usually seen in epileptics, elderly patients and occas...
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Guttman test (larynx)

The Guttman test is a clinical test relating to the function of the larynx. In normal subjects, frontal pressure on the thyroid cartilage lowers the tone of voice produced and lateral pressure produces a higher tone of voice. The opposite is true with paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle.
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Haemotympanum

Haemotympanum is the presence of blood in the middle ear cavity. It is usually secondary to trauma. Clinical presentation Typically on otoscopy a bulging red to purple to dark blue coloured tympanic membrane is visible, colour varying with age of the haemorrhage.  Pathology The haemorrhage h...
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Halitosis

Halitosis (or fetor oris) refers to the symptom of foul oral odour, commonly termed "bad breath", that patients can present with, usually to dental services. Pathology It is thought to be caused by the presence of volatile sulphur compounds that are produced by bacteria. Although the underlyin...
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Haller cells

Haller cells, also known as infraorbital ethmoidal air cells, are ethmoid air cells located lateral to the maxillo-ethmoidal suture along the inferomedial orbital floor.  Epidemiology They are present in ~20% (range 2-45%) of patients, depending on their exact definition 1-3. Clinical present...
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Hamburger thyrotoxicosis

Hamburger thyrotoxicosis refers to ingestion of thyroid hormone from contaminated meat. It is a very rare cause of thyrotoxicosis. Pathology It is most commonly due to the practice of "gullet trimming" whereby muscles from the larynx of the slaughtered animal are ground into other cuts of meat...
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Hanging and strangulation (trauma)

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Hard palate

The hard palate is the anterior horizontal bony part of the palate that forms the roof of the oral cavity and floor of the nasal cavity. Most of the hard palate is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae, the horizontal plates of the palatine bones complete it posteriorly. On its inferi...
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Harlequin eye deformity

The harlequin eye deformity may be seen in unilateral (plagiocephaly) or bilateral (brachycephaly) coronal suture synostosis, and refers to the elevation of the superolateral corner of the orbit. The term harlequin eye derives from the appearance of the eyes on a harlequin mask with their exagg...
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Harvard scoring system for rhinosinusitis

The Harvard scoring system for rhinosinusitis is, as the name implies, a scoring system based on CT-scan assessment for grading of rhinosinusitis. Scoring 0: normal (< 2 mm mucosal thickening on any sinus wall) 1: all unilateral disease or anatomic abnormality 2: bilateral disease limited to...
Article

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as lymphocytic thyroiditis or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, is a subtype of autoimmune thyroiditis. It is one of the most common thyroid disorders.  Epidemiology Typically affects middle-aged females (30-50 year age group with an F:M ratio of 10-15:1).  Cli...
Article

Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy is important when considering pathology affecting the same area. In radiology, the 'head and neck' refers to all the anatomical structures in this region excluding the central nervous system, that is, the brain and spinal cord and their associated vascular structures and en...
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Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT  and MR imaging, howev...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to SCCs of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck rather than cutaneous SCCs. SCC is the most common tumour of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and can occur anywhere there is squamous cell mucosa.  Epidemiology, risk factor...
Article

Heerfordt syndrome

Heerfordt syndrome, also known as Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome or uveoparotid fever, is a variant of sarcoidosis, comprising of: fever parotid enlargement facial palsy ocular involvement (anterior uveitis) Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, as only isolated case reports exist....
Article

Helicotrema

The helicotrema is a part of the cochlear apex where the scala tympani and scala vestibuli meet. It is located at the termination of the spiral lamina. See also cochlear anatomy
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Hemifacial hypertrophy

Hemifacial hyperplasia or hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental anomaly characterised by asymmetric growth of hard and soft tissues of the face 1. Epidemiology These asymmetries are often noted at birth and are usually accentuated with increasing age, especially around puberty 2. The...
Article

Hemifacial microsomia

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly after cleft lip/palate. The condition may vary from mild to severe. Goldenhar syndrome has been described as a variant of HFM, in which vertebral anomalies and epibulbar dermoids were present. Terminology HFM is al...
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Hemifacial spasm

Hemifacial spasm is characterised by episodic facial spasms due to irritation of the facial nerve (CN VII). Clinical presentation Often the condition begins insidiously with painless spasm of the orbicularis oculi gradually spreading in extent and severity to involve the majority of the face, ...

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