Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

200 results found
Article

Liver and biliary interventional procedures

There is a wide range of liver and biliary interventional procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, most commonly using CT-guidance or ultrasound-guidance.   Vascular Interventions: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) Percutaneous interven...
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Liver biopsy (percutaneous)

Percutaneous liver biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT guidance, allows for an accurate and reliable method of acquiring hepatic tissue for histopathological assessment. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted liver biopsy (used in the assessment and staging of the parench...
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Liver biopsy (transjugular)

Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) is an alternative to a percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with diffuse liver disease, coagulopathy and ascites. It is sometimes done in combination with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) or venography. Indications massive ascites coag...
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Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
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Mammotome

MammotomeTM is the brand name for the first vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system. See the article on stereotactic breast biopsy for general discussion of the procedure.
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Marginal artery of Drummond

The marginal artery of Drummond, also known as the marginal artery of the colon, is a continuous arterial circle or arcade along the inner border of the colon formed by the anastomoses of the terminal branches of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Gross a...
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May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
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Median nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Median nerve block is a technique used for providing anesthesia to the median nerve territory, it may be performed at the level of the arm, elbow, forearm or the wrist. Indications fracture reductions surgical repair of fractures incision and drainage of cysts and abscesses post-operative a...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognized, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outlined by these intimal flaps belong to the false...
Article

Metallic ureteric stent

Metallic ureteric stents are a type of ureteric stent developed to offer improved symptomatic relief of obstruction when compared to polymeric (polyurethane) stents. They are often used in patients with chronic malignant ureteric obstructions who require placement of long-term ureteral stents to...
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Microwave ablation

Microwave ablation (MWA) is the application of electromagnetic waves to treat solid tumors. By causing oscillation of polar water molecules, microwaves produce frictional heating and ultimately induce cellular death via coagulation necrosis. This technique has been largely used for the treatment...
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
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MR arthrogram solution

MR arthrogram solution is a gadolinium containing mixture injected into a joint for MR arthrography.  Terminology Fluoroscopy, ultrasound or CT guidance can be used to cannulate a joint, which is then injected with the MR arthrogram solution.  MR arthrogram solutions differ in different instit...
Article

MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
Article

Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
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Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death.  Evaluation of Nasogastric tube Plain radiograph A correctly placed nasogastric tube should 10: descend in the midline, following the...
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Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
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No-touch ablation technique

No-touch microwave or radiofrequency ablation techniques refer to approaches where the probes are placed at multiple oblique sites tangential and adjacent to the targeted tumor (c.f. probe placement centrally within the tumor).  Indications  For general indications of thermal ablation in multi...
Article

Esophageal intubation

Esophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the esophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental esophageal intubation can happ...
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Esophageal stent

Esophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with esophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal esophagus is the ...
Article

Onyx

OnyxTM is the trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology for the occlusion of blood vessels in embolization therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Micronised tantalum powder is also added ...
Article

Ovarian vein embolization

Ovarian vein embolization is an interventional technique primarily used towards the treatment of varicosities. Indications The main indications are: as part of management of pelvic congestion syndrome 1-4 to treat pelvic varicosities diagnosed by imaging to treat labial and/or perineal vari...
Article

Patent track sign (ultrasound)

Patent track sign is a finding on color Doppler ultrasound, representing blood traveling along the course a biopsy needle track. It can occur after a biopsy of any organ, but is more often seen after liver or kidney biopsies. Radiographic findings linear color Doppler flow along the course of ...
Article

Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a walled-off collection of pus in the pelvis. Pathology  Etiology Some of the causes include: pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) iatrogenic e.g. post-surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical pre...
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Percutaneous cholecystostomy

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an image-guided placement of drainage catheter into gallbladder lumen. This minimally invasive procedure can aid the stabilization of a patient to enable a more measured surgical approach with time for therapeutic planning. A 2018 study 11 demonstrate no differen...
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Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure where a flexible feeding tube (commonly known as a PEG tube) is inserted through the abdominal wall and into the stomach. This may be placed under endoscopic or radiological guidance, in the latter, the procedure may be known as a percutan...
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Percutaneous liver tumor ablation

