Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

631 results found
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Hepatic peliosis

Hepatic peliosis is a rare benign vascular condition characterized by dilatation of sinusoidal blood-filled spaces within the liver.  There may be involvement of other organs, most commonly the spleen and bone marrow.  It can be seen in a variety of settings and is important as appearances may m...
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Hepatic pseudolesion near falciform ligament

Hepatic pseudolesions near the falciform ligament show abnormal attenuation without mass effect. They may be seen on contrast-enhanced CT scans as either a region of high or low attenuation relative to the rest of the liver. They are typically located in the medial segment of the left lobe of th...
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Hepatic siderotic nodules

Hepatic siderotic nodules are a type of regenerative nodule formed in a cirrhotic liver. They occur in hepatic hemosiderosis. The nodules have an increased iron content compared with other regenerative nodules. They may be non-dysplastic or dysplastic. Pathology The reason why these nodules co...
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Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation

Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation is a rare hepatic vascular lesion that is the result of dilatation of the hepatic capillaries.  Pathology Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation can be caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction (more commonly) or extrahepatic inflammatory conditions 2. Radiographic fea...
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Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor

Hepatic solitary fibrous tumors (hepatic SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Epidemiology Fewer than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Female predominance (~70%). There is a mean age of 52 years at presentation, but a wide range of incidence (16-84 years). Clinical presentation I...
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Hepatic steatosis

Hepatic steatosis refers to an increase of intracellular fat in the liver. It is widely mischaracterized by both radiologists and sonographers as 'fatty infiltration' but the fat is in the hepatocytes and not in the extracellular matrix. On imaging grounds, it can broadly be divided into two gro...
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Hepatic teratoma

Hepatic teratomas are extremely rare and represent either intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal teratomas that have invaded the liver. Hepatic teratomas comprise <1% of all teratomas.  Epidemiology These are extremely rare with only a few case reports have been described in the literature. The ma...
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Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders

Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders are a broad group of conditions that radiologists should be familiar with, as some of them are quite frequently seen in the daily practice. The aim of this article is to be a collection of articles that represent the core knowledge in the matter. Patholo...
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Hepatic veins

Three large intrahepatic veins drain the liver parenchyma, into the inferior vena cava (IVC), and are named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and defining the segments of the liver. There are separate smaller ...
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Hepatic venous pressure gradient

Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement is a safe and minimally invasive method to indirectly measure portal vein pressure in chronic liver disease patients suspected of developing portal vein hypertension.  Indications diagnosis of liver fibrosis and risk stratification identification o...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualization of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
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Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a circular DNA virus endemic in many parts of the world. It is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinical presentation Acute HBV infection is most often subclinical and asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients (~33%) may experience fever,...
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Hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA virus and a member of the Flaviviridae family. It is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pathology Route of transmission The most common route of transmission is through blood products and contaminated needles. Unprotected sex...
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Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
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Hepatobiliary imaging in nuclear medicine

Hepatobiliary imaging in nuclear medicine can be accomplished with multiple different radiotracers to help evaluate the liver, gallbladder and the biliary ducts. The choice of tracer depends on the clinical question. Common tracers include: Tc-99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs: most commonl...
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Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents

Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents are specialized contrast agents used to aid diagnosis in MRI. They are separated into three categories: gadolinium-based agents, manganese-based agents and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.  Gadolinium-based agents Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents ...
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Hepatobiliary system

The hepatobiliary system consists of the: liver biliary tree (both intra- and extra-hepatic) gallbladder The pancreas is included by some. 
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Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor in children under four years of age who usually present with painless abdominal mass and raised AFP. It is tumor of embryonic origin. Epidemiology Most cases are seen during the first 18 months of life and diagnosis in adulthood i...
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Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of subtypes, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated subtype, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epithelial...
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Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of pediatric liver tumors not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all pediatric liver tumors Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup staging ...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is strongly associated with cirrhosis, from both alcohol and viral etiologies. HCC constitutes approximately 5% of all cancers partly due to the high endemic rates of hepatitis B infection 1. Epidemiology Hep...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (staging)

