Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

644 results found
Article

Selenium toxicity

Selenium toxicity (rarely: hyperselenemia) is caused by excessive intake of the non-metallic element selenium (Se) in the diet. Epidemiology It is less common than selenium deficiency. It is most frequently seen in some parts of India, in which there are naturally high levels of selenium in th...
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Septate gallbladder

Septate gallbladder is a congenital variant where there may be a single septum or multiple septa in the gallbladder splitting its lumen into several parts. There can be communication between the separated parts of gallbladder through small pores. The condition is mostly asymptomatic and incident...
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Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas, also referred as microcystic adenoma, is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognized strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Associatio...
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Serpent sign

The serpent sign, a.k.a. snake sign, is described in hydatid disease. The WHO classification (2001) or Gharbi classification (1985) of hydatid disease describe several stages on ultrasound 1. During the active stage, the cyst is composed of three layers: the outer (pericyst), the middle (ectocy...
Article

Serum ascites albumin gradient

The serum–ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is the difference between the concurrently obtained serum albumin concentration and the albumin concentration of the ascitic fluid obtained during paracentesis.  Pathology A difference ≥1.1 grams/deciliter (g/dL) indicates portal hypertension as the li...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. Pathology Several mechanisms are thought to to attribute to this appearance which include sinusoidal s...
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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) (historically known as drepanocytosis) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin (a hemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischemia and infarction, as well as hemolytic anemia.  Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) dis...
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Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...
Article

Simple hepatic cyst

Simple hepatic cysts are common benign liver lesions and have no malignant potential. They can be diagnosed with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Epidemiology Simple hepatic cysts are one of the commonest liver lesions, occurring in ~2-7% of the population 1,2. There may be a slight female predilection...
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Sinistral portal hypertension

Sinistral portal hypertension (also known as left-sided portal hypertension or segmental portal hypertension) is an uncommon form of portal hypertension. Clinical presentation Sinistral portal hypertension is most commonly found incidentally in asymptomatic patients. In symptomatic patients, t...
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Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), previously known as hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to l...
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Situs inversus

Situs inversus, (rare plural: sitūs inversi) short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image ...
Article

Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas

Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas are rare (usually benign) pancreatic tumors. Terminology The tumor has been referred to with multiple different names, including: solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) solid pseudopapillary epithel...
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Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor.  Epidemiology  They form up to ~1% of all gastroenteropancreatic endocrine neoplasms.  Associations multiple endocrine neoplasia type I 2 von Hippel Lindau syndrome 2 duodenal somatostatinoma: neurofibromatosis type I 1 Clinical pr...
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Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualized gallbladder 1,2. It is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness, and/or a mass 2. It is one of the most import...
Article

Spectral Doppler (ultrasound)

Utilizing automated Fourier analysis to convert returning sound waves into a series of individual frequencies, spectral Doppler refers to ultrasound modalities which yield graphical representations of flow velocity over time.  Terminology The frequency of the sound waves returned to an ultraso...
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Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of Oddi (also known as the sphincter of ampulla or choledochal sphincter) is a complex of four smooth muscle sphincters within the duodenal wall. It surrounds, and helps fix to the duodenum, the duct of Wirsung, common bile duct and the ampulla of Vater 1,2.  When relaxed it allow...
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Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a functional disorder in which stenosis or dyskinesia of the sphincter of Oddi obstructs drainage from the common bile duct (CBD). Epidemiology The disorder is associated with a history of cholecystectomy, in which case it is also called post-cholecystectomy sy...
Article

Spider web appearance

Spider web appearance is a classic appearance seen on venography in a patient with hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It refers to the dense network of hepatic venous collaterals seen. 
Article

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma, also called sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma, is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These patients are reported to have low or normal AFP levels, otherwise risk factors and clinical presentation are similar to typical hepatocellular carci...
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Splenic artery aneurysm

Splenic artery aneurysms are the commonest visceral arterial aneurysm formation as well as the 3rd commonest abdominal aneurysm (after the aorta and iliac vessels). Aneurysms are usually saccular in configuration and they can either be in the form of a true aneurysm (much more common) or as a ps...
Article

Splenic brucellosis

Brucellosis is a common zoonosis, which is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean countries. It produces a multisystemic illness that can present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications 1. This article is focusing on the splenic involvement by brucellosis. For genera...
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Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur in various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of etiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where ...
Article

Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also known as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~80%)...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare lesions commonly found incidentally on imaging. They are most often solitary but may be present as multiple nodules in patients with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Terminology  The recently-described sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformatio...
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Splenic hydatid infection

Splenic hydatid infection is a rare form of hydatid disease, and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Epidemiology Splenic hydatid disease has been re...
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Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number of processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself or the...
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Splenic peliosis

Splenic peliosis is an unusual benign disorder characterized by the presence of irregular cystic blood-filled cavities. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although very rarely, a patient can present with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. Associations Recognized association...
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Splenic steal syndrome

Splenic steal syndrome is a possible complication after liver transplantation. In this syndrome, blood flows preferentially from the celiac artery into the splenic artery and the hepatic artery is relatively hypoperfused as a result. This complication can threaten a liver transplant's survival. ...
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7. Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standard deviations abov...
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Splenorenal shunt

A splenorenal shunt refers to an abnormal collateral portosystemic communication between the splenic vein and the left renal vein. It is one of the features of portal hypertension. See also portosystemic shunts
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Splenosis

Splenosis is one type of ectopic splenic tissue (the other being accessory spleen). It is an acquired condition and is defined as autoimplantation of one or more focal deposits of splenic tissue in various compartments of the body. Abdominal splenosis is seen after abdominal trauma or surgery (...
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Starry sky appearance (disambiguation)

Starry sky appearance is a radiological sign used to describe the appearance of the liver on two different imaging modalities: starry sky appearance (ultrasound) starry sky appearance (MRI) starry sky artifact (MRI)
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Starry sky appearance (MRI)

Starry sky appearance on MRI refers to the appearance of small innumerable T2 hyperintense bile duct hamartomas and biliary microhamartomas, scattered throughout the T2 hypointense hepatic parenchyma, which resembles a “starry sky”. The high T2 signal lesions represent Von Meyenburg complexes se...
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Starry sky appearance (ultrasound)

A starry sky appearance , also known as a centrilobular pattern 7, refers to a sonographic appearance of the liver parenchyma in which there are bright echogenic dots throughout a background of decreased liver parenchymal echogenicity. Although usually associated with acute hepatitis, this sign ...
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Stauffer syndrome

Stauffer syndrome is paraneoplastic nephrogenic hepatomegaly. It most commonly occurs in the setting of renal cell carcinoma, and is the enlargement of the liver without hepatic metastases. It is a cause of cholestasis and cholestatic jaundice.  History and etymology It is named after Maurice ...
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Strasberg classification of bile duct injury

The Strasberg classification of bile duct injury is a widely used system to anatomically define these injuries by location 1.  Classification type A: injury to the cystic duct or from minor hepatic ducts draining the liver bed type B: occlusion of the biliary tree, commonly aberrant right hep...
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Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
Article

Subvesical bile ducts

Subvesical / subvesicular bile ducts are variants of the biliary tree, and knowledge of these are important because they account for a significant portion of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.  Terminology Cholecystohepatic ducts (usually segment 5 to the gallbladder) are commonly known as bile ...
Article

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
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Supradiaphragmatic liver

Supradiaphragmatic liver has been reported as a very rare variant in liver morphology.  In this variant, liver tissue extends into the right hemithorax through an opening in the right hemidiaphragm. The tissue is connected to the right hepatic lobe by a pedicle. In one report, the caudate lobe ...
Article

Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram-negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Tamoxifen-induced reversible hepatic steatosis

Tamoxifen is an important anti-estrogen agent used for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and it may induce reversible hepatic steatosis. This is usually transient and may occasionally be associated with hepatic dysfunction. It only rarely leads to cirrhosis 1. Epidemiolog...
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Target sign (cholangiocarcinoma)

The target sign of cholangiocarcinoma refers to the appearance of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma on DWI consisting of a centrally hypointense area and peripherally hyperintense rim. The presence of this sign favors cholangiocarcinoma over hepatocellular carcinoma. It is present in ...
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Target sign (choledocholithiasis)

The target sign of choledocholithiasis is a finding seen on contrast-enhanced CT and comprises: central density within the bile duct: stone surrounding low density: bile or mucosa
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Target sign (tuberculosis)

The target sign of tuberculosis refers to the bull's eye appearance of some parenchymal tuberculomas involving the brain (see: CNS tuberculosis) and solid abdominal organs (see: hepatic and splenic tuberculosis) on cross-sectional imaging.  Radiographic features Ultrasound hypoechoic nodules ...
Article