Percutaneous liver tumor ablation techniques are well-established and effective therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal oligometastatic disease are the most common indications. There are specific indications ...
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Percutaneous lung tumor ablation

Percutaneous lung tumor ablation techniques are an alternative to surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of certain malignancies. They have specific indications and contraindications, but are mostly limited to small oligonodular and favourably located lesions.  They ...
Article

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure for the extraction of large renal calculi. It is usually performed in the operating theater either by a urologist or combined urologist-radiologist team. Indication PCNL is used to destroy and remove renal calculi, typically over 2 cm...
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Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a technique in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications Percutaneous nephrostomy is usually reserved for when retrograde approaches are un...
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Percutaneous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange

Percutaenous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange are two procedures undertaken in those with long term nephrostomies. These patients are often either unsuitable or do not wish to have ureteric stenting to relieve their urinary tract obstruction. Nephrostomy salvage Nephrostomy salvage is und...
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Percutaneous renal biopsy

Percutaneous renal biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT, allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. The biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or targeted (i.e....
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, also known as percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD), is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction.  It is almost exclusively performed in those with a malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocar...
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Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in the visualization of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnost...
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Peripherally inserted central catheter

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...
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Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimized to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
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Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterization. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterization with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
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Pixel shift (reregistration)

Pixel shift or reregistration is a post-processing technique used to improve misregistration artifact in digital subtraction angiography, where two images to be subtracted are spatially realigned with respect to one another, by shifting pixels vertically, horizontally or obliquely.  Pixel shift...
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Portal vein embolization

Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes, diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, the future liver remnant (FLR). This diversion will increase the size of the post-hepatectomy future liver remnant, which improves...
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Post ablation syndrome

Post-ablation syndrome occurs from 24 to 48 hours following ablation and lasts no longer than 10 days 1. It is believed to occur following cytokine release and tumor necrosis, causing patient fever and flu-like symptoms. If symptoms persist following 10 days after the procedure, alternate diagn...
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Post-embolization syndrome

Post-embolization syndrome (PES) is one of the most common complications of transarterial embolization and chemoembolisation. The condition comprises a constellation of symptoms including pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. PES usually occurs within the first 72 hours after solid organ embolizatio...
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Post-thrombotic syndrome

Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
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Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization is a CT-guided procedure where a marker is applied to a usually small lung lesion to assist its surgical identification and resection. The widespread use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the advance in robotically assisted surgical interven...
Article

Pseudocalculus sign (common bile duct)

The pseudocalculus sign is a term coined to describe a mimic of a distally impacted common bile duct (CBD) stone on ERCP, MRCP and the various forms of cholangiography, including T-tube, CT, intraoperative, and percutaneous 1. It results from the forceful contraction of the choledochal sphincte...
Article

Radial nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Radial nerve blocks are a procedure for delivering anesthesia to the radial nerve territory either as a standalone blockade or in conjunction with a brachial plexus, ulnar or median nerve block. Indications association with median nerve block radial tunnel syndrome forearm and hand surgical ...
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Radioembolization

Radioembolization is the delivery of radioactive microspheres to cancers using an endovascular approach. It is often performed as an outpatient procedure.  Indications hepatocellular carcinoma hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma Contraindications Absolute contraindications excessi...
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Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure that uses a high-frequency alternating current produced by a radiofrequency generator oscillating in a closed-loop circuit. This current heats a needle to over 60°C, which is used to cause intentional protein denaturation and tissue damage 1. ...
Article

Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG)

A radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is a procedure where a tube is inserted percutaneously in the stomach, principally to provide nutritional support for patients with swallowing disorders 1. Indications inadequate oral intake due to dysphagia (neurologic disorder, oesophagal obstructi...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
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Remasking

