Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

485 results found
Article

Portal biliopathy

Portal biliopathy or portal ductopathy refers to biliary obstruction that is associated with cavernous transformation of the portal vein due to portal vein thrombosis 1.2. Clinical presentation Portal bilopathy may present as jaundice, cholangitis due to bile duct obstruction, or rarely as hae...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as portal venous pressure greater than 12 mmHg. Pathology Causes can be split in their relation to the hepatic sinusoids: pre-sinusoidal portal vein thrombosis extrinsic compression of portal vein Schistosomiasis (S. mansoni or S. japonicum) sinusoidal cirr...
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...
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Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Gross anatomy The portal vein usually measures approximately 8 cm in length in adults with a ...
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Portal vein embolisation

Portal vein embolisation (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, allowing this future liver remnant (FLR). This will increase the size of the post hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) and improve...
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Portal vein thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis may be seen in a variety of clinical contexts, and when acute can be a life-threatening condition. It is a major cause of non-cirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombus may be either bland and/or malignant (i.e. tumour thrombus), and it is a critical...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Portopulmonary hypertension

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH/PPHTN) refers to pulmonary artery hypertension that develops in the setting of portal hypertension (with or without underlying liver disease). It falls under group 1.4 of the Dana point 2008 pulmonary hypertension classification system. Epidemiology The preval...
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Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...
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Posterior parahepatic cyst

Posterior parahepatic cysts are an incidental finding of a small, isolated, nodular structure adjacent to the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe.  Pathology Due to the benign imaging characteristics and stability on long-term imaging, no pathologic diagnosis of these lesions has been ...
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Posterior right subhepatic space

The posterior right subhepatic space (also known as the hepatorenal fossa or Morison's pouch) separates the liver from the right kidney. It is a potential space that is not filled with any fluid in normal conditions. Gross anatomy Posterior right subhepatic space is a subcompartment of the sup...
Article

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It ca...
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Primary biliary cholangitis

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease that is the cause of 1-2% of deaths from cirrhosis and constitutes the third most common indication for liver transplantation in adults. Terminology The name of this disease was changed from primary biliary ci...
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Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterised by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
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Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
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Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
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Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an uncommon idiopathic inflammatory condition, which affects the biliary tree resulting in multiple strictures and eventual cirrhosis. The diagnosis can be made when there are classical imaging features in the correct clinical context, and secondary cause...
Article

Pseudocalculus sign (common bile duct)

A pseudocalculus sign is a term coined to describe a mimic of a distally impacted common bile duct (CBD) stone on MRCP and CT cholangiography.  It results from the forceful contraction of the ampulla of Vater with pouting into the lower end of the CBD. This impression is superiorly rounded and ...
Article

Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported prior to treatment, and with other mali...
Article

Pseudocyst

A pseudocyst is an abnormal fluid-filled cavity which is not lined by epithelium.  It is this fact that distinguishes it pathologically from a cyst, which is lined by epithelium. Examples of pseudocysts are: pancreatic pseudocyst pulmonary pseudocyst pseudocysts of the germinal matrix
Article

Pseudogallbladder sign

Pseudogallbladder sign is a sonographic feature that can be seen in some children with biliary atresia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Appears as a cystic structure seen in the liver which is confused with gallbladder in a few cases of biliary atresia. In these patients it is an important f...
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Pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule

Pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which a piece of colonic epiploic fat becomes ectopically located within the liver capsule. Radiographic features CT well-circumscribed fat attenuation (-20 to -70 HU) nodule at the liver surface MRI well-circumscri...
Article

Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
Article

Puestow procedure

The Puestow procedure is a lateral side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy that is used for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreas is essentially filleted along its long axis from the uncinate process to the tail and connected to a Roux en-Y loop of jejunum. The pancreaticojejunal anas...
Article

Pulmonary complications of cirrhosis

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) Clinical presentation Dyspnoea and arterial hypoxemia are the most common symptoms. Pat...
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Pylephlebitis

Pylephlebitis, also known as ascending septic thrombophlebitis, is a thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein or its branches secondary to infection in regions that drain to this venous system. Pathology Aetiology septic focus: diverticulitis, appendicitis hypercoagulative status trauma abd...
Article

Recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis

Recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis, previously known as oriental cholangiohepatitis, is a condition most commonly found in patients residing in or immigrated from Southeast Asia and is characterised by intra and extrahepatic bile duct strictures and dilatation with intraductal pigmented stone...
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Regenerative liver nodule

Regenerative liver nodules (RNs) are a form of non-neoplastic nodules that arise in a cirrhotic liver. Terminology This may be slightly different from the term nodular regenerative hyperplasia, which are described histopathologically as regenerative nodules with little or no hepatic fibrosis a...
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Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. When recognised intraoperatively spilled stones should be retrieved to avoid potential complications includ...
Article

Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises of a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells
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Reverse target sign (cirrhotic nodules)

