Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,968 results found
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First metatarsal declination angle

The first metatarsal declination angle can be used to assess for metatarsus primus elevatus in hallux rigidus.  Measurement The first metatarsal declination angle is formed between the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal and the supporting surface 1-4.  Interpretation normal: 20-21° 1-...
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Patellofemoral angle

The patellofemoral angle is a measure of patellar tilt and is useful in the diagnosis of patellofemoral instability and excessive lateral pressure syndrome.  Measurement The patellofemoral angle is formed between a line drawn along the bony lateral patellar facet and another line drawn along t...
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Regional migratory osteoporosis

Regional migratory osteoporosis is a rare arthralgia affecting the weight-bearing joints of the lower limb.  Epidemiology Regional migratory osteoporosis is most common in middle-aged men 1. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation is a history of non-traumatic joint pain, whi...
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Ilizarov apparatus

The Ilizarov apparatus (aka Ilizarov frame) is an external metallic orthopedic fixation device used to length or reshape limbs from congenital deformity or following injury. The procedure was pioneered by the Polish surgeon Gavrill Abramovich Ilizarov.  
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Comma sign of subscapularis tear

The comma sign of subscapularis tear was first described on arthroscopy but recognized later on MRI. The comma sign represents a full thickness partial width superior subscapularis tear along with torn superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligament insertional fibers vertically retracted via a...
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Broden's view

The Broden's view (or Broden view) is a specialized projection that accurately 1 examines the large posterior calcaneal facet and the subtalar joint 2. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used to better visualize and characterize fragment displacements and fracture ...
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Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and...
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Friedman line

The Friedman or scapular line can be used to determine glenoid version and glenoid bone loss 4. Glenoid version angle measured by the Friedman method has better inter-reader reliability than the scapular body method 2.  Measurement The Friedman line is drawn along the long axis of the scapula ...
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AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
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Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
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Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
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Hair

Hair (TA: pilus/pili) remains important physiologically and psychologically for humans. The hair shaft develops from a structure known as the hair follicle. Each hair has an arrector pili muscle and both sensory and sympathetic neural connections. Gross anatomy The hair shaft (TA: stipes pili)...
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Tram-track sign (knee)

The tram-track sign refers to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) appearance when it has a diffuse or partial thickening of the anteroposterior diameter greater than 7 mm. It is associated with longitudinal intraligamentous signal abnormalities showing fluid signal characteristics (hyperintens...
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Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is the measurement of the distance between the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform and the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal bone 1,2. Usage Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is an important measurement used in ass...
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Post-traumatic pseudolipoma

Post-traumatic pseudolipomas, also known as post-traumatic lipohypertrophy, are prominent increases in the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or even benign tumors arising at the location of a preceding blunt soft tissue trauma 1. Clinical presentation Focal palpable mass, not tender and wi...
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Lateral tibiotalar distance

Lateral tibiotalar distance is a measurement on an ankle anterior drawer lateral view to assess for ankle instability.  Measurement On an ankle anterior drawer lateral view (typically performed using a Telos device 2-4), the distance between the posterior tip of the distal tibial articular sur...
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Furuncle

A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...
Article

Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...
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Folliculitis

Folliculitis (plural: folliculitides) is an inflammation of the hair follicle, which is usually infective and due to bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus.  Epidemiology Folliculitis is more common in men 1. Risk factors shaving hot tubs, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa hot clima...
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Nunley-Vertullo classification

The Nunley-Vertullo classification is one of several classification systems used for the categorization of Lisfranc injuries. It is based on clinical, x-ray and bone scan findings and also associates the stages with management options or recommendations regarding those injuries 1-3. Usage The ...
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Long axial hindfoot alignment view

The long axial hindfoot alignment view is a specialized, weight-bearing radiographic view that examines the hindfoot alignment as part of a foot and ankle instability investigation.  The long axial view requires no equipment and has higher inter-observer reliability compared to the standard hin...
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Hindfoot alignment view

The hindfoot alignment view is a specialized, weight-bearing radiographic view that examines the hindfoot alignment as part of a foot and ankle instability investigation.  The long axial view requires no equipment and has higher inter-observer reliability when measuring angular hindfoot alignme...
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Foot (weight-bearing medial oblique view)

The weight-bearing medial oblique view of the foot is a specialized projection that places the foot under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the foot under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is ...
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Ankle (weight-bearing mortise view)

The weight-bearing mortise (mortice is equally correct) view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Termino...
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Ankle (weight-bearing AP view)

The weight-bearing AP view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is utilized ...
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Ankle (weightbearing lateral view)

The weight-bearing lateral view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is util...
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Anterior to posterior fibular gap