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs are hepatobiliary agents in nuclear medicine, used in cholescintigraphy. These include: Tc99m-DISIDA: diisopropyl IDA, also known as Hepatolite Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, Choletec TM Tc99m-PIPIDA: paraisopropyl iminodiacetic acid The use of...
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Tc99m mebrofenin

Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, also known under the trade name Choletec TM is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical used in hepatobiliary imaging. It is one of the Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs. It is taken up by the hepatocytes through the same membrane transport mechanism as biliru...
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Tc-99m sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life normal distribution: liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokinet...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with Tc-99m constitutes a co-ordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of Tc-99m by co-ordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive te...
Article

Tensile gallbladder fundus sign

The tensile gallbladder fundus sign is positive when the gallbladder fundus is seen to bulge into, and distort, the anterior abdominal wall and is a feature of acute cholecystitis. It is particularly useful as an early sign of the condition on CT as it has around a 75% sensitivity and 95% speci...
Article

Third inflow

Third inflow refers to anatomical variants leading to an additional venous inflow to the liver apart from the usual dual blood supply (portal vein and hepatic artery). They tend to be associated with parenchymal pseudolesions (focal hyperenhancement on post-contrast imaging, focal fat infiltrati...
Article

Thorotrast

Thorotrast is a suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and used as a contrast agent until the 1950s. Its principal use was for cerebral angiography: 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients treated received it for this purpose. Umbrathor was another thori...
Article

Three line sign (common bile duct)

The three line sign refers to an MRI term that describes the appearance of roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides within the CBD lumen which appears as two hypointense lines representing the worm walls and hyperintense center which represents the worm gut. See also biliary ascariasis
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that the shunt is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show color Doppler flow throughout its length. The in-stent vel...
Article

Todani classification of bile duct cysts

The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups. Classification Type I See: type I choledochal cyst account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts characterized by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct a subclassification has been proposed Ia: ...
Article

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localized method of administrating chemotherapy directly to a liver tumor via a catheter study. The chemoembolic agent may be delivered via a mixture with LipiodolⓇ, known as conventional TACE, or as an injection of drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE...
Article

Transient hepatic attenuation differences

Transient hepatic attenuation differences (THAD) lesions refer to areas of parenchymal enhancement visible during the hepatic artery phase on helical CT. They are thought to be a physiological phenomenon caused by the dual hepatic blood supply. Occasionally, they may be associated with hepatic t...
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Transient hepatic intensity difference

Transient hepatic intensity differences (THIDs) are a phenomenon observed on MRI imaging of the liver. They are considered a direct equivalent to transient hepatic attenuation differences (THADs) noted on CT. They may be focal or nonfocal. Pathology Focal lesions A focal THID lesion can arise...
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Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or TIPSS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient...
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Transverse pancreatic artery

The transverse pancreatic artery, also known as the inferior pancreatic artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margin of the pancreas ne...
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Triangular cord sign (biliary atresia)

The triangular cord sign is a triangular or tubular echogenic cord of fibrous tissue, representing the ductal remnant of the extrahepatic bile duct, seen in the porta hepatis at ultrasonography, and is relatively specific for the diagnosis of biliary atresia 1,2. This sign is useful in the eval...
Article

T tube cholangiogram

T-tube cholangiograms are a fluoroscopic study performed in the setting of hepatobiliary disease.  This technique has been largely superseded by MRCP and ERCP. Typically a T-shaped tube is left in the common bile duct at the time of surgery (e.g. cholecystectomy) and allows for exploration of t...
Article

Turtleback sign

Turtleback sign, also known as tortoise shell appearance, represents a characteristic appearance of chronic hepatic schistosomiasis in which liver margins are irregular and nodular. Dystrophic calcifications within a polygonal network of fibrous septa are seen in the periphery, often perpendicul...
Article

Type I choledochal cyst

Type I choledochal cysts appear as a fusiform or cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary system (common bile duct +/- common hepatic duct). Epidemiology Although uncommon in Western countries (1:100,000 to 1:150,000), they are the most common type of biliary cyst. Their prevalence may be...
Article

Tyrosinemia type 1

Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolic origin. Progressive renal tubular defects and hepatocellular carcinoma are the primary manifestations. Epidemiology More common in Turkey, India and Europe. Clinical presentation Presentation is typically in the first few mon...
Article

