Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

528 results found
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-spe...
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Pancreatic metastases

Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and are only found in a minority (3-12%) of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy. They account for only 2-5% of all pancreatic malignancies. Epidemiology Demographics will match those of the primary tumor, but in general will be in elderly p...
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Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
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Pancreatico-pleural fistula

Pancreatico-pleural fistulas are a rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis whereby enzymatic pancreatic fluid, either from a pancreatic pseudocyst or directly from a disrupted duct, dissects into the pleural cavity. Pancreaticopleural fistulas may also develop in the setting of trauma...
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Pancreatic pseudocyst

Pancreatic pseudocysts are common sequelae of acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis, and the most common cystic lesion of the pancreas. They are important both in terms of management and differentiation from other cystic processes or masses in this region. Terminology The following are th...
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Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range from subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the vast ...
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Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: hematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lacer...
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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis (plural: pancreatitides) refers to inflammation involving the pancreas.  It has various forms which can be classified in many many ways according to time of onset, aetiological agent or associated pathology. acute pancreatitis interstitial edematous pancreatitis necrotizing panc...
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Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare pediatric tumors of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean age ...
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Papillary process of the caudate lobe

The papillary process of the caudate lobe, also known as the medial papillary process, represents a division of the inferior caudate lobe of the liver 1. The inferior aspect of the caudate may be divided into medial and lateral processes.  While the lateral or caudate process is contiguous with ...
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Paracaval lipoma

Paracaval lipoma (or juxtacaval fat collection) can be a frequent finding on CT and can seen in up to  0.5% of examinations 1. Some even consider this as a normal variation5. It occurs at the medial aspect of the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) above the caudate lobe and rep...
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Paraduodenal pancreatitis

Paraduodenal pancreatitis is an uncommon type of focal chronic pancreatitis affecting the groove between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum and the common bile duct. Terminology The following entities with which it shares clinicopathological features are unified by this term and should no ...
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Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion, also known as congested liver in cardiac disease, describes the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage, which leads to dilation of central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result...
Article

Pearl necklace sign

The pearl necklace sign occurs in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder, on both oral cholecystograms and MRCP. It represents the contrast / fluid-filled intramural mucosal diverticula (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses); lined up, these are reminiscent of pearls on a necklace. It is synonymous with the C...
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Pepper syndrome

Pepper syndrome is of interest only (the term is not readily used in day-to-day practice), and refers to primary adrenal neuroblastoma with extensive liver metastases 1. In essence, it refers to stage 4S neuroblastoma (see staging of neuroblastoma). 
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Percutaneous cholecystostomy

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an image-guided placement of drainage catheter into gallbladder lumen. This minimally invasive procedure can aid the stabilisation of a patient to enable a more measured surgical approach with time for therapeutic planning. A 2018 study 11 demonstrate no differen...
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Percutaneous liver biopsy

Percutaneous liver biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT guidance, allows for an accurate and reliable method of acquiring hepatic tissue for histopathological assessment. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted liver biopsy (used in the assessment and staging of the parench...
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Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction. It is almost exclusively performed in those with a malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary and pancreatic malignancies when retrograde access v...
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Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in visualization of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnostic p...
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Periampullary diverticulum

A periampullary diverticulum is a location-specific type of duodenal diverticulum.  Epidemiology The incidence is reported to increase with age with reported rates as high as 27%. Pathology It is located close to the region of the duodenum often involving the D2 segment.  Associations can ...
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Periampullary tumors

Periampullary tumors are those that arise within 2 cm of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Tumors that fall under this group include four main types of tumors 1,4 that will be approached in their specific articles: pancreatic head/uncinate process tumors: includes pancreatic ductal adenoca...
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Peribiliary cyst

Peribiliary cysts occur in the setting of chronic liver disease where it is a rare, benign and often asymptomatic disorder. It occurs when there is cyst formation around the intrahepatic biliary ductules primarily in a hilar distribution 1. Unlike choledochal cysts (for example in Caroli disease...
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Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm

Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm refers to the formation of a pseudoaneurysm around the pancreatic gland. It is a rare but potentially lethal complication 5. Epidemiology Formation of pseudoaneurysm can occur in as many as 10% of cases of pancreatitis. The time interval is variable, ranging from ...
Article

Periportal halo

Periportal halo or periportal collar sign is a zone of low attenuation seen around the portal veins on contrast-enhanced CT or hypoechogenicity on liver US. Periportal halos may occur around the central portal veins or their peripheral branches and occurs on both sides of the portal triads. Pat...
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Periportal hyperechogenicity

Periportal hyperechogenicity can result from many causes including: pneumobilia cholecystitis schistosomiasis of the portal region recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (oriental) inflammatory bowel disease: has been described to give "echo-rich" periportal cuffing 2​  It may also be observed in ...
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Periportal hypoechogenicity

Periportal hypoechogenicity can result from many causes: orthotopic liver transplant rejection congestive hepatomegaly malignant lymphatic obstruction cholangitis viral hepatitis See also periportal hyperechogenicity periportal halo
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Peritoneal hydatidosis

Peritoneal hydatidosis occurs secondary to seeding of echinococcosis to the peritoneum, usually secondary to rupture of hydatid disease of liver. Pathology Seeding involves the entire peritoneum and gives appearance of an multiloculated mass.  Classification Peritoneal hydatidosis can be pri...
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Phrygian cap

Phrygian caps are the most common congenital anatomic variant of the gallbladder. It denotes folding of the fundus back upon the gallbladder body and is asymptomatic with no pathological significance. Radiographic findings A Phrygian cap may be identified on ultrasound, multiphase CT/MRI or ch...
Article

Pneumobilia

Pneumobilia, also known as aerobilia, is the accumulation of gas in the biliary tree. It is important to distinguish pneumobilia from portal venous gas, the other type of branching hepatic gas. There are many causes of pneumobilia and clinical context is often important to distinguish between th...
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Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal venous gas: peripheral common ...
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Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotizing vasculitis that involves small to medium-sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology PAN is more common in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades. 20-30% of patients are hepatitis B antigen positiv...
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Polycystic liver disease

Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a hereditary condition that may arise either in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) or in patients with a different genetic mutation that results solely in autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Clinical presentation Most ...
Article

Porcelain gallbladder

Porcelain gallbladder refers to extensive calcium encrustation of the gallbladder wall. The term has been used to emphasize the blue discolouration and brittle consistency of the gallbladder wall at surgery but is often an incidental finding on multiple different imaging modalities.  Clinical p...
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Porta hepatis

The porta hepatis is a deep fissure in the inferior surface of the liver through which all the neurovascular structures (except hepatic veins) and hepatic ducts enter or leave the liver 1. It contains: right and left hepatic ducts right and left branches of hepatic artery portal vein From an...
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Portal biliopathy

Portal biliopathy or portal ductopathy refers to biliary obstruction that is associated with cavernous transformation of the portal vein due to portal vein thrombosis 1.2. Clinical presentation Portal bilopathy may present as jaundice, cholangitis due to bile duct obstruction, or rarely as hae...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as portal venous pressure greater than 12 mmHg. Pathology Causes can be split in their relation to the hepatic sinusoids: pre-sinusoidal portal vein thrombosis extrinsic compression of portal vein Schistosomiasis (S. mansoni or S. japonicum) sinusoidal cirr...
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...
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Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Gross anatomy The portal vein usually measures approximately 8 cm in length in adults with a ...
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Portal vein embolization

Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes, diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, the future liver remnant (FLR). This diversion will increase the size of the post hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) and increa...
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Portal vein thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis may be seen in a variety of clinical contexts, and when acute can be a life-threatening condition. It is a major cause of non-cirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombus may be either bland and/or malignant (i.e. tumor thrombus), and it is a critical ...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Portopulmonary hypertension

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH/PPHTN) refers to pulmonary artery hypertension that develops in the setting of portal hypertension (with or without underlying liver disease). It falls under group 1.4 of the Dana point 2008 pulmonary hypertension classification system. Epidemiology The preval...
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Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...
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Posterior parahepatic cyst