A reverse target sign is a potential ultrasound marker for cirrhotic nodules on ultrasound.It represents central iso-hyperechogenicity with surrounding hyperechoic rim. This sign is useful to differentiate metastases from cirrhotic nodules, conversely the target sign is seen with liver metastases.
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Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1992 Atlanta classification. It was initially revised in 2012 and then further updated in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcomas (biliary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract are rare tumours, usually identified in children, with a very poor prognosis. They are usually grouped under botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. For a general discussion of this type of tumour, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology Rhabd...
Article

Riedel lobe

Riedel lobe is a common anatomical variant of the liver to be aware of because it can simulate a mass. Its misidentification as a pathologic abdominal mass has led to surgery. Pathology can also occur within it (e.g. malignancy or even torsion) and cause atypical hepatic symptoms low in the pel...
Article

Right hepatic artery

The right hepatic artery (RHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the right and left hepatic arteries on reaching the porta hepatis. The...
Article

Right posterior hepatic notch sign

The right posterior hepatic notch sign is a sharp indentation of the normally smooth posterior right hepatic lobe margin. It is associated with cirrhosis, although the mechanism is not entirely clear. It has been suggested that this may be an indication of relative caudate lobe hypertrophy and d...
Article

Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as the up...
Article

Right triangular ligament of the liver

The right triangular ligament is a peritoneal suspensory ligament of the liver. It is formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior reflections of the right coronary ligament. It is longer than the left triangular ligament and compartmentalises the right subphrenic and subhepatic spaces.
Article

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are diverticula of the gallbladder wall which may be microscopic or macroscopic. Histologically, they are outpouchings of gallbladder mucosa that sit within the gallbladder muscle layer. Related pathology They are not of themselves considered abnormal, but may be ass...
Article

Rolling stone sign

The rolling stone sign refers to the presence of gallstones within the gallbladder that are mobile when the patient moves. Small gallstones can sometimes be difficult to diagnose due to the absence of posterior shadow artefact but the presence of a rolling stone sign increases the confidence of...
Article

Rosary sign (gallbladder)

The rosary sign is a CT finding in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. It is formed by the enhanced proliferative mucosal epithelium, with the intramural diverticula surrounded by the unenhanced hypertrophied muscle coat of the gallbladder. The rosary sign is similar to the pearl necklace sign.
Article

Saber sign in pneumobilia

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
Article

Santorinicoele

A santorinicoele refers to a cystic dilatation of the end of the dorsal  pancreatic duct (duct of Santorini) 1,2 and is believed to be analogous to a dilatation of the most distal common bile duct, which is commonly known as a choledochocoele3.  It can occur in association with pancreas divisum...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved.  Although the involvement of abdominal viscera is less frequent than pulmonary and mediastinal disease when it occurs, it may m...
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Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
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Schistosomiasis (hepatic manifestations)

Schistosomiasis hepatic manifestations are a chronic result of the deposition of eggs into small portal venules leading to periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.   For a general view over this trematode infection, please refer to the main article on schistosomiasis.  Clinical presentation U...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (hepatobiliary manifestations)

Hepatobiliary manifestations of scleroderma are only present symptomatically in a minority of patients. Around 2.5% of patients with scleroderma develop clinically significant primary biliary cirrhosis, however, antibody studies suggest that subclinical disease may be present in as many as 15% o...
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Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also know as hepatic radioembolisation, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumours. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via hepatic artery.  It generally considered e...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. ...
Article

Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...
Article

Simple hepatic cyst

Simple hepatic cysts are common benign liver lesions and have no malignant potential. They can be diagnosed on ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Epidemiology Simple hepatic cysts are one of the commonest liver lesions, occurring in ~2-7% of the population 1,2. There may be a slight female predilection. ...
Article

Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas

Solid pseudopapillary tumours (SPT) of the pancreas are rare (usually benign) pancreatic tumours. Terminology The tumour has been referred to with multiple different names, including: solid pseudopapillary tumour (SPT) of the pancreas solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) solid pseudopapilla...
Article

Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumour. They may represent around 1% of all gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Clinical presentation Presentation van be variable. Patients with functional stomatostatinomas may present with an "inhibitory syndrome" which is a triad...
Article

Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign (SMS) is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualised gallbladder 1,2. SMS is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness or mass 2. It is one of the most impor...
Article

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma, also called sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma, is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These patients are reported to have low or normal AFP levels, otherwise risk factors and clinical presentation are similar to typical hepatocellular carci...
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Splenic abscess

Splenic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localised collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents. They uncommonly affect the spleen due to its efficient reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity and, consequently, are more likely seen in...
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Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of aetiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where...
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Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are usually an innocuous incidental finding on imaging. They represent about 20% of the cysts found in the spleen. On imaging, they present as a unilocular fluid lesion with thin and smooth walls and no...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare lesions commonly found incidentally on imaging. They are most often solitary but may be present as multiple nodules in patients with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Terminology  The recently-described sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformatio...
Article

