Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

122 results found
Article

Spinal arteriovenous malformations

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by arteriovenous shunting with a true nidus. They represent ~25% of spinal vascular malformations.  Epidemiology Different types of spinal AVM (see below) have differing age of presentation, but overall 80% present between the age 20 ...
Article

Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...
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Spinal interventional procedures

Back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. Lumbar degenerative facet joints, lumbar disc disease and sacroiliac joint pain account for nearly 70% of cases of lower back pain. Unfortunately, as the incidence of degenerative changes in the spine is so high (e.g. disc abnorm...
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Splenic embolisation

Splenic (artery) embolisation is an endovascular technique for treatment of splenic and splenic artery pathology as an alternative to splenic artery ligation or splenectomy. It often results in successfully treating the underlying pathology, while maintaining at least partial splenic function.  ...
Article

Stellate ganglion block

A stellate ganglion block can be used to treat a number of conditions by reducing stimulation of the stellate ganglion, which is part of the sympathetic network. The infiltration of local anaesthetic/neurolytic around the 1 cm ganglion has been used to treat a variety of disorders. Indications ...
Article

Stereotactic breast biopsy

Breast biopsy is performed whenever it becomes necessary to characterise a breast lesion. This consists of the withdrawal and collection of cells (cytologic exam) or tissue fragments (histologic exam) and in the anatomical-pathological analysis of the sample tissue.  There are many different wa...
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Stereotactic mammotome

Stereotactic mammotome is method of biopsing breast lesions, particularly if they are occult on ultrasound. A vacuum assisted core biopsy (VACB)-stereotactic breast biopsy is performed as a diagnostic approach when mammography shows irregularities with micro-calcifications, parenchymal distorti...
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Subacromial bursal injection

Subacromial corticosteroid injection is reserved for patients with no response to initial treatment with impingement syndrome, subacromial bursitis and/or rotator cuff disorders. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and activity modification are the initial treatments to reduce the pain...
Article

Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second intercosta...
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Sympathetic chain

The sympathetic chain is a component of the autonomic nervous system and is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via the hypothalamus. The overarching function of the sympathetic system is to control the 'fight, fright o...
Article

Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thoracen...
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that the shunt is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show colour Doppler flow throughout its length. The in-stent ve...
Article

Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheo-bronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or oesophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treat...
Article

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localised method of administrating chemotherapy directly to the liver tumor via a catheter study. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) (i.e. without a chemotherapy agent added) is also used and there is evidence that this may be just as effective ...
Article

Transforaminal nerve root injection

Transforaminal nerve root injfection is performed for radicular pain treatment and diagnosis. See spinal interventional procedures for complications and equipment. cervical spine thoracic spine lumbar spine The desired needle tip position is just lateral to the pedicle immediately below the...
Article

Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
Article

Tumour embolisation

Tumour embolisation is a procedure to shut down the blood supply to cancer cells in order to reduce their numbers or cause complete cell death. It can be subdivided into three groups of procedures: bland embolisation chemoembolisation embolisation with radioactive particles hepatic radioembo...
Article

Ultrasound guided biopsy

Ultrasound guided biopsy is one form of image guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist.  It is the most common form of image guided biopsy, offering convenience and real time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be ...
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:  BIRADS ...
Article

Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on a outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pro...
Article

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image guided procedure, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections that are accessible by ultrasound study. It has several advantages and disadvantages over CT, which include: Advantages is a dynamic study, allowing greater prec...
Article

Ultrasound guided peripheral intravenous cannulation

Ultrasound (US) guided peripheral intravenous cannulation (IVC) is the placement of a cannula into a peripherally located vein under the direct vision of ultrasound. This process allows the cannulation of veins that are unable to be visualised or palpated without ultrasound. In trained individua...
Article

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute UGIB is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. UGIB is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demographics of the affected in...
Article

Ureteric stent

Ureteric stents, also known as double J stents or retrograde ureteric stents, is a urological catheter that has two "J-shaped" (curled) ends, where one is anchored in the renal pelvis and the other inside the bladder. Stents are used for the free passage of urine from the kidney to the bladder,...
Article

Uterine artery embolisation

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is an interventional radiological technique to occlude the arterial supply to the uterus and is performed for various reasons. History Uterine artery embolisation has been practised for more than 20 years for controlling haemorrhage following delivery / aborti...
Article

Uterine artery embolisation: MRI assessment

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.   For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
Article

Varicocoele embolisation

Varicocoele embolisation is a minimally invasive method of treating varicoceles by embolising the testicular vein (internal spermatic veins). Indications symptomatic varicocoele infertility/subfertility failed surgical ligation Contraindications Relative contraindications include: intrave...
Article

Vena cava filter

Vena cava filter is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. Indications contraindication to...
Article

Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty is an imaging-guided procedure which entails percutaneous injection of surgical polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement into a diseased vertebral body. Vertebroplasty provides pain relief and strengthening of the bone of vertebrae weakened by disease. Indications It can be used as ...

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