Remasking is a post-processing technique used to improve misregistration artifact in digital subtraction angiography, where a frame taken after patient motion is selected as the new mask image for subtraction. In digital subtraction angiography, misregistration (improper image registration) is ...
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Renal arteriovenous fistula

Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (rAVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in re...
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Renal sympathetic denervation

Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN), also known as renal denervation, is an interventional procedure that uses radiofrequency ablation to destroy the nerve endings in the wall of the renal arteries. Endovascular (trans-catheter) techniques are an alternative to surgical sympathectomy.  Indicat...
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Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for hemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to reduc...
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Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is a normal anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional procedu...
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Robotics in interventional radiology

Robotics in interventional radiology (IR) is an emerging area following the growth of engineering technology. Machine-assisted procedures are already performed in various disciplines including general, cardiothoracic and urologic surgery. The best-known is the Da Vinci® Surgical System. The appl...
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Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.  Pathology It has many predisposing etiologies, but is most often due to large osteoph...
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Rotator cuff calcific tendinitis barbotage

Rotator cuff calcific tendonitis can be treated with various techniques including ultrasound-guided barbotage, which is also known as ultrasound-guided needling and lavage. It is often performed in conjunction with a subacromial bursal injection. Alternative treatments include extracorporeal sho...
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Sacroiliac joint injection

Sacroiliac joint injections can be performed using a posterior approach into the sacroiliac (SI) joint under fluoroscopic or CT guidance. It is often performed bilaterally. Indications diagnostic: relief of pain after injection of local anesthetic therapeutic: to relieve pain from degenerativ...
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Scimitar (disambiguation)

The term scimitar, referring to the characteristic shape of the Middle Eastern sword, may refer to the following: scimitar syndrome (lungs) scimitar sign (cystic adventitial disease) scimitar sacrum (bones)
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Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognized vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal hemorrhage. It is characterized by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. Im...
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Seldinger technique

The Seldinger technique is the mainstay of vascular and other luminal access in interventional radiology.  History The Seldinger technique was first described in 1953 by Sven-Ivar Seldinger (1921-1998), a pioneering Swedish interventional radiologist (a rare example of Stigler's law of eponymy...
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Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as hepatic radioembolization, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumors. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via the hepatic artery.  It is generally consi...
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Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. They are commonly seen as an early complication of breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from hematoma as they contain almost n...
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Spinal arteriovenous malformations

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized by arteriovenous shunting with a true nidus. They represent ~25% of spinal vascular malformations.  Epidemiology Different types of spinal AVM (see below) have differing age of presentation, but overall 80% present between the age 20 ...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...
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Spinal interventional procedures

Back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. Lumbar degenerative facet joints, lumbar disc disease and sacroiliac joint pain account for nearly 70% of cases of lower back pain. Unfortunately, as the incidence of degenerative changes in the spine is so high (e.g. disc abnorm...
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Splenic biopsy

Percutaneous splenic biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT guidance, is an accurate and reliable method of acquiring splenic tissue for histopathological assessment and has been proposed as an alternative for splenectomy in selected patients. Although the procedure has been historically fea...
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Splenic embolization

Splenic (artery) embolization is an endovascular technique for treatment of splenic and splenic artery pathology as an alternative to splenic artery ligation or splenectomy. It often results in successfully treating the underlying pathology, while maintaining at least partial splenic function.  ...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Stellate ganglion block

The stellate ganglion block describes blockade of the cervicothoracic sympathetic chain which provides post-ganglionic sympathetic efferents to the head, neck and upper extremities. Neural blockade is typically acheived by deposition of local anesthetic between the prevertebral fascia and longus...
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Stereotactic breast biopsy

Stereotactic breast biopsy refers to percutaneous sampling of breast tissue using mammographic guidance for targeting. Indications It is the biopsy method of choice when the finding of interest is best seen on mammography, such as microcalcifications (most common), architectural distortion, or...
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Subacromial bursal injection