Splenic hydatid infection

Splenic hydatid infection is a rare form of hydatid disease, and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Epidemiology Splenic hydatid disease has been re...
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Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number of processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself or th...
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Splenic steal syndrome

Splenic steal syndrome is a possible complication after liver transplantation. In this syndrome, blood flows preferentially from the celiac artery into the splenic artery and the hepatic artery is relatively hypoperfused as a result. This complication can threaten a liver transplant's survival. ...
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs >1000...
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Splenorenal shunt

A splenorenal shunt refers to an abnormal collateral portosystemic communication between the splenic vein and the left renal vein. It is one of the features of portal hypertension. See also portosystemic shunts
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Splenosis

Splenosis is one type of ectopic splenic tissue (the other being accessory spleen). It is an acquired condition and is defined as autoimplantation one or more focal deposits of splenic tissue in various compartments of the body. Abdominal splenosis is seen after abdominal trauma or surgery (e.g...
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Starry sky appearance (ultrasound)

A starry sky appearance refers to a sonographic appearance of the liver parenchyma in which there are bright echogenic dots throughout a background of decreased liver parenchymal echogenicity. Although usually associated with acute hepatitis, this sign has been found to have poor sensitivity and...
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Stauffer syndrome

Stauffer syndrome is paraneoplastic nephrogenic hepatomegaly. It most commonly occurs in the setting of renal cell carcinoma, and is the enlargement the liver without hepatic metastases. It is a cause of cholestasis and cholestatic jaundice.  History and etymology It is named after Maurice H. ...
Article

Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
Article

Subvesical bile ducts

Subvesical/subvesicular bile ducts are variants of the biliary tree, and knowledge of these are important because they account for a significant portion of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.  Terminology Cholecystohepatic ducts (usually segment V to the gallbladder) are commonly known as bile du...
Article

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
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Supradiaphragmatic liver

Supradiaphragmatic liver has been reported as a very rare variant in liver morphology.  In this variant, liver tissue extends into the right hemithorax through an opening in the right hemidiaphragm. The tissue is connected to the right hepatic lobe by a pedicle. In one report, the caudate lobe ...
Article

Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
Article

Target sign (choledocholithiasis)

The target sign of choledocholithiasis is a finding seen on contrast-enhanced CT and comprises: central density within the bile duct: stone surrounding low density: bile or mucosa
Article

Target sign (tuberculosis)

The target sign of tuberculosis refers to the bull's eye appearance of some parenchymal tuberculomas involving the brain (see: CNS tuberculosis) and solid abdominal organs (see: hepatic and splenic tuberculosis) on cross-sectional imaging.  Radiographic features Ultrasound hypoechoic nodules ...
Article

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogues

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogues are hepatobiliary agents in nuclear medicine, used in cholescintigraphy. These include: Tc99m-DISIDA: diisopropyl IDA, aka Hepatolite Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, aka Choletec Tc99m-PIPIDA: paraisopropyl iminodiacetic acid The use of IDA al...
Article

Tc-99m sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life normal distribution: liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokinet...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
Article

Tensile gallbladder fundus sign

The tensile gallbladder fundus sign is positive when the gallbladder fundus is seen to bulge into, and distort, the anterior abdominal wall and is a feature of acute cholecystitis. It is particularly useful as an early sign of the condition on CT as it has around a 75% sensitivity and 95% speci...
Article

Thorotrast

Thorotrast is a radioactive radiographic contrast agent containing thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and was in use until the 1950s. It was used primarily for cerebral angiography, and 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients who received it were studied for this purpose.  T...
Article

Three line sign (common bile duct)

The three line sign refers to an MRI term that describes the appearance of roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides within the CBD lumen which appears as two hypointense lines representing the worm walls and hyperintense centre which represents the worm gut. See also biliary ascariasis
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that the shunt is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show colour Doppler flow throughout its length. The in-stent ve...
Article

Todani classification of bile duct cysts

The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups. Classification Type I See: type I choledochal cyst account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts characterised by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct a subclassification has been proposed Ia: ...
Article

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localised method of administrating chemotherapy directly to a liver tumour via a catheter study. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) (i.e. without a chemotherapy agent added) is also used, and there is evidence that this may be just as effective ...
Article

Transient hepatic attenuation differences

Transient hepatic attenuation differences (THAD) lesions refer to areas of parenchymal enhancement visible during the hepatic artery phase on helical CT. They are thought to be a physiological phenomenon caused by the dual hepatic blood supply. Occasionally they may be associated with hepatic tu...
Article

Transient hepatic intensity difference

Transient hepatic intensity differences (THIDs) are a phenomenon observed on MRI imaging of the liver. They are considered a direct equivalent to transient hepatic attenuation differences (THADs) noted on CT. They may be focal or nonfocal. Pathology Focal lesions A focal THID lesion can arise...
Article

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient after TI...
Article

Transverse pancreatic artery

The transverse pancreatic artery, also known as the inferior pancreatic artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margin of the pancreas ne...

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