Hepatocellular carcinoma staging classifications supersede the typical TNM staging system seen in most other epithelial cancers, as the TNM staging system has been found to not be as prognostically useful for stratification of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Several substitute staging sy...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (surveillance)

Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs have been adopted by some health systems in attempts to effect an early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk populations.  Rationale The idea behind hepatocellular carcinoma screening, as with any screening program, is to detect clin...
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Hepatoduodenal ligament

The hepatoduodenal ligament is a peritoneal ligament of lesser omentum containing the portal triad 1.  Gross anatomy The hepatoduodenal ligament is a thickening of the right edge of the lesser omentum and forms the anterior margin of the epiploic foramen. It extends from the porta hepatis to t...
Article

Hepatofugal

Hepatofugal or non-forward portal flow (NFPF) is an abnormal flow pattern in which the portal venous flow is from the periphery of the liver towards the porta and backwards along the portal vein. This phenomenon is not uncommon in patients with liver disease 3. It is the opposite of hepatopetal...
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Hepatolithiasis

Hepatolithiasis is the presence of bile duct stones within the intrahepatic bile ducts, specifically proximal to the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts.  Epidemiology Hepatolithiasis is common in Asia and the Pacific, with a prevalence of ~40%. It is rare in the West with a prevale...
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Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly refers to an increase in size or enlargement of the liver.  Pathology Etiology Hepatomegaly can result from a vast range of pathology including, but not limited to, the following: malignancy/cellular infiltrate multiple metastases lymphoma(s) leukemia(s) hepatocellular carci...
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Hepatopetal

Hepatopetal denotes flow of blood towards the liver, which is the normal direction of blood flow through the portal vein. The term is typically used when discussing the portal vein or recanalized vein of the ligamentum teres in patients with suspected portal hypertension. It is the opposite of ...
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of the following: liver disease dilation of pulmonary vasculature may involve pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, or pleural AVMs abnormalities in oxygenation elevation in the alveolar-ar...
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Hepatosplenic candidiasis

Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a manifestation of disseminated candidiasis in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. Both hepatic and splenic infection usually happens simultaneously, the reason why they are approached together.   On i...
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Hepatosplenomegaly

Hepatosplenomegaly is simply the simultaneous presence of a pathologically-enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly). Pathology Etiology Infection Many, many infections can produce a mild concurrent enlargement of the liver and spleen. This list is by no means exhaustive! vira...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalen...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (liver manifestations)

Hepatic manifestations of Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, are typically seen on imaging as multiple telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (i.e. arteriovenous and portovenous shunts). These multiple shunts lead to a hyperdy...
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Hereditary pancreatitis

Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare subtype of chronic pancreatitis that has an autosomal dominant inheritance and is one of the main causes of pancreatitis in childhood.  Clinical presentation As a congenital condition, a presentation with acute pancreatitis attacks typically occurs in childhoo...
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Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
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HNF 1 alpha mutated hepatic adenoma

HNF 1 alpha mutated hepatic adenomas are a genetic and pathologic subtype of hepatic adenoma. Their appearance and prognosis are different from other subtypes. Epidemiology They are the second most common (30-35%) hepatic adenoma, after the inflammatory subtype. They occur only in female patie...
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Horseshoe pancreas

A horseshoe pancreas is a term that has been used for a rare anatomic variant of the pancreas in which the uncinate process is unusually elongated such that it extends along the whole 3rd part of the duodenum to mirror the tail superiorly forming a horseshoe-shaped gland 1. History and etymolog...
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Horseshoe-shaped (disambiguation)

