Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

120 results found
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called 2-step procedure, alt...
Article

Avascular plane of Brodel

The avascular plane of Brodel is the section of renal parenchyma between 2/3 anterior and 1/3 posterior kidney on the cross-section that is relatively avascular. The reason for its relative avascularity is that it represents the plane where the anterior and posterior segmental renal artery branc...
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Bähren classification of left varicoceles

Bähren classification of left varicoceles: type 0: no evidence of venous reflux in internal spermatic vein (ISV) type I: single ISV with insufficient or absent valve type II: single ISV with ≥ 2 ostia to renal vein; may be branches to ascending lumbar/retroperitoneal veins IIa: insufficient ...
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Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a set of clinical and risk factors for BCVI.  Class...
Article

Blood blister-like aneurysm

Blood blister-like aneurysm is a broad based bulge at non-branch point of a vessel. Clinical presentation Middle-aged patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Pathology Focal arterial wall defect covered with fibrous tissue. Radiographic features shape: blood blister-like or half-domed shal...
Article

Breast core biopsy

The percutaneous breast biopsy is one of the current choices for focal histopathological assessment of breast lesions. In contrast to fine needle aspiration, during a core needle biopsy, a hollow needle is used to withdraw small cores of tissue from the area of interest in the breast.  This pro...
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Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
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Carbon dioxide angiography

Carbon dioxide is an excellent low-density contrast material which has been used for a variety of vascular interventions since the introduction of digital subtraction angiography. Due to high solubility rate and rapid diffusibility via lung CO2 is safe for intravascular usage. Physical and chem...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
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Carotid arterial stenting

Carotid arterial stenting (CAS) is a minimally invasive endovascular interventional procedure that can potentially offer the same advantage as surgery (carotid endarterectomy). Indications Indications for carotid stenting are evolving with endarterectomy trials that evaluate the carotid stenos...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT)

Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute iliofemor...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically epidural injections are performed in patients with ...
Article

Classification of endoleaks

Endoleaks occur when an aneurysmal sac continues to be pressurised despite endoluminal stent placement. Classification There are five types: type I: leak at graft ends (inadequate seal) - most common after repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms 4 Ia: proximal Ib: distal Ic: iliac occluder ty...
Article

Coeliac plexus block

Coeliac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to coeliac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera such...
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Coil herniation

A coil herniation refers to the part of a detachable coil prolapsing out of the aneurysm and into the parent artery. It is an uncommon complication and is typically seen at the end of the embolisation procedure. Contributing factors include 1: wide aneurysm neck instability of the coil in the ...
Article

Cordocentesis

Cordocentesis is a method of fetal blood sampling which is usually carried out under ultrasound guidance. Indications It may be performed for various reasons which include: establish the degree of a fetal anaemia further investigation of an underlying chromosomal anomaly further investigati...
Article

CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base-of-skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated nonionic low-osmolar con...
Article

CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumours. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of...
Article

CT guided biopsy

CT guided biopsy is a type of image guided biopsy. It is generally less commonly used than ultrasound guided biopsy, however, in some anatomical areas it has greater precedence, such as lung and bone biopsies. CT guided biopsy requires good teamwork with radiographic staff as it is not truly dy...
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CT guided percutaneous drainage

CT guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image-guided drainage, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections, potentially anywhere in the body. Although less commonly used than ultrasound guidance, it is particularly valuable in gaining access to deeper or more posterior parts of t...
Article

CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient where patient monitoring and complications support are available. Indications pulmonary lesion inaccessible to bronchoscopy, or in which pri...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
Article

DM interventional radiology

DM interventional radiology superspecialty course is a 3-year postgraduate subspecialty training in interventional radiology with the pre-requisites being a primary medical degree and DNB radiodiagnosis. 
Article

DNB in endovascular and interventional radiology

DNB in endovascular and interventional radiology is a post doctoral DNB super specialty programme in India.  eligibility: should be post graduate degree in MD/DNB radiology national eligibility cum entrance test (NEETSS)/CET(SS) duration of course: 3 year full time residency program
Article

Double density sign (berry aneurysm)

Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar calibre. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...
Article

Endocrine venous sampling

Endocrine venous sampling is a set of similar interventional techniques proposed for the specific diagnosis of some endocrine disorders such as:  inferior petrosal sinus sampling evaluates for ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma as aetiology for endogenous Cushing syndrome selective venous sampl...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterised by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anaesthetists.  Indications craniospinal hypotension...
Article

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Aetiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following endovascular intervention improper arterial puncture tec...
Article

