Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

587 results found
Article

Gallbladder ghost triad

Gallbladder ghost triad is a term used on ultrasound studies when there is a combination of three gallbladder features on biliary atresia: atretic gallbladder, length less than 19 mm irregular or lobular contour  lack of smooth/complete echogenic mucosal lining with an indistinct wall The te...
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Gallbladder hydrops

Gallbladder hydrops refers to marked dilatation of the gallbladder due to chronic obstruction of the cystic duct resulting in accumulation of sterile non-pigmented mucin. Clinical presentation Abdominal pain with palpable gallbladder without any signs of infection. In an asymptomatic patient, ...
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Gallbladder inflammatory polyps

Gallbladder inflammatory polyps are a benign subtype of gallbladder polyps, representing ~10% of all polyps. They appear as a result of chronic inflammation (chronic cholecystitis).  For further details, please refer to the parental article on gallbladder polyps.  Pathology Gallbladder inflam...
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Gallbladder malignancy

Gallbladder malignancy (or gallbladder cancer) is relatively uncommon. The commonest histopathological type is carcinoma. Primary gallbladder carcinoma gallbladder adenocarcinoma: most common 1 gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma gallbladder sarcoma: ve...
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Gallbladder metastases

Gallbladder metastases are rare and usually represent an advanced and end-stage of malignancy. Malignant melanoma and gastric carcinoma account for the most common primary malignancies to see metastases to the gallbladder, in the Western and Asian societies, respectively.  Epidemiology They re...
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Gallbladder perforation

Gallbladder perforations are a serious complication of acute cholecystitis and represent an advanced stage of the disease. They tend to occur in an elderly and/or comorbid demographic and carry higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation Symptoms and clinical signs are varia...
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Gallbladder polyp

Gallbladder polyps are elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. The vast majority are benign, but malignant forms are seen. On imaging, although they may be detected by CT or MRI, they are usually best characterized on ultrasound as a non-shadowing and immobile polypoid ingro...
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Gallbladder sludge

Gallbladder sludge, also known as biliary sand, biliary sediment, or thick bile, is a mixture of particulate matter and bile, normally seen as a liquid-liquid level in the gallbladder on ultrasound, corresponding to the precipitate of bile solutes.  Terminology The term biliary microlithiasis ...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gallbladder volvulus

Gallbladder volvulus is a relatively rare condition in which there is a rotation of the gallbladder around the axis of the cystic duct and artery. Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific, however right upper quadrant pain and vomiting are similar to biliary colic. Laboratory evaluation...
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Gallbladder wall cholesterolosis

Gallbladder wall cholesterolosis is a type of cholecystosis, therefore, results from the accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in the macrophages within the gallbladder wall. It is a benign condition that may occur in two forms: localized diffuse: strawberry gallbladder Althoug...
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Gallbladder wall thickening

Thickening of the gallbladder wall is a non specific sign of various conditions. The diagnosis can be made by US, CT, or MRI depending on the clinical scenario. Pathology Gallbladder wall thickening can be caused by inflammatory, benign and malignant etiologies. Pseudothickening caused by the ...
Article

Gallstone disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Gallstone disease represents a group of conditions that are linked to, or caused by, gallstones. These stones are formed from sludge in the gallbladder and may range from millimeters in diameter to several centimeters. 90% ...
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Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of a mechanical small bowel obstruction. It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocecal valve.  Epidemiology Althoug...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones are the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to...
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Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that may occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describe stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones depe...
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Gangrenous cholecystitis

Gangrenous cholecystitis is the most common complication of acute cholecystitis, affecting ~15% (range 2-30%) of patients.  Pathology Gangrenous cholecystitis occurs as a result of ischemia with necrosis of the gallbladder wall 4.  Risk factors male increasing age delayed surgery cardiova...
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Gastric varix