Several normal anatomical structures and rare organ variants have been described as being horseshoe-shaped. Organ anomalies horseshoe kidney horseshoe lung horseshoe adrenal horseshoe appendix horseshoe pancreas 1 Horseshoe-shaped organs hyoid bone limbic lobe supramarginal gyrus tymp...
Article

Hutson loop

A Hutson loop, also known as an access loop, is variation of the Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy whereby a longer segment of jejunum is used to construct the hepatobiliary limb, and the upstream end is tacked to the anterior abdominal wall ("stomatization") 4. The goal is to simplify future end...
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Hyalinised hepatic hemangioma

Hyalinised hepatic hemangiomas, also known as sclerosing/sclerosed hepatic hemangiomas, are a rare variant of hepatic hemangioma. Because of their unusual imaging features, they cannot be reliably differentiated from a malignant tumor without a biopsy. Liver capsular retraction is a common featu...
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Hyperattenuating gallbladder (differential)

A hyperattenuating gallbladder may occur from a number of different etiologies: sludge in the gallbladder vicarious excretion of intravenous contrast (iodinated contrast or gadolinium contrast) hyperconcentrated bile noncalcified gallstones medications I.e ceftriaxone associated gallbladder...
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Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic hemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic hemangiom...
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
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Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis

Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis is an uncommon form of acute pancreatitis caused by high levels of circulating triglycerides in the blood. Epidemiology Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis accounts for around 1-4% of cases of acute pancreatitis and is the third most common cause...
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Hypertrophy of the caudate lobe

Hypertrophy of the caudate lobe is seen in a number of conditions, including: cirrhosis: most common Budd-Chiari syndrome primary sclerosing cholangitis (end stage) congenital hepatic fibrosis cavernous transformation of the portal vein Radiographic features The caudate-right lobe ratio m...
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
Article

IgG4-related disease

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease that is characterized by fibroinflammatory infiltration of various organs, including by plasma cells that express IgG4 (immunoglobulin G subclass 4). Terminology This condition has been known by many other names in the past, such as IgG4-rel...
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IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis

IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, also known as autoimmune cholangiopathy, is part of the spectrum of IgG4-related disease but can also occur in isolation. It is a separate entity to primary sclerosing cholangitis.  Pathology The pathogenesis is poorly understood. The disease is characteriz...
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Imaging in liver transplantation

Imaging in liver transplantation is aimed to evaluate donor and recipient for successful transplantation and its outcome. Pre-transplant evaluation Donor volume of liver parenchymal disease (diffuse or focal) vascular anatomy arterial variations venous variations biliary anatomy Recipie...
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Increased splenic density

Increased splenic density can be due to a number of processes. The density may be due to calcification (most common) or other compounds (iron, Thorotrast), and can be seen (often incidentally) on abdominal radiographs and CT. On CT the usual splenic attenuation is 35-55 HU or ~10 HU 6 lower than...
Article

Infantile hepatic hemangioma

Infantile hepatic hemangiomas (IHH) are liver lesions composed of large endothelial-lined vascular channels seen in fetuses and neonates. Not to be confused with hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, which occurs in older patients. Terminology These benign tumors were previously referred t...
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Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the first branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It usually arises at the inferior border of the pancreas or with the first jejunal artery as part of the pancreaticoduodenojejunal trunk.  It anastomoses with branches of the superior pancreati...
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Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterized by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
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Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma

Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also known as diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma, is an infrequent subtype of HCC, which has particular imaging characteristics. Because of these characteristics, it has been called cirrhotomimetic-HCC or cirrhosis-like HCC. Epidemiology Infiltrative ...
Article

Inflammatory hepatic adenoma

Inflammatory hepatic adenomas are a genetic and pathological subtype of hepatic adenoma. Their appearance and prognosis is different than other subtypes and has the highest incidence of hemorrhage amongst hepatic adenoma subtypes. Epidemiology Most common subtype of hepatic adenoma (40-50%). O...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behavior.  Terminology These tumors were previously referred to as inflammatory pseudotumor.   Epidemiology They can occur at any age and there is cu...
Article