Posterior parahepatic cysts are an incidental finding of a small, isolated, nodular structure adjacent to the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe.  Pathology Due to the benign imaging characteristics and stability on long-term imaging, no pathologic diagnosis of these lesions has been ...
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Posterior right subhepatic space

The posterior right subhepatic space (also known as the hepatorenal fossa or Morison pouch) separates the liver from the right kidney. It is a potential space that is not filled with any fluid in normal conditions. Gross anatomy The posterior right subhepatic space is a subcompartment of the s...
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Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the 2008 WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It can ...
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Primary biliary cholangitis

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease that is the cause of 1-2% of deaths from cirrhosis and constitutes the third most common indication for liver transplantation in adults. Terminology The name of this disease was changed from primary biliary ci...
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Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterized by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
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Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumor is detected (see: secondary hepat...
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Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
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Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an uncommon idiopathic inflammatory condition, which affects the biliary tree resulting in multiple strictures and eventual cirrhosis. The diagnosis can be made when there are classical imaging features in the correct clinical context, and secondary cause...
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Pseudocalculus sign (common bile duct)

A pseudocalculus sign is a term coined to describe a mimic of a distally impacted common bile duct (CBD) stone on MRCP and CT cholangiography.  It results from the forceful contraction of the ampulla of Vater with pouting into the lower end of the CBD. This impression is superiorly rounded and ...
Article

Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a radiological term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported before treatment, and with...
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Pseudocyst

A pseudocyst is an abnormal fluid-filled cavity which is not lined by epithelium.  It is this fact that distinguishes it pathologically from a cyst, which is lined by epithelium. Examples of pseudocysts are: pancreatic pseudocyst pulmonary pseudocyst pseudocysts of the germinal matrix
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Pseudogallbladder sign

Pseudogallbladder sign is a sonographic feature that can be seen in some children with biliary atresia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Appears as a cystic structure seen in the liver which is confused with gallbladder in a few cases of biliary atresia. In these patients it is an important f...
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Pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule

Pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which a piece of colonic epiploic fat becomes ectopically located within the liver capsule. Radiographic features CT well-circumscribed fat attenuation (-20 to -70 HU) nodule at the liver surface MRI well-circumscri...
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Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
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Puestow procedure

The Puestow procedure is a lateral side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy that is used for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreas is essentially filleted along its long axis from the uncinate process to the tail and connected to a Roux en-Y loop of jejunum. The pancreaticojejunal anas...
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Pulmonary complications of cirrhosis

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) Clinical presentation Dyspnea and arterial hypoxemia are the most common symptoms. Path...
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Pulsatile portal venous flow

A pulsatile portal venous flow pattern can result from both physiological and pathological causes. In well subjects mild pulsatility, or in rare situations, even marked pulsatility has been described, particularly in thin subjects, with a venous pulsatility index of >0.5 with an inverse correla...
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Pylephlebitis

Pylephlebitis, also known as ascending septic thrombophlebitis, is a thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein or its branches secondary to infection in regions that drain to this venous system. Pathology Etiology septic focus: diverticulitis, appendicitis hypercoagulative status trauma abdo...
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Radioembolisation

Radioembolisation is the delivery of radioactive microspheres to cancers using an endovascular approach. It is often performed as an outpatient procedure.  Indications hepatocellular carcinoma hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma Contraindications Absolute contraindications excessi...
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Recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis

Recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis, previously known as oriental cholangiohepatitis, is a condition most commonly found in patients residing in or immigrated from Southeast Asia and is characterized by intra and extrahepatic bile duct strictures and dilatation with an intraductal pigmented st...
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Regenerative liver nodule

Regenerative liver nodules (RNs) are a form of non-neoplastic nodules that arise in a cirrhotic liver. Terminology This may be slightly different from the term nodular regenerative hyperplasia, which are described histopathologically as regenerative nodules with little or no hepatic fibrosis a...
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Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones, also called dropped or slipped gallstones, are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Clinical presentation Many cases of dropped gallstones will be...
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Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells
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Reverse target sign (cirrhotic nodules)