Flow-diverter stent

Flow-diverter stents are relatively new and important devices in the management of intracranial aneurysms, especially ones that are large, broad-necked or fusiform.  Complications In a multi-centre study in Italy, Briganti et al reported an overall morbidity rate of 3.7% and a mortality rate o...
Article

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theatre at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
Article

Fluoroscopy guided lumbar puncture

Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (LP) is a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves the removal of a small volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from, or an injection of medication or other substance (e.g. radiotracer, chemotherapy agents) into the lumb...
Article

Glenohumeral hydrodilatation

Glenohumeral hydrodilatation (tension arthography) is an established treatment for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) and can be performed under multiple modalities.  Indications adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder Contraindications anticoagulation/coagulopathy systemic s...
Article

Haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula

An acquired arm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a procedure performed for haemodialysis access in those with end stage renal failure. It connects and artery to a vein in the vein. This can either be a native connection or a connection using a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. There ...
Article

Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
Article

Hepatic chemosaturation

Hepatic chemosaturation is a percutaneous technique used to locally treat unresectable hepatic metastases in patients without systemic disease. Technique The key to this technique is isolating the blood supply to the liver. This is achieved by: closure of the gastro-duodenal artery by coiling...
Article

High-intensity focused ultrasound

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising non-invasive thermal ablation technique. Unlike diagnostic ultrasound, HIFU focuses the ultrasound waves precisely upon a target. In a similar way to how light can be focused to a burning point by a magnifying glass, ultrasound passes thro...
Article

Iliac artery aneurysm

Iliac arterial aneurysms are focal dilatations of the iliac artery.  Although the dimensions that define the aneurysm are dependent on the sex of the patient and the portion of the artery involved, a common iliac artery (CIA) with a diameter ≥1.7 cm in males or ≥1.5 cm in females is considered ...
Article

Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to the variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumour invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Th...
Article

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus in the iliac vein (common, external or internal) or common femoral vein obstructs the venous outflow from the lower limb leading to marked oedema. Clinical presentation To be added Radiographic appearance To be added Pathology To be a...
Article

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy, utilising either ultrasound or CT allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. Biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or target...
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Image plate artifact

Image plate artifact is caused by backscatter radiation. Backscatter radiation is transmitted through the back of the cassette to the cassette hinge where the lead coating gets weakened or cracked.  To reduce backscatter, the radiographer should collimate where possible.
Article

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling is an infrequently used method of confirming the presence of a hormonally active pituitary microadenoma, when imaging alone has been insufficient. This technique is able to confirm that excess hormone (e.g. ACTH) is being produced by the pituitary and may also he...
Article

Infusothorax

Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.
Article

Intervention curriculum

The interventional radiology curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core interventional knowledge. As the different procedures are intrinsically linked to the various radiology subspecialties, its content is mixed with some of the ...
Article

Interventional procedure article structure

Interventional articles necessarily require a different structure to other articles. It is important for them to have a consistent structure to maintain uniformity across the site. The suggested structure and headings (and heading size) are as follows: ==========================================...
Article

Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
Article

Irreversible electroporation

Irreversible electroporation (IRE), also known as non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE), is a non-invasive soft-tissue ablation technique used for tumour ablation in regions that require very high precision and preservation of surrounding structures. Mechanism In IRE electrodes are ...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, haemofiltration and plasma exchange.  Typically, the right internal jugular is used as its vertical course straight down into the superior vena cava via the righ...
Article

Liver and biliary interventional procedures

There is a wide range of liver and biliary interventional procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, most commonly using CT-guidance or ultrasound-guidance.   Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) percutaneous transhepatic biliary dr...
Article

Liver biopsy (transjugular)

Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) is an alternative to a percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with diffuse liver disease, coagulopathy and ascites. It is sometimes done in combination with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) or venography. Indications massive ascites coag...
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
Article

Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outline by these intimal flaps belong to the false ...
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
Article

MR arthrogram solution

An MR arthrogram solution is a dilute solution of gadolinium that is used in MR arthrography for injection into the joint prior to imaging. The joint injection is performed under fluoroscopic guidance. A number of recipes are used but a simple approach to preparing 20 mL of solution is as follow...
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Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischaemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischaemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomening...
Article

Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death. The ideal position should be in the sub-diaphragmatic position in the stomach - identified on a plain chest radiograph as overlying the ...
Article

Oesophageal stent

Oesophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with oesophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal oesophagus is t...
Article

Onyx

OnyxTM is a trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology in occlusion of blood vessels in embolisation therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). It can come in various strengths: Onyx 18: 6% ...
Article

