Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,303 results found
Article

Lateral lamella

The lateral lamella is the name given to the lateral boundary of the cribriform plate. It runs vertically and joins the fovea ethmoidalis inferomedially. It is the thinnest part of the cribriform plate. Practical points The lateral lamella needs to be assessed on pre-functional endoscopic sinu...
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Lateral posterior inferior nasal nerve

The lateral posterior inferior nasal nerve is a branch of the greater palatine nerve that supplies the posteroinferior nasal lateral wall. Gross anatomy The nerve branches off the greater palatine nerve in the greater palatine canal and exits the canal though a tiny un-named foramen in the pal...
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Lateral pterygoid muscle

The lateral pterygoid muscle, also known as pterygoideus externus or external pterygoid muscle, is one of the muscles of mastication.  Gross anatomy The lateral pterygoid is a short, thick muscle, somewhat conical in form, which extends almost horizontally, posteriorly and laterally between th...
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Lateral pterygoid nerves

The lateral pterygoid nerves or nerves to lateral pterygoid muscle are a pair of motor branches of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Gross anatomy The two nerves divide off the anterior division and course along side the buccal nerve. Each nerve then pie...
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Lateral rectus muscle

The lateral rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It is responsible for abduction and is the only muscle that is innervated by the abducens nerve (CN VI). It should normally measure 2.9 ± 0.6mm. Summary innervation: abducens nerve (CN VI) origin: annul...
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Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp haematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
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Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.   Clinical presentation Patients typically present unwell...
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Lentiform nodule

The lentiform nodule (also known as the lenticular process) is the inferior most part of the incus which articulates with the head of the stapes.
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Lentigo maligna

Lentigo maligna, also known as Hutchinson freckle, is a non-familial precursor to lentigo maligna melanoma, which accounts for 5-15% of cases of malignant melanoma. It is most frequent in the head and neck. It should not be confused with numerous other Hutchinson named entities including: Hutc...
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Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lesser occipital nerve

The lesser occipital nerve, also known as the small occipital nerve, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin of the neck and scalp posterior and superior to the auricle. Gross anatomy Origin The lesser occipital nerve arises from the ventral ramus of C2, although...
Article

Lesser palatine foramina

The lesser palatine foramina are 2 small foramina representing the openings in the hard palate of the lesser palatine canal (which is a small accessory canal arising form the greater palatine canal). They are located in the posterior palatine bone posterior to the greater palatine foramen and po...
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Lesser palatine nerves

The lesser palatine nerves (or posterior palatine nerves) are a group of 2 to 3 nerves (usually 2 nerves) that arise of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and contributes to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The lesser palatine nerves divide off the maxillary division jus...
Article

Lesser petrosal nerve

The lesser petrosal nerve carries parasympathetic (secretory) fibers from both the tympanic plexus and the nervus intermedius, to the parotid gland. The tympanic plexus arises from glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) via Jacobson's nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve originates at the geniculate gangli...
Article

Lesser wing of sphenoid

The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, or orbito-sphenoid, is a sharp, pointed triangular plate arising laterally from the upper anterior portion of the sphenoid body.  Gross anatomy The lesser wing features both superior and inferior surfaces: the superior surface is flattened and is in conta...
Article

Leukocoria

Leukocoria (also spelled as leucocoria or leukokoria) refers to an abnormal white reflection from the retina of the eye. Despite its colour, the reflection is related to the familiar red-eye effect. Usually, when a light is shone through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leuko...
Article

Levator palpebrae superioris

The levator palpebrae superioris muscle is a small muscle of the superior orbit that elevates and retracts the upper eyelid. It is not part of the extra-ocular muscles; it does not insert on the globe and therefore does not produce eye movements. It is mostly composed of skeletal muscle but ther...
Article

Levator veli palatini

The levator veli palatini is one of the 5 paired muscles of the soft palate. It is a cylindrical muscle which together form a V-shaped sling behind and above the soft palate. Summary origin: it has 2 sites of origin: inferior surface of petrous temporal bone medial rim of the auditory tube
 ...
Article

Lillie-Crowe sign

The Lillie-Crowe sign is used in the diagnosis of unilateral sinus thrombophlebitis. Digital compression of the opposite internal jugular vein causes dilatation of the retinal veins.
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Lingual artery

The lingual artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies the oral floor and tongue. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the C3 course: towards hyoid bone, then loops down towards the tongue supply: oral floor and tongue terminat...
Article

Lingual nerve

The lingual nerve is a sensory branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Gross anatomy The lingual nerve divides off the posterior division and descends anterior to the inferior alveolar nerve to course between the lateral pterygoid and tensor veli pa...
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Lingual thyroid

A lingual thyroid is a specific type of ectopic thyroid and results from the lack of normal caudal migration of the thyroid gland. NB: Location at the base of the tongue aside, the information in this article can relate to any ectopic thyroid tissue. Epidemiology The condition is congenital a...
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Lingual tonsils