A reverse target sign is a potential ultrasound marker for cirrhotic nodules on ultrasound.It represents central iso-hyperechogenicity with surrounding hyperechoic rim. This sign is useful to differentiate metastases from cirrhotic nodules, conversely the target sign is seen with liver metastases.
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Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1992 Atlanta classification. It was initially revised in 2012 and then further updated in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an...
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Rhabdomyosarcomas (biliary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract are rare tumors, usually identified in children, with a very poor prognosis. They are usually grouped under botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. For a general discussion of this type of tumor, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology Rhabdom...
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Riedel lobe

Riedel lobe is a common anatomical variant of the liver to be aware of because it can simulate a mass. Its misidentification as a pathologic abdominal mass has led to surgery. Pathology can also occur within it (e.g. malignancy or even torsion) and cause atypical hepatic symptoms low in the pelv...
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Right hepatic artery

The right hepatic artery (RHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the right and left hepatic arteries at or before reaching the porta he...
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Right posterior hepatic notch sign

The right posterior hepatic notch sign is a sharp indentation of the normally smooth posterior right hepatic lobe margin. It is associated with cirrhosis, although the mechanism is not entirely clear. It has been suggested that this may be an indication of relative caudate lobe hypertrophy and d...
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Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as the up...
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Right triangular ligament of the liver

The right triangular ligament is a peritoneal suspensory ligament of the liver. It is formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior reflections of the right coronary ligament. It is longer than the left triangular ligament and compartmentalises the right subphrenic and subhepatic spaces.
Article

Rigler triad

Rigler triad consists of three findings seen in gallstone ileus: pneumobilia small bowel obstruction ectopic gallstone, usually in the right iliac fossa History and etymology It is named after Leo George Rigler, American radiologist (1896-1979) 1. Practical points Rigler triad should not ...
Article

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are diverticula of the gallbladder wall which may be microscopic or macroscopic. Histologically, they are outpouchings of gallbladder mucosa that sit within the gallbladder muscle layer. Related pathology They are not of themselves considered abnormal, but may be ass...
Article

Rolling stone sign

The rolling stone sign refers to the presence of gallstones within the gallbladder that are mobile when the patient moves. Small gallstones can sometimes be difficult to diagnose due to the absence of posterior shadow artefact but the presence of a rolling stone sign increases the confidence of...
Article

Rosary sign (gallbladder)

The rosary sign is a CT finding in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. It is formed by the enhanced proliferative mucosal epithelium, with the intramural diverticula surrounded by the unenhanced hypertrophied muscle coat of the gallbladder. The rosary sign is similar to the pearl necklace sign.
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Saber sign in pneumobilia

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
Article

Santorinicele

A santorinicele refers to a cystic dilatation of the end of the dorsal pancreatic duct (duct of Santorini) 1,2 and is believed to be analogous to a dilatation of the most distal common bile duct, which is commonly known as a choledochocele 3.  It usually occurs in association with pancreas divi...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved. Although less common than pulmonary and mediastinal disease, abdominal sarcoidosis can mimic more common infectious or neoplast...
Article

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
Article

Schistosomiasis (hepatic manifestations)

Schistosomiasis hepatic manifestations are a chronic result of the deposition of eggs into small portal venules leading to periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.   For a general view over this trematode infection, please refer to the main article on schistosomiasis.  Clinical presentation U...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Scleroderma (hepatobiliary manifestations)

Hepatobiliary manifestations of scleroderma are only present symptomatically in a minority of patients. Around 2.5% of patients with scleroderma develop clinically significant primary biliary cirrhosis, however, antibody studies suggest that subclinical disease may be present in as many as 15% o...
Article

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also know as hepatic radioembolisation, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumors. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via the hepatic artery.  It is generally consid...
Article

Selenium toxicity

Selenium toxicity (rarely: hyperselenaemia) is caused by excessive intake of the non-metallic element selenium (Se) in the diet. Epidemiology It is less common than selenium deficiency. It is most frequently seen in some parts of India, in which there are naturally high levels of selenium in t...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas, also referred as microcystic adenoma, is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical p...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin (a hemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischemia and infarction, as well as hemolytic anemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The h...
Article

Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...

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