Subacromial bursal corticosteroid injections, also known as subacromial-subdeltoid bursal injections, are used in patients with limited or no response to initial treatment with impingement syndrome, subacromial bursitis and/or rotator cuff disorders. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs...
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Superficial cervical plexus nerve block (ultrasound)

The superficial cervical plexus nerve block is a field block indicated for procedures involving, and anesthesia of, the anterolateral neck and the skin overlying the clavicle. The superficial cervical plexus (SCP) includes the greater auricular, lesser occipital, transverse cervical, and supracl...
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Superior rectal artery embolization

Superior rectal artery embolization is a minimally invasive endovascular technique which has a role in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and has recently re-emerged as a potential option for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoidal disease, this article will focus on the l...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second intercosta...
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Surgical positions

There are various classic surgical positions for patients to be placed in for procedures, which have been adopted/repurposed for interventional radiology and some diagnostic procedures: lithotomy position Trendelenburg position reverse Trendelenburg position lateral decubitus position Litho...
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Symphyseal cleft injection

Symphyseal cleft injections (symphysography) are performed as both diagnostic and therapeutic measures for patients with (suspected) osteitis pubis, usually under CT or fluoroscopy.  Indications suspected or confirmed osteitis pubis Contraindications factors to be considered as per any muscu...
Article

Tachon syndrome

Tachon syndrome is a rare systemic side effect of epidural or intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Clinical presentation Minutes after injection, patients may complain of 1: acute low back pain chest tightness facial erythema profuse sweating cough agitation Treatment and prognosi...
Article

Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural tap or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thor...
Article

Thoracic duct embolization

Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) is a safe, efficacious treatment for chylothorax 1. Chylothoraces with a low drain output (<1L/day) are traditionally managed conservatively with dietary change, while high output (>1L/d) are managed with surgical thoracic duct (TD) ligation 2.Thoracic duct embo...
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that the shunt is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show color Doppler flow throughout its length. The in-stent vel...
Article

Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheobronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or esophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treatme...
Article

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localized method of administrating chemotherapy directly to a liver tumor via a catheter study. The chemoembolic agent may be delivered via a mixture with LipiodolⓇ, known as conventional TACE, or as an injection of drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE...
Article

Transforaminal epidural steroid injection

Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI), also known as transforaminal nerve root injection or nerve root blocks, are performed for treatment and diagnosis of radicular pain. They differ from selective nerve root blocks (SNRB), as the aim is to get "epidural spill" and get the injectat...
Article

Transitional aneurysm

Transitional aneurysms, also referred to as transitional paraclinoid aneurysms, are saccular cerebral aneurysms arising from the clinoid-ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and near the distal dural ring with potential risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage. After an anterior turn...
Article

Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
Article

Transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient basis following positive screening for prostate cancer.  It is not a targeted biopsy procedure.  Nowadays it is possible to perform targeted samp...
Article

Trocar technique

The trocar technique is a common technique for surgical procedures and interventional placement of tubes and drainage where instruments, tubes or drains are advanced to the target location through a fixed cannula or hollow tube namely the trocar, which acts as a portal in the process. History ...
Article

Tumor ablation

Tumor ablation, or image-guided tumor ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and nonthermal) treatments to cause local tumor destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (MWA)...
Article

Tumor embolization

Tumor embolization is a procedure to shut down the blood supply to cancer cells in order to reduce their numbers or cause complete cell death. It can be subdivided into three groups of procedures: bland embolization chemoembolisation embolization with radioactive particles hepatic radioembol...
Article

Ulnar nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Ulnar nerve blocks are an approach for delivering anesthesia to the ulnar nerve territory either as a standalone blockade or combined with brachial plexus, radial or median nerve block. Indications burns involving tissue in the ulnar nerve territory rescue analgesia for failed brachial plexus...
Article

Ultrasound-guided biopsy

Ultrasound-guided biopsy is one form of image-guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist. It is the most common form of image-guided biopsy, offering convenience and real-time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be u...

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