The anterior to posterior fibular gap illustrates the displacement of the proximal and distal fibular fragments in trans-syndesmotic lateral malleolar fractures on the lateral view of the ankle and might indicate a medial injury. Usage The anterior to posterior fibular gap can be used in the s...
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Tibiotalar angle

The tibiotalar angle (TTA) is the angle between the anatomic axis of the tibia and the superior articular surface of the talar dome. Differently from the talar tilt, the tibiotalar angle uses the tibial longitudinal axis instead of the distal articular surface as a tibial reference point. Usage...
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First to second metatarsal distance

The first to second metatarsal distance or M1-M2 distance is the length between the bases of the first and second metatarsal bone and a measurement for the evaluation of midfoot instability. Usage The first to second metatarsal distance is used for the evaluation and classification of midfoot ...
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Distal metatarsal articular angle

The distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) evaluates the relationship between the longitudinal axis and the articular surface of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and thus metatarsophalangeal coverage or joint congruity on a weight-bearing dorsoplantar radiograph of the foot. Usage The dis...
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Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height

Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height is the distance between the most inferior part of the medial cuneiform and the most inferior part of the base of the 5th metatarsal and is used to evaluate the height and integrity of the medial vertical arch 1. Usage Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal h...
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Bow-tie sign

"Bow-tie sign" refers to the appearance of rotated facets in unilateral facet joint dislocation. Facet joint displacement coupled with a rotational deformity gives a bow-like like appearance on a lateral view radiograph of spine 1.
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Talar shift

Talar shift is a concept, sign and/or measurement describing a displacement of the talus in relation to the articular surface of the distal tibia and the malleolar end segment. The direction of the talar shift is further described in the medical literature and lateral talar shift receives the mo...
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Talar tilt

Talar tilt is a measurement of the angle between the talus and the distal tibia, used in the assessment of ankle instability and ankle osteoarthritis (OA). Usage Talar tilt is an important measurement in the assessment of ankle osteoarthritis. It is measured as part of the Kellgren and Lawrenc...
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Landells classification of atlas fractures

The Landells (and van Peteghem) classification of fractures of the atlas is one of the commonly used systems to describe C1 vertebral injuries. Classification Fractures are classified by their involvement of the C1 anterior arch, posterior arch, and/or lateral mass 1: type I: confined to eith...
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Lead pipe fracture

The term lead pipe fracture is the term for a radiographic appearance given to a simultaneous greenstick fracture of one side of the bone (usually metaphysis) with a buckle fracture of the opposing cortex of the same bone.  There are differing opinions in texts as to whether this term should be...
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Calcinosis of chronic renal failure

Calcinosis of chronic renal failure is a rare cause of soft tissue calcifications in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. This condition is characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the periarticular soft tissues, resulting in large calcified masses. Terminol...
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Posterior ligamentous complex injury

Posterior ligamentous complex injury refers to tears/ruptures of the spinal posterior ligamentous complex, which consists of the ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligaments, supraspinous ligament, and facet joint capsules. Posterior ligamentous complex disruption is a central part of the currently...
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Medical devices in the limbs

Medical devices in the limbs are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI reporting. Most commonly they include orthopedic hardware. Orthopedic joint replacement hardware (arthroplasty) joint fusion hardware (arthrodesis) internal fixation hardware (ORIF) external fixati...
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Crescent sign (disambiguation)

The characteristic shape of the crescent has been given to many radiological signs over the years. crescent sign (disambiguation) crescent sign (arterial dissection) crescent sign (inguinal hernia) crescent sign (intravenous pyelogram) crescent sign (lung hydatid) crescent sign (osteonecro...
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Joint mouse

A joint mouse (plural: joint mice) is a historical synonym for an intra-articular loose body. This evocative term predates the discovery of x-rays and originated in orthopedics. It derives from the way in which some intra-articular osteochondral fragments appeared to move rapidly around the insi...
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Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
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WHO classification of skin tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn classification of skin tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for skin tumors. The most recent edition is the 4th, which was published in 2018 1.  The radiologically relevant and common entities are reflected below. Classification  1. Kera...
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Syndesmotic screw fixation

Syndesmotic screw fixation is a rigid fixation technique for stabilization of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury. Depending on the injury and the surgeon's preference it can involve the placement of one or two syndesmotic screws and can be combined with an antiglide plate. Indications Indi...
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Acromioclavicular distance

The acromioclavicular (AC) distance or joint space is an important measurement in the evaluation of acromioclavicular joint injury. Measurement The AC distance is assessed on the frontal radiograph of the shoulder as the distance between the medial cortex of the acromion and the lateral cortex...
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Ulnar neuropathy