Gastric varices are an important portosystemic collateral pathway, occurring in ~20% of patients with portal hypertension. They are considered distinct from esophageal varices in that they have a propensity to hemorrhage at comparatively lower portal pressures 1, and are also associated with hig...
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Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumor and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In general...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...
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Generalized increase in hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalized increased liver echogenicity include: diffuse fatty infiltration cirrhosis: can be coarsened as well chronic hepatitis 3: can be coarsened as well diffuse infiltration or deposition malignant process granulomata  tuberculosis brucellosis sarcoidosis glycogen stora...
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Generalized reduced hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalized reduction of liver echogenicity on ultrasound include: acute hepatitis diffuse malignant infiltration See also generalized increase in liver echogenicity hepatic attenuation on CT
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Geographic appearance

Geographic appearance is a term used in imaging, and other clinical fields (e.g. histopathology) to describe lesions with a well-circumscribed margins with adjacent tissues.  The term derives from the somewhat similar appearance of the outline of countries on a map or the clear demarcation forme...
Article

Giant hepatic venous malformation

Giant hepatic venous malformations (also known as giant hepatic hemangiomas) are relatively uncommon non-neoplastic vascular lesions of the liver, which can be strikingly large and mimic tumors.  Terminology It is important to note that according to newer nomenclature, these lesions are merely...
Article

Gilbert syndrome

Gilbert syndrome is a hereditary condition which can result in jaundice. Pathology It is results in intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. Uridine diphosphate-glucuronyl transferase activity is reduced resulting in indirect hyperbili...
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Glisson's capsule

Glisson's capsule is the external fibrous layer that envelops liver lobules.​ Related pathology Right upper quadrant pain can be caused by distension of Glisson's capsule 3. This can be caused by several processes, including a hematoma or a mass. History and etymology It is named after Franc...
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Glucagonoma

Glucagonomas are pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete glucagon. Most lesions are malignant. Epidemiology They are very rare with an incidence of ~0.000005% or less than 1 case per 20 million. Equal incidence in middle-aged men and women.  Clinical presentation Most patients present with ...
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Glycogen storage disease

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) refers to a number of syndromes which are characterized by a defect in synthesis, metabolism or storage of glycogen. Pathology There are many types of GSD: type I: von Gierke disease type II: Pompe disease type III: Cori or Forbes disease type IV: Andersen di...
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Glycogen storage disease type II

Glycogen storage disease type II, also known as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency disease, is an inherited lysosomal disorder characterized by abnormal glycogen accumulation within lysosomes. It is a multisystem disorder involving the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. It is caused by a de...
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Granulomatous hepatitis

Granulomatous hepatitis refers to an inflammatory liver disease associated with granuloma formation in the liver. These can caseating or non-caseating. Pathology Associations It can be associated with a wide variety of conditions, which most commonly includes sarcoidosis: hepatic manifestati...
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Greater pancreatic artery

The greater pancreatic artery, also known as the pancreatica magna artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises approximately two thirds the way along the splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margi...
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Gullo syndrome

Gullo syndrome, also known as benign pancreatic hyperenzymaemia, is characterized by the abnormal elevation of the serum levels of most or all of the pancreatic enzymes without any evidence of underlying pancreatic pathology. All other laboratory assays and imaging studies are unremarkable. Cli...
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post-transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the esophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesses ...
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Hemobilia

Hemobilia refers to the presence of blood in the biliary tree. Clinical presentation The classical clinical triad, only seen in ~50% of cases, consists of: melena (i.e. upper gastrointestinal bleeding) jaundice abdominal pain Pathology Etiology iatrogenic: surgical or percutaneous proced...
Article

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterized by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs which results in some instances in organ dysfunction. This article focus on the general principles of he...
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Hemorrhagic cholecystitis

Hemorrhagic cholecystitis refers to an inflammatory process of the gallbladder, complicated by hemorrhage into the lumen.  Clinical presentation The presenting features may mimic non-hemorrhagic acute cholecystitis, with right upper quadrant pain being a dominant feature. If the blood is passe...
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Hemorrhagic pancreatitis

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis is characterized by bleeding within or around the pancreas, and is usually considered a late sequela of acute pancreatitis. Pathology Hemorrhage can occur in patients with severe necrotizing pancreatitis or as a result of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm rupture when it const...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life-threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Hepascore