Ovarian vein embolisation

Ovarian vein embolisation is an interventional technique primarily used towards the treatment of varicosities. Indications The main indications are: as part of management of pelvic congestion syndrome 1-4 to treat pelvic varicosities diagnosed by imaging to treat labial and/or perineal vari...
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Pantopaque

Pantopaque is an oily contrast medium that used to be used for myelography. Its generic name is iodophenylundecylic acid and it was first used in 1944.  A major drawback is the lack of resorption. Complete removal through aspiration is usually impossible after a procedure and the remaining drop...
Article

Patent track sign

Patent track sign is a finding on color Doppler ultrasound, representing blood traveling along the course a biopsy needle track. It can occur after a biopsy of any organ, but is more often seen after liver or kidney biopsies. Radiographic findings linear color Doppler flow along the course of ...
Article

Percutaneous cholecystostomy

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an image-guided placement of drainage catheter into gallbladder lumen. This minimally invasive procedure can aid stabilisation of a patient to enable a more measured surgical approach with time for therapeutic planning. Indications poor surgical candidate/high r...
Article

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure where a is a flexible feeding tube (commonly known as a PEG tube) is inserted through the abdominal wall and into the stomach. This may be placed under endoscopic or radiological guidance, in the latter, the procedure may be known as a per...
Article

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure for the extraction of large renal calculi. It is usually performed in the operating theatre either by a urologist or combined urologist-radiologist team. Indication PCNL is used to destroy and remove renal calculi, typically over 2 cm...
Article

Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a technique in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications urinary tract obstruction urinary diversion (e.g. ureteric injury; urine leak) a...
Article

Percutaneous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange

Percutaenous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange are two procedures undertaken in those with long term nephrostomies. These patients are often either unsuitable or do not wish to have ureteric stenting to relieve their urinary tract obstruction. Nephrostomy salvage Nephrostomy salvage is und...
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction. It is almost exclusively performed in those with malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary and pancreatic malignancies when retrograde access via...
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in visualisation of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnostic p...
Article

Peripherally inserted central catheters

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), often called PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access without the need to ...
Article

Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterisation. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterisation with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
Article

Portal vein embolisation

Portal vein embolisation (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, allowing this future liver remnant (FLR). This will increase the size of the post hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) and improve...
Article

Post ablation syndrome

Post-ablation syndrome occurs from 24 to 48 hours following ablation, and lasts no longer than 10 days1. It is believed to occur following cytokine release and tumor necrosis, causing patient fever and flu-like symptoms. If symptoms persist following 10 days after the procedure, alternate diagn...
Article

Post thrombotic syndrome

Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis due to valvular incompetence which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to half o...
Article

Post-embolisation syndrome

Post-embolisation syndrome (PES) is one of the commonest side effects of transarterial embolisation and chemoembolisation. It comprises of a constellation of fever, nausea/vomiting, and pain. It usually occurs within the first 72 hours after embolisation (liver lesion or uterine fibroids) and th...
Article

Prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.  Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...
Article

Radio-embolisation

Radio-embolisation is the delivery of radioactive microspheres to cancers using an endovascular approach. It is often performed as an outpatient procedure.  Indications primary liver cancer or liver metastases bilirubin of < 2.0 tumour size less that than 70% of the liver size Contraindicat...
Article

Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation is a medical procedure that uses a high-frequency alternating current produced by a radiofrequency generator oscillating in a closed loop circuit. This current heats a needle to over 60°C, which is used to cause intentional protein denaturation and tissue damage. 1 Appli...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
Article

Renal sympathetic denervation

Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN), also known as renal denervation, is an interventional procedure that uses radiofrequency ablation to destroy the nerve endings in the wall of the renal arteries. Endovascular (trans-catheter) techniques are an alternative to surgical sympathectomy.  Indicat...
Article

Sacroiliac joint injection

Sacroiliac joint injections can be performed using a posterior approach into the the sacroiliac joint under fluoroscopic or CT guidance.
Article

Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal haemorrhage. It is characterised by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. I...
Article

Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also know as hepatic radioembolisation, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumours. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via hepatic artery.  It generally considered e...
Article

Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. It is most commonly associated with post-breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from a haematoma as it contains almost no red bl...
Article

Spinal arteriovenous malformations

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by arteriovenous shunting with a true nidus. They represent ~25% of spinal vascular malformations.  Epidemiology Different types of spinal AVM (see below) have differing age of presentation, but overall 80% present between the age 20 ...
Article

Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...

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