An ulnar nerve neuropathy can refer to pathology and associated and symptoms pertaining to the ulnar nerve anywhere along its course (i.e. from C8/T1 roots to the hand). It can occur and any site along its course but commonly occur due to pathology at the elbow / cubital tunnel region or in the ...
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Finger pathology

Finger pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the hand and foot digits. Congenital brachydactyly - short digits arachnodactyly - elongated, thin "spider-like" digits 1 polydactyly (hyperdactyly) - supernumerary digits ...
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Rice signs (disambiguation)

Two different radiological signs are named for their similarity in size and shape to grains of rice. rice bodies (intra-articular) rice grain calcification (cysticercosis)
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Long head of biceps tendon

The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) is the proximal tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle and encircles the humeral head on its course. It has an intraarticular extrasynovial and an extraarticular portion. Summary location: shoulder insertion: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula...
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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves (cranial nerves III-XII and spinal) and their related ganglia outside the central nervous system (CNS). The latter comprising the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system together form the nervous s...
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Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
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Pincer/split fracture

Pincer or split fractures are coronally oriented vertebral body fractures that involve the superior and inferior vertebral body endplates but do not involve the anterior or posterior cortices.  Clinical Presentation Pincer fractures may present in the setting of trauma, with an axial loading m...
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Distal biceps tendon injury

Distal biceps tendon injuries refer to strains, partial and complete tears of the distal biceps tendon complex. Epidemiology Distal biceps tendon injuries are far less common than injuries to the proximal biceps tendon with an incidence of approximately 1.2/100000 1,2. They typically occur in ...
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Cachexia

Cachexia is a syndrome of metabolic dysfunction secondary to an underlying disease in which there is depleted skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) which may or may not be accompanied by an absolute loss of body fat.  Terminology Cancer cachexia is specifically used to refer to the cachexia associated ...
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Pannus

Pannus describes an abnormal layer of granulation tissue. It is usually seen overlying joint surfaces (usually in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis, though pannus can be a feature of other inflammatory arthropathies), prosthetic heart valves, or overlying the cornea 1.  A key step in the path...
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Biceps tendon with accessory head

The accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle is a normal anatomical variant and incidentally seen in some individuals with shoulder problems who were referred for shoulder MRI. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has been reported in 9.1-22.9% of the population especially in the As...
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Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
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Claw toe deformity

Claw toe deformities are hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot with hyperflexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints 1-3. It is considered more severe but less common than hammer toe deformity 1.  Pathology Associations neuromuscular imbalance, e.g Charcot-...
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Lesser toe deformity

Lesser toe deformities are common and include deformities at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ). Terminology There is variable and crossover terminology 3 in the names given to lesser toe deformities but common...
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Kemp test

The Kemp test (also known as the quadrant test and extension-rotation test) is a provocative test on clinical examination that has been described as being useful for diagnosing pain related to facet joint pathology, e.g. arthropathy but is of limited diagnostic accuracy 1. The patient performs c...
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Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
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Accessory ossicles of the elbow

Accessory ossicles of the elbow are rare anatomical variants that may be misdiagnosed as fractures, synovial chondromatosis, or osteochondritis dissecans. Over 7 accessory ossicles are reported in the literature including 1 : os supratrochleare anterius os supratrochleare posterius - os supra...
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Panniculitis

Panniculitis (plural: panniculitides 1) is a non-specific histopathological term referring to inflammation of adipose tissue. It most commonly affects subcutaneous fat, although internal forms, e.g., mesenteric panniculitis, are well-known 1,2. Clinical presentation Most panniculitides present...
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Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury

Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury is an infrequent type of injury to the adductor longus muscle, which are poorly and infrequently reported in literature 1-3, and may as a result remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Terminology Adductor longus originates from the external surface o...
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Rib-within-a-rib appearance

Rib-within-a-rib appearance refers to a feature that may be present on plain radiographs of the patients with β thalassemia. As the name suggests, the ribs take on an appearance of having another rib superimposed. The phenomenon is usually visible in the anterior and middle segments of the ribs ...
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Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia refers to abnormal bone development that may be present in patients undergoing iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Deferoxamine is often used in patients with β thalassemia major for the prevention and treatment of transfusion-related secondary hemochrom...
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Keloid scar

Keloid scars represent abnormal scar tissue growth at a site of injury. Often involving an exuberant fibrotic skin response to injury or inflammation, a hypodermal proliferation of type I and III collagen is typically present on histology. In contradistinction to hypertrophic scars, keloids gene...
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Osteomeniscal impact edema