Hepascore is a biochemical severity scoring system based on liver function tests in predicting the extent of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C infection. Hepascore may also be applicable to other liver diseases and is being trialed for fatty liver disease and hepatitis B infe...
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Hepatic abscess

Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localized collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents.  Epidemiology The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affec...
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Hepatic adenoma

Hepatic adenomas, also referred to as hepatocellular adenomas, are benign, generally hormone-induced, liver tumors. The tumors are usually solitary, have a predilection for hemorrhage, and must be differentiated from other focal liver lesions. Epidemiology The incidence of hepatic adenomas is ...
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Hepatic adenomatosis

Hepatic adenomatosis is the presence of numerous, more than 10 and up to 50, hepatic adenomas. It is a rare disorder, best characterized with MRI. Epidemiology Patients with hepatic adenomatosis do not necessarily have the classic risk factors associated with the development of hepatic adenoma...
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Hepatic adrenal rest tumor

Hepatic adrenal rest tumors (HART), previously been termed primary hypernephroma of the liver or hypernephroid carcinoma of the liver, are very rare liver tumors with histology similar to adrenocortical carcinoma.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in younger patients and there is no recognized g...
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Hepatic amyloidosis

Hepatic amyloidosis refers to the extracellular deposition of amyloid in the parenchyma sinusoids or vessel walls. Liver involvement in amyloidosis is uncommon.   Pathology It can be primary or secondary and it typically occurs as diffuse infiltration 2. There is amyloid deposition in liver p...
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Hepatic angiomyolipoma

Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is an uncommon benign hamartomatous hepatic mass lesion, containing blood vessel (angioid), smooth muscle (myoid) and mature fat (lipoid) components. There is an association with tuberous sclerosis, although this is less strong than for renal AMLs. Clinical present...
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Hepatic angiosarcoma

Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy but is still the third most common primary liver tumor. They have a variable appearance on both CT and MRI reflecting the pleomorphic histological nature. Prognosis is very poor, with survival uncommon beyond one year from diagnosis.  Terminology Hepat...
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Hepatic arterial resistive index

The resistive index (RI) is the commonest Doppler parameter used for hepatic arterial evaluation. The usual range in normal, as well as post-transplant individuals, is between 0.55 and 0.8. It is measured by: RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity Hepati...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper, also known as the proper hepatic artery (PHA), is the continuation of the common hepatic artery after it gives off the gastroduodenal artery. Just prior to the porta hepatis it divides into the left and right hepatic arteries. Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery...
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Hepatic attenuation on CT

Hepatic attenuation on CT, reflected by Hounsfield values, depends on a combination of factors including the presence or absence, as well as the phase, of IV contrast administration. Allowing for all these factors, the mean unenhanced attenuation value is around 55 HU 4. Pathology Several int...
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Hepatic capsular retraction

Hepatic capsular retraction is an uncommon finding related to several benign and malignant pathologies and also intrinsic or extrinsic causes; a list of differential diagnoses is given below: malignant tumor (primary or metastatic) - especially cholangiocarcinoma but hepatocellular carcinoma is...
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Hepatic capsular retraction (mnemonic)

The following mnemonics can be used as reminders of the causes of hepatic capsular retraction: CT CHIEF FILTH E Mnemonics CT CHIEF C: cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic) T: treated hepatic metastasis or hepatocellular carcinoma C: cirrhosis with confluent hepatic fibrosis H: hemangioma (es...
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Hepatic carcinoid

Primary hepatic carcinoid is an extremely rare type of carcinoid tumor, with somewhere between 60-90 cases reported in the literature. Metastatic carcinoid tumor from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver is far more common. Clinical presentation Some patients present with carcinoid syndrome...
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Hepatic carcinosarcoma