The lingual tonsils are aggregations of lymphoid follicles that mediate B- and T-cell lymphocytes, which serve a role in formulating the immune system. They are covered by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium and contain deep crypts and mucosal glands. They form a part of the Waldeyer r...
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Lingula (disambiguation)

Lingula (plural lingulae) can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: lingula (mandible) lingula (lung) lingula (cerebellum) lingula (sphenoid bone) History and etymology Lingula is the diminutive form of lingua, Latin for the tongue. Thus lingula is used for a small tongue-l...
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Lingula (mandible)

The lingula of the mandible (also known as Spix spine) is a triangular bony projection or ridge on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, immediately superior to the mandibular foramen. It provides attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament 1,2. History and etymology Johann Baptist...
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Localisation of parotid lesions

The parotid gland consists of a superficial and deep lobe. Determining the location and extent of the lesions affecting the gland is an essential aspect of imaging and vital information which needs to be conveyed to the surgeon. Method of evaluation The following lines are proposed for differe...
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Locked-in syndrome

Locked-in syndrome is a condition that can occur as a result of a stroke involving the brainstem; the stroke damages the ventral brainstem, corresponding to the pyramidal bundles. Clinical presentation The infarct is pontine; the midbrain is preserved. The oculomotor nerve III is intact so the...
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Long ciliary nerves

The long ciliary nerves are a group of nerves that branch from the nasociliary nerve in the intraconal space. Along with the short ciliary nerves, they supply sensation to the entire globe excluding the conjunctiva. Unlike the short ciliary nerves however, they bypass the ciliary ganglion and he...
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Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures are petrous temporal bone fractures that occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientati...
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Longitudinal versus transverse petrous temporal bone fracture

Petrous temporal bone fractures are classically divided into longitudinal, transverse or mixed fracture patterns depending on the direction of fracture plane with respect to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Some features may aid in distinguishing them.                 Longitudinal pe...
Article

Longus capitis muscle

The longus capitis muscle is a prevertebral muscle of the neck that is innervated by muscular branches of the cervical plexus. In isolation longus capitis acts to laterally flex and rotate the head. Summary origin: anterior tubercles of C3-C6 transverse processes insertion: inferior surface o...
Article

Longus colli

The longus colli muscle is a prevertebral muscle of the neck that is innervated by the anterior rami of C2–C6 from the cervical plexus. Longus colli is a weak flexor the cervical spine and when contracting unilaterally it tilts and rotates the cervical spine to the ipsilateral side. Longus colli...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuation lymphadenopathy
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Ludwig angina

Ludwig angina refers to rapidly progressive inflammation (cellulitis) of the floor of mouth, which is potentially life-threatening due to the risk of rapid airway compromise.  Epidemiology Largely due to the advent of antibiotics the condition is uncommon in present day modern societies. Immun...
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Lund-Mackay score

The Lund-Mackay score is a widely used method for radiologic staging of chronic rhinosinusitis 1. When reading a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses and ostiomeatal complex, the reader assigns each sinus a score of: 0 (no abnormality) 1 (partial opacification) or 2 (complete opacification) The...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; this includes abnormal num...
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Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid, retropharyngeal space, and occipital nodes.  Level I   below myloh...
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Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
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MacEwen triangle

The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a small triangular depression affecting the inner table of the temporal bone. The lines forming the triangle are: anterior: posterior border of the external acoustic meatus superior: posterior root of the zygomati...
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Macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95th centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity). Pathology Associations Recognised associations include: chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome tends to be a relative macroglossia may also have intermi...
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Macrophthalmia

The increased globe size or macrophthalmia may have many differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmus in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma See also mi...
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Madelung disease

Madelung disease, also known as Madelung-Launois-Bensaude syndrome or neck lipomatosis or multiple symmetric lipomatosis, is a rare benign entity clinically characterised by the presence of multiple and symmetric, non-encapsulated masses of fatty tissue, usually involving the neck and the upper ...
Article

Major salivary glands

The major salivary glands are the largest and most important of the salivary glands and comprise of: paired parotid glands paired submandibular glands paired sublingual glands Related pathology salivary gland tumours
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Malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands

Malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, according to the WHO classification, comprise three tumours: carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma arises from pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma most common carcinosarcoma (true mixed tumour of the salivary glands) true malignant mixed tumour 99% also ...
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Malignant salivary gland tumours (staging)

Malignant salivary gland tumours are staged using the TNM staging system: T: Tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour T1 less than or equal to 2 cm in maximal diameter no extra-parenchymal extension T2 2-4 cm in maximal diameter no extra-parenchymal...
Article