Insulinoma

Insulinomas are the most common sporadic endocrine tumor of the pancreas. On imaging, they usually present as small well-defined hypervascular tumors that may be found anywhere in the pancreas.  Epidemiology Account for 40% of syndromic pancreatic endocrine tumors. The overall incidence is of...
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Interstitial edematous pancreatitis

Interstitial edematous pancreatitis is one of the two subtypes of acute pancreatitis. It is normally referred to as "acute pancreatitis" or "uncomplicated pancreatitis" in day-to-day use. Please refer to the article on acute pancreatitis for further details. 
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Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is a common complication associated with hepatic hydatid cysts. It is important to appreciate the direct and indirect signs of this condition. Radiographic features The radiological features of intrabiliary rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst can be c...
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Intracholecystic papillary neoplasm

Intracholecystic papillary neoplasms (ICPN), also known as intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasms, are rare, recently described, preinvasive neoplasms of the gallbladder. On imaging, these lesions resemble adenomas of the gallbladder or have features suspicious for gallbladder carcinoma, ...
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Intraductal neoplasms of the bile ducts

The intraductal neoplasms of the bile ducts are divided into those lesions that are a precursor to adenocarcinoma of the bile ducts, also referred to as preinvasive lesions, and the invasive tumors, which are cholangiocarcinomas of intraductal growing type. preinvasive  biliary intraepithelial...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumors (IPMNs or IMPTs) are epithelial pancreatic cystic tumors of mucin-producing cells that arise from the pancreatic ducts. They are most commonly seen in elderly patients.  On imaging, particularly MRCP, they are characterized by single or multipl...
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Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a preinvasive biliary tree neoplasm considered to be a precursor of cholangiocarcinoma.  Terminology Biliary papillary adenoma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma of the biliary tract were terms used to refer to localized low-grade and...
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Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile ducts

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the bile ducts are rare intraluminal masses forming pre-invasive biliary neoplasms with no mucin production.  Epidemiology Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile ducts are rare tumors of unknown incidence, found more frequently in women at the...
Article

Intrahepatic arterioportal shunt

Intrahepatic arterioportal shunts represent abnormal flow between the portal venous system and a hepatic arterial system within the liver. They can be a reversible cause of portal hypertension. Clinical presentation Clinical features will depend on the size and other underlying pathology. Smal...
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Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt

Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts, also referred to as intrahepatic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or hepatic arteriosystemic venous shunts, represent a spectrum of abnormal communications between the hepatic arterial system and the hepatic veins.  Please note that arterioportal shunts, whi...
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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma staging is conducted most commonly in accordance with the TNM staging classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). As of 2018, the staging criteria are in their 8th edition and reflected below 1. Th...
Article

Irreversible electroporation

Irreversible electroporation (IRE), also known as non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE), is a non-invasive soft-tissue ablation technique used for tumor ablation in regions that require very high precision and preservation of surrounding collagenous structures (vessels and ducts) and ...
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Ischemic type biliary lesions

Ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL) is a term used to describe non-anastomotic intra- or extrahepatic bile duct strictures after primarily successful liver transplantation, when there is no evidence of perfusion restriction or other cause of bile duct damage (i.e organ rejection or recurrence o...
Article

Jaundice

Jaundice refers to a clinical sign of hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin >2.5 mg/dL) which has many causes. It is often a clue to a diagnosis. It can be largely divided into two types: non-obstructive, i.e. prehepatic and hepatic causes obstructive, i.e. posthepatic causes Imaging has a majo...
Article

Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
Article

Kasai portoenterostomy

Kasai portoenterostomy is the surgery that comprises exposing the porta hepatis by radical excision of all bile duct tissue up to the liver capsule and attaching a Roux-en-Y loop of jejunum to the uncovered liver capsule above the bifurcation of the portal vein creating a portoenterostomy 1. In...
Article