Hepatic carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumor that is defined by mixed histological features.  Terminology This tumor has also been referred to as malignant mixed tumor, spindle cell carcinoma, pseudosarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma 1,2.  Pathology Hepatic carcinocarcinoma contain a mixture of...
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Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), also known as portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE), refers to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities occurring in patients with liver dysfunction and portal hypertension. It results from exposure of the brain to excessive amounts of ammonia.  Terminology Hepati...
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Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare, low to intermediate grade malignant hepatic vascular tumor. Epidemiology There may be a greater female incidence (with reported male-to-female ratio, 3:2), with peak incidence thought to be around 30-40 years old. Pathology Histologi...
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Hepatic hemangioma

Hepatic hemangiomas are benign vascular liver lesions. They are frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging, and most patients are asymptomatic. From a radiologic perspective, it is important to differentiate hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy. Epidemiology Hepatic hemangiomas ar...
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Hepatic haemangiomatosis

Hepatic haemangiomatosis is a condition in which the are multiple hemangiomas affecting the liver. Terminology When the lesions are spread throughout the liver, then this is termed diffuse hepatic haemangiomatosis. Pathology Associations giant liver hemangioma 2 Radiographic features CT ...
Article

Hepatic hemosiderosis

Hepatic hemosiderosis, or hepatic iron overload, refers to the deposition of hemosiderin in the liver. Pathology Hepatic iron overload can be in the form of 7: diffuse heterogeneous segmental focal hypersiderosis intralesional siderosis periportal siderosis In the absence of genetic he...
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Hepatic hydatid infection

Hepatic hydatid disease a parasitic zoonosis caused by the Echinococcus tapeworm. In the liver, two agents are recognized as causing disease in humans: Echinococcus granulosus Echinococcus multilocularis For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please ...
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Hepatic hydrothorax

Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is an uncommon manifestation of cirrhosis with ascites. It is one of the pulmonary complications of cirrhosis with portal hypertension.  It is characterized by formation of pleural effusions usually greater than 500 mL, in patients with portal hypertension without any o...
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Hepatic infarction

Hepatic infarction is an extremely rare situation because the liver has a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic infarction can occur when there is both hepatic arterial and portal vein flow compromise but most cases are due to acute portal venous flow compromise 11. ...
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Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor

Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors (IPT) are rare benign hepatic lesions. Epidemiology Most common in young adults with males affected more than females 7.  Pathology Etiology is unknown 7.  Macroscopic appearance Hepatic IPT is often seen as a well-circumscribed, encapsulated inflammatory ...
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Hepatic leiomyosarcoma

Hepatic leiomyosarcomas are rare primary malignant tumors derived from smooth muscle cells in the liver. Epidemiology Hepatic leiomyosarcoma is rare 1. An equal sex distribution and a broad age range (5 months-66Y) has been reported. Some have suggested an associated with AIDS 2. Pathology T...
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Hepatic lipoma

Hepatic lipomas are uncommon benign lesions of the liver. Pathology As with lipomas elsewhere in the body, hepatic lipomas are marginated masses which are composed of mature adipocytes without evidence of cellular atypia. Histopathologic evaluation may reveal adenomatous, angiomatous or myoma...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

Hepatic lymphangiomas are a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  For a general discussion on this topic, please refer to the parental article on lymphangioma.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A lymphangioma ...
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Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology Risk factors f...
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Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma

Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma are uncommon benign hepatic lesions which are mostly seen in children under the age of 2. Some authors consider them to be developmental anomalies rather than cystic neoplasia 9,12.  Epidemiology age typically occurs in children and neonates 3 most cases present...
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Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumors 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are all useful for detection of hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with l...
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Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcomas, also referred to as hepatic granulocytic sarcoma or hepatic chloromas, are rare neoplasms comprised of myeloid precursor cells happening in the liver. They are commonly associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they may also occur with other myeloproliferative a...
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Hepatic osteodystrophy

Hepatic osteodystrophy is an often forgotten metabolic bone disease seen in patients with chronic liver disease, in particular cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. These patients have increased risk factors for developing osteoporosis such as hypogonadism, al...
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Hepatic peliosis

Hepatic peliosis is a rare benign vascular condition characterized by dilatation of sinusoidal blood-filled spaces within the liver.  There may be involvement of other organs, most commonly the spleen and bone marrow.  It can be seen in a variety of settings and is important as appearances may m...
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Hepatic pseudolesion near falciform ligament