Malleus

The malleus is the most lateral middle ear ossicle, located between the tympanic membrane and the incus. Gross anatomy The malleus has a head, neck, and three distinct processes (manubrium (handle), anterior and lateral processes). The head is oval in shape, and articulates posteriorly with t...
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Mandible

The mandible is the single midline bone of the lower jaw. It consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles (angle of the jaw). It articulates with both temporal bones at the mandibular fo...
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Mandibular canal

The mandibular canal is located within the internal aspect of the mandible and contains the inferior alveolar nerve, artery and the vein. It starts at the mandibular foramen, on the lingual side of the ramus, continues on buccal surface of body of the mandible and ends at the mental foramen, adj...
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Mandibular foramen

The mandibular foramen or inferior alveolar foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible and is the entrance to the mandibular canal. It transmits the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve that supp...
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Mandibular fossa

The mandibular fossa is the smooth concave articular surface formed by both the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bone. It is a part of temporomandibular joint and lodges the condyle of mandible.
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Mandibular fracture

Mandibular fractures are relatively common especially among young men. Although traditionally the mandible and base of skull are thought to form a complete bony ring, interrupted only by the TMJs. This should mean that the mandible should fracture in two places (akin to the bony pelvis) making s...
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Mandibular lesions

Mandibular lesions are myriad and common. The presence of teeth results in lesions that are specific to the mandible (and maxilla) and a useful classification that defines them as odontogenic or non-odontogenic. While it may often not be possible to make a diagnosis on imaging alone, this classi...
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Mandibular osteoradionecrosis

Mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is more common after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies due to the superficial position of the mandible, which exposes it to high radiation. The maxilla can also be involved, but this is less frequent.  Epidemiology Mandibular ORN may occur in ...
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Mandibular periostitis

There are many causes for mandibular periostitis: Langerhans cell histiocytosis malignancy (both primary and metastatic) necrosis, e.g. radiation osteonecrosis osteomyelitis pyogenic Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis actinomycosis (uncommon) syphilis (uncommon) tuberculosis (uncommon) r...
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Mandibular tori

Mandibular tori are common benign outgrowths of bone from the inner surface of the mandible.  They are composed of compact bone, densely mineralized usually without medullary cavity, and arise from the inner surface of the mandible above the origin of mylohyoid. They are usually bilateral. See...
Article

Marine-Lenhart syndrome

Marine-Lenhart syndrome refers to a variant of Graves disease where there are coexistent autonomous thyroid nodules. It is better described as Graves disease with coexistent multinodular goitre or nodular Graves disease 1.  Epidemiology The syndrome is rare with reported prevalence somewhere b...
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Marjolin ulcer

Marjolin ulcers reflect malignant degeneration within pre-existing scars or areas of chronic inflammation such as burns, venous ulcers etc.  
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Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorises fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1: type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon...
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Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transvers...
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Masseteric nerve

The masseteric nerve or nerve to masseter is a motor branch of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Gross anatomy The masseteric nerve divides off the anterior division and continues lateral to the lateral pterygoid muscle and then medially through the mand...
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Masseter muscle

The masseter muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. It is rectangular shaped and consists of three layers of fibres, where the superficial layer is the largest. Summary origin: zygomatic arch insertion: ramus and angle of mandible innervation: masseteric nerve from the anterior divisio...
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Masticator space

The masticator space is one of the deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy  The masticator space are paired suprahyoid cervical spaces on each side of the face. Each space is enveloped by the superficial (investing) layer of the deep cervical fascia. The superficial layer of dee...
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Mastoid air cells

The mastoid air cells (cellulae mastoidae) represent the pneumatisation of the mastoid part of the temporal bone and are of variable size and extent.  Gross anatomy At the superior and anterior part of the mastoid process the air cells are large and irregular and contain air, but toward the in...
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Mastoidectomy

Mastoidectomy is a fairly frequent procedure performed for a variety of temporal bone pathologies including mastoiditis and cholesteatoma. It involves removing part of the bony wall of the mastoid to aid in drainage and surgical excision. Types of mastoidectomy A number of procedures have been...
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Mastoid foramen

The mastoid foramen is a variably present foramen as well as being variable in its size, number and position. Most commonly, it is located near the posterior margin of the mastoid process, within the temporo-occipital suture. It transmits the emissary veins connecting to the sigmoid sinus and a...
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Mastoid part of temporal bone

The mastoid part of the temporal bone is its posterior component. Gross anatomy The mastoid part is normally pneumatised by the mastoid air cells and is perforated by the mastoid foramen. The roof of the mastoid antrum, which separates the mastoid from the cranial cavity, is called the tegment...
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Maxilla

The maxilla (or maxillary bones) is a pair of symmetrical bones joined at the midline, which forms the middle third of the face. It forms the floor of the nasal cavity and parts of its lateral wall and roof, the roof of the oral cavity, contains the maxillary sinus, and contributes most of the i...
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Maxillary antral carcinoma