Klatskin tumor

Klatskin tumor is a term that was traditionally given to a hilar (perihilar) cholangiocarcinoma, occurring at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct. Typically, these tumors are small, poorly differentiated, exhibit aggressive biologic behavior, and tend to obstruct the intrahepatic bile duc...
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Komi classification of bile duct cysts

Komi classification of bile duct cysts divides anomalous union of the pancreatico-bile ducts (AUPBD) into three types based on the angle of union of the ducts 1. Classification type I: union of the ducts at a right angle to each other type Ia: without dilatation or  type Ib: with dilatation ...
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KRAS mutation

KRAS (shortened name for the gene Kirsten RAt Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations are associated in a number of malignancies including:  certain adenocarcinomas of the lung colorectal carcinoma 1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Several germline KRAS mutations have also been found to b...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumor uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or PET/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals. ...
Article

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
Article

Lamellated

The term lamellated (or laminated which means the same thing) is a radiopathological term used to describe the layered appearance of many calculi, including those of the renal tract, the salivary glands, and the biliary tree. The internal structure of these calculi has been likened to that of an...
Article

Left hepatic artery

The left hepatic artery (LHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The proper hepatic artery bifurcates into the left and right hepatic arteries at or before reac...
Article

Left triangular ligament of the liver

The left triangular ligament is a peritoneal suspensory ligament of the liver. It is formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior reflections of the coronary ligament. It is shorter than the right triangular ligament and does not separate the left subphrenic space from the subhepatic space.
Article

Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis refers to zoonoses caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: visceral (also known as kala-azar or dum-dum fever) cutaneous mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Epidemiology Leishmaniasis is a truly global disease with a higher burden in t...
Article

Lemmel syndrome

Lemmel syndrome is defined as obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary duodenal diverticulum compressing the intrapancreatic common bile duct with resultant bile duct dilatation. Clinical presentation Patients may present with recurrent episodes of jaundice, pancreatitis and/or cholangit...
Article

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis results from infection by the zoonotic Leptospira spp. The condition can have multiorgan manifestations. Commonly affected organs include: lung: pulmonary leptospirosis liver: hepatic leptospirosis central nervous system: CNS leptospirosis skeletal muscle: muscular leptospirosi...
Article

Leukemic infiltration of liver

Leukemic infiltration of the liver can occur with several forms of leukemia inclusive of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).  Radiographic features CT Described features are non-specific but include: hepatomegaly periportal low att...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Light bulb sign (hepatic hemangioma)

The light bulb sign of a hepatic hemangioma is a feature than can be seen on MRI imaging with a classic hepatic hemangioma. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on heavily T2 weighted sequences that has been likened to a glowing light bulb. See also light bulb sign - shoulder light bulb ...
Article

Limy bile

Limy bile stands for the presence of a viscous substance in the dependent parts of the gallbladder and/or bile ducts, almost entirely composed of calcium carbonate, and therefore highly radiopaque. Terminology The terms limy bile and calcium milk gallbladder can be used interchangeably for inc...
Article

Lipase

Lipase, more specifically pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the digestion of fat molecules. It may be raised (hyperlipasemia) in numerous pancreatic, hepatobiliary and other diseases but is most commonly associated with acute pancreatitis. Physiolog...
Article

Lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas

Lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas is a rare, benign entity characterized by focal or diffuse enlargement of the pancreas due to the replacement of exocrine parenchyma with adipose tissue. Terminology Arguably lipomatous pseudohypertrophy may be considered a distinct clinicopathologi...
Article

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
Article

LI-RADS

Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system...
Article

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen is a rare, benign primary vascular tumor of the spleen. Epidemiology Littoral cell angiomas may occur at any age and have no gender predilection. Associations Littoral cell angiomas have been diagnosed in association with various malignancies outside the s...
Article

Liver

The liver is the largest abdominal organ. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of the very few organs that has the ability to re...

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