Hepatic pseudolesions near the falciform ligament show abnormal attenuation without mass effect. They may be seen on contrast-enhanced CT scans as either a region of high or low attenuation relative to the rest of the liver. They are typically located in the medial segment of the left lobe of th...
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Hepatic siderotic nodules

Hepatic siderotic nodules are a type of regenerative nodule formed in a cirrhotic liver. They occur in hepatic hemosiderosis. The nodules have an increased iron content compared with other regenerative nodules. They may be non-dysplastic or dysplastic. Pathology The reason why these nodules co...
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Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor

Hepatic solitary fibrous tumors (hepatic SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Epidemiology Fewer than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Female predominance (~70%). There is a mean age of 52 years at presentation, but a wide range of incidence (16-84 years). Clinical presentation I...
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Hepatic steatosis

Hepatic steatosis refers to an increase of intracellular fat in the liver. It is widely mischaracterized by both radiologists and sonographers as 'fatty infiltration' but the fat is in the hepatocytes and not in the extracellular matrix. On imaging grounds, it can broadly be divided into two gro...
Article

Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders

Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders are a broad group of conditions that radiologists should be familiar with, as some of them are quite frequently seen in the daily practice. The aim of this article is to be a collection of articles that represent the core knowledge in the matter. Patholo...
Article

Hepatic veins

The hepatic veins are three large intraparenchymal veins which drain the liver substance into the inferior vena cava (IVC), named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and hence defining the segments of the liver....
Article

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Hepatic venous pressure gradient

Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement is a safe and minimally invasive method to indirectly measure portal vein pressure in chronic liver disease patients suspected of developing portal vein hypertension.  Indications diagnosis of liver fibrosis and risk stratification identification o...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualization of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
Article

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a circular DNA virus endemic in many parts of the world. It is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinical presentation Acute HBV infection is most often subclinical and asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients (~33%) may experience fever,...
Article

Hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA virus and a member of the Flaviviridae family. It is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pathology Route of transmission The most common route of transmission is through blood products and contaminated needles. Unprotected sex...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hepatobiliary imaging in nuclear medicine

Hepatobiliary imaging in nuclear medicine can be accomplished with multiple different radiotracers to help evaluate the liver, gallbladder and the biliary ducts. The choice of tracer depends on the clinical question. Common tracers include: Tc-99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs: most commonl...
Article

Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents

Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents are specialized contrast agents used to aid diagnosis in MRI. They are separated into three categories: gadolinium-based agents, manganese-based agents and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.  Gadolinium-based agents Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents ...
Article

Hepatobiliary system

The hepatobiliary system consists of the: liver biliary tree (both intra- and extra-hepatic) gallbladder The pancreas is included by some. 
Article

Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor in children under four years of age who usually present with painless abdominal mass and raised AFP. It is tumor of embryonic origin. Epidemiology Most cases are seen during the first 18 months of life and diagnosis in adulthood i...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of subtypes, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated subtype, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epithelial...
Article

Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of pediatric liver tumors not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all pediatric liver tumors Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup staging ...
Article

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is strongly associated with cirrhosis, from both alcohol and viral etiologies. HCC constitutes approximately 5% of all cancers partly due to the high endemic rates of hepatitis B infection 1. Epidemiology HCC...
Article

Hepatocellular carcinoma (staging)

Hepatocellular carcinoma staging classifications supersede the typical TNM staging system seen in most other epithelial cancers, as the TNM staging system has been found to not be as prognostically useful for stratification of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Several substitute staging sy...
Article

Hepatocellular carcinoma (surveillance)

Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs have been adopted by some health systems in attempts to effect an early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk populations.  Rationale The idea behind hepatocellular carcinoma screening, as with any screening program, is to detect clin...
Article

Hepatoduodenal ligament

The hepatoduodenal ligament is a peritoneal ligament of lesser omentum containing the portal triad. 1 Gross anatomy The hepatoduodenal ligament is a thickening of the right edge of the lesser omentum and forms the anterior margin of the epiploic foramen. It extends from the porta hepatis to th...

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