Ultrasound appearances of liver metastases

Ultrasound appearance of liver metastases can have bewildering variation, and the presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions. Radiographic features Ultrasound Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the liver metastases and the likely prima...
Article

Ultrasound-guided biopsy

Ultrasound-guided biopsy is one form of image-guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist. It is the most common form of image-guided biopsy, offering convenience and real-time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be u...
Article

Umbilical vein

The umbilical vein is the conduit for blood returning from the placenta to the fetus until it involutes soon after birth. The umbilical vein arises from multiple tributaries within the placenta and enters the umbilical cord, along with the (usually) paired umbilical arteries. Once it enters the...
Article

Unclassified hepatic adenoma

Unclassified hepatic adenomas refer to the 5-10% of hepatocellular adenomas subtype that lack known genetic abnormalities1,2. These adenomas cannot be further categorized genetically or histologically as inflammatory adenomas, HNF 1 alpha mutated adenomas or beta-catenin mutated adenomas. The c...
Article

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas of the liver are rare, aggressive, and malignant liver tumors encountered in the pediatric population.  Epidemiology Approximately 90% of cases occur in patients under 15 years of age, most commonly between 6 and 10 years of age, but some cases have been rep...
Article

US abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Ultrasound abdomen is one of the tests that is commonly used in the assessment of patients with abdominal pain. It is particularly useful for the assessment of solid organs and fluid-filled structures. Reference article T...
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Variant hepatic arterial anatomy

Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the celiac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.  Terminology An accessor...
Article

Ventriculogallbladder shunt

Ventriculogallbladder shunts, also known as ventriculocholecystic shunts 5, are a rarely employed form of cerebrospinal fluid diversion, used when a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is not possible (e.g. intra-abdominal adhesions, peritonitis). Differential diagnosis a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in ...
Article

Vicarious contrast media excretion

Vicarious contrast media excretion (VCME) is defined as excretion of intravascularly-administered water-soluble contrast media in a way other than via normal renal excretion. The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile dens...
Article

Wall-echo-shadow sign (ultrasound)

The wall-echo-shadow sign (also known as WES sign) is an ultrasonographic finding within the gallbladder fossa referring to the appearance of a "wall-echo-shadow": a curvilinear hyperechogenic line representing the gallbladder wall a thin hypoechoic space representing a small amount of bile a...
Article

Wandering spleen

Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen migrates from its usual anatomical position, commonly to the lower abdomen or pelvis. Epidemiology Wandering spleen is rare, with a reported incidence of <0.5%. Diagnosis is most commonly made between ages 20 and 40 years and is more co...
Article

Water-lily sign (hydatid cyst)

The water-lily sign, also known as the camalote sign, is seen in hydatid infections when there is detachment of the endocyst membrane which results in floating membranes within the pericyst that mimic the appearance of a water lily. It is classically described on plain radiographs (mainly chest...
Article

Wheel within a wheel sign (hepatic candidiasis)

The wheel within a wheel sign describes one of several possible ultrasound findings of hepatic candidiasis. The finding consists of a round lesion with three layers corresponding to the following histopathological changes 2: peripheral hypoechoic area (fibrosis) middle hyperechoic area (inflam...
Article

Whipple triad

Whipple triad is the clinical presentation of pancreatic insulinoma and consists of: fasting hypoglycemia (<50 mg/dL) symptoms of hypoglycemia immediate relief of symptoms after the administration of IV glucose History and etymology The triad and also the Whipple procedure were both named a...
Article

Wilson disease

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism affecting multiple systems.  Epidemiology Wilson disease is commonly found in Japan. It affects 1 in 30,000-40,000 individuals 12. 1 in 90 individuals are a heterozygous car...
Article

Wilson disease (hepatobiliary manifestations)

Hepatobiliary manifestations of Wilson disease vary largely from fatty changes to cirrhosis and occasionally fulminant hepatic necrosis. They result from accumulation of copper in the liver. For a general discussion of the underlying condition, please refer to the article Wilson disease.  Epid...
Article

Wirsungocele

Wirsungocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the pancreatic duct of Wirsung, which is the portion of ventral duct between the dorsal-ventral junction and major duodenal papilla. It is believed to be analogous to a choledochocele and santorinicele. Clinical presentation It may be an incidental...
Article

Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that may be difficult to differentiate from malignancy, both on imaging and pathologically. It is characterized by the presence of multiple intramural nodules. Epidemiology It is seen predominantly i...

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