Maxillary antral carcinomas are an uncommon head and neck malignancy. They usually present late despite growing large since they remain confined to the maxillary sinus and produce no symptoms. Epidemiology Most commonly affects patients over 45 and has a strong male predilection (M:F = 5:1). M...
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Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, at first, it is embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes anterior between ...
Article

Maxillary line

The maxillary line is a mucosal projection along the lateral nasal wall corresponding to lacrimomaxillary suture externally. The midportion of the line is called "M point". During endoscopic sinus and orbital procedures the maxillary line and M-point are very important and useful landmarks in pa...
Article

Maxillary ostium

The maxillary ostium or maxillary hiatus is an opening that forms the drainage channel of the maxillary sinus and is also one of the components of the ostiomeatal unit. It is located posteriorly and medially near the roof of the maxillary sinus measuring approximately 2-4 mm. It drains into the ...
Article

Maxillary sinus

The maxillary sinus (or antrum of Highmore) is a paired pyramid-shaped paranasal sinus within the maxillary bone which drains via the maxillary ostium into the infundibulum, then through hiatus semilunaris into the middle meatus. It is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. Summary location: pa...
Article

Maxillary tori

Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori and are composed of densely mineralised bone usually devoid of a medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (prese...
Article

McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or midsagittal section of CT or MRI, joining the basion and opisthion. Normal position of the tip of dens is 5mm below this line. If the tip of the dens migrates above this line it indicates the presence of basilar invaginati...
Article

Medial canal fibrosis

Medial canal fibrosis is characterised by fibrous tissue formation in the medial part of the bony external auditory canal. Clinical presentation  Patients can present with conductive hearing loss, otorrhea and/or a history of chronic otitis. Radiographic features Early stage a thickened tym...
Article

Medial pterygoid muscle

The medial pterygoid muscle is one of the muscles of mastication.  Gross anatomy The medial pterygoid muscle is a thick and square shaped muscle. It has two heads of origin. The deep head is the major component of the origin and is attached to the medial aspect of the lateral pterygoid plate o...
Article

Medial rectus muscle

The medial rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. Summary innervation: inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: Annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, medial surface) primary function: one of three ocular adductor...
Article

Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit) Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid (lamina papyracea) S: sphenoid (body)
Article

Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
Article

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) describes the bony destruction of the jaw with exposed bone present for greater than eight weeks in the presence of current or previous antiresorptive and/or antiangiogenic medication use, and in the absence of radiation therapy to the head and...
Article

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a subtype of thyroid cancer which accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid malignancies. It occurs both sporadically (80%) and as a familial form (see associations). Epidemiology In non-familial case, it typically peaks in the 3rd to 4th decades. Pathology Thoug...
Article

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented tumour that primarily affects the calvaria or facial skeleton of children, typically during infancy. It is usually a benign tumour, albeit locally aggressive. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed during infancy, usually wi...
Article

Melioidosis

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (previously known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) and is a multisystem disorder which may affect the lungs, brain, visceral organs, or musculoskeletal system. Epidemiology Melioidosis is a disease of the monsoon season in th...
Article

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS), also known as cheilitis granulomatosa or Miescher-Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome, is a rare condition of unknown aetiology characterised by: granulomatous inflammation of the face and lips (non-caseating) facial nerve (CN VII) paralysis (involvement of crani...
Article

Ménière disease

Ménière disease (or idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops) is an inner ear disorder and as such can affect balance and hearing. Clinical Presentation One or both ears can be affected. The chief symptoms are: vertigo (often attacks which can be incapacitating) hearing loss tinnitus a sensation o...
Article

Mental artery

The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery which itself is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It emerges onto the face from the mandibular canal with the mental nerve at the mental foramen, and supplies muscles and skin in the chin region. The mental ...
Article

Mental foramen

The mental foramen is a small foramen on the anterior surface of the mandible, adjacent to root of the mandibular second premolar tooth. The mental nerve, a terminal branch of inferior alveolar nerve and the mental artery leave the mandibular canal through it.
Article

Mental nerve

The mental nerve is one of the two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It emerges from the mandibular canal anteriorly through the mental foramen and supplies the labial gingiva of the lower lip ...
Article

Mesiodens

A mesiodens is the most common supernumerary tooth and is located in the palatal midline between the two maxillary central incisors. Epidemiology It is rare with an estimated prevalence of ~1% (range 0.09 to 2.2%) 3. There is an increased male predilection with a M F ratio of ~2.5:1. There is...
Article

Mesotympanum

The mesotympanum forms the main compartment of the tympanic cavity and contains most of the important structures of the middle ear, including most of the ossicular chain.  Gross anatomy Location The mesotympanum is found in the middle ear. Boundaries Superiorly it is arbitrarily separated f...

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