Osteomeniscal impact edema (OMIE) refers to a bone marrow edema pattern in the knee adjacent to a displaced meniscal flap tear. Clinical presentation Patients can present with focal medial knee pain. Pathology This occurs secondary to a displaced meniscal flap tear with peripheral, focal ede...
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Os cuboideum secundarium

An os cuboideum secundarium is an accessory tarsal bone, located along the plantar aspect of the foot, adjacent to the calcaneocuboid joint, inferior to the posterior margin of the cuboid and anterior margin of the calcaneus. Epidemiology It is one of the rarest accessory tarsal bones and its ...
Article

AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...
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Os intercuneiforme

An os intercuneiforme is a supernumerary tarsal bone located between the first and second cuneiforms, anterior to the navicular bone.  Epidemiology It's a rare ossicle with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% 1 Gross pathology It's a triangular-shaped bone appearing to be an isolated proximal co...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal femoral fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal femoral fractures or proximal femoral end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: trochant...
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Pseudoneuroma sign (plantar plate tear)

The pseudoneuroma sign is an indirect sign of plantar plate tears at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) on MRI. This sign refers to pericapsular ill-defined and eccentric to the intermetatarsal space soft tissue thickening and is helpful for raising the accurate diagnosis of a plantar plate te...
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AO classification of distal femur fractures

The AO classification of distal femoral fractures is one of the commonly used fracture classification systems in orthopedics. Each long bone has a single number with the parts of the bone denoted numerically, the proximal end is 1, diaphysis is 2, and the distal end is 3.  The distal femur sys...
Article

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome is an exceedingly rare presentation of multiple bone islands, i.e. osteopoikilosis. It is characterized by dacryocystitis due to lacrimal canal stenosis with osteopoikilosis 1-3. This syndrome has an autosomal dominant inheritance 2,3. History and etymology The com...
Article

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures, if treated inadequately, can result in significant dysfunction of the upper limb. This is due to the important role that the forearm plays in positioning of the hand through pronation and supination (at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint) as well as throug...
Article

Tibial shaft fracture

Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1.  Pathology Mechanism  Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
Article

Os talotibiale

An os talotibiale is a small accessory ossicle of the foot located at the anterior aspect of the tibiotalar joint. As of 2021, there are no published case reports about this ossicle and the knowledge in the literature is still insufficient 1. Epidemiology It is a rare ossicle with a reported i...
Article

Fosbury flop tear of the rotator cuff

Fosbury flop tears of the rotator cuff are full-thickness rotator cuff tears with a reversed superomedial or flipped orientation of the torn tendon stump. Epidemiology Fosbury flop tears are uncommon with a prevalence of ~2.5% of all rotator cuff tears 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is suggest...
Article

Scapular medial rotation

Scapular medial rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces downwards - thus it may also be called downward rotation. It is the opposite of scapular lateral rotation - similarly, this motion requires motion at the sternoclavicular and ...
Article

Scapular lateral rotation

Scapular lateral rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces upwards - thus it may also be called upward rotation. This motion allows elevation of the humerus as seen in abduction of the arm. It is almost always associated with scapula...
Article

Scapular retraction

Scapular retraction describes the backward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves towards the midline it can also be referred to as scapular adduction. The opposite motion is scapular protraction. The muscles that act as primary movers are ...
Article

Scapular protraction

Scapular protraction describes the forward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves away from the midline it can also be referred to as scapular abduction. This motion usually occurs in conjunction with some scapular lateral rotation. This mov...
Article

Parastremmatic dysplasia

Parastremmatic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by shortening of the trunk, joint contractures, limb deformities, a short stiff neck, malformation of the pelvis, kyphosis of thoracic spine and urinary incontinence. Pathology Parastremmatic dysplasia belongs to a gro...
Article

Scapular depression

Scapular depression refers to the caudal motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint). In most instances, depression of the scapula is a passive process (due to gravity) that is facilitated by movement at the acromioclavicular joint. Occasionally some muscular attachments serve as active depres...
Article

Scapular elevation

Scapular elevation refers to the cranial motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint), commonly described as “shrugging the shoulders”. This movement is facilitated by several muscles and it is useful to distinguish these as primary movers and stabilizers. It is important to note that no one mo...
Article

Downsloping lateral acromion

A downsloping lateral acromion is a variation in acromion shape where the lateral margin of acromion extends to project inferiorly.  Radiographic assessment  This can be assessed on plain film, CT or MRI and shows a low lateral acromial angle. See also acromion types low lying acromion
Article

Lymphangiomatosis

Lymphangiomatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is characterized by developmental "malformation" of multiple lymphatic channels (usually with dilatation). Terminology If lymphatic channels are purely dilated and not malformed the term lymphangiectasia is usually used. If lymphangiomatosi...
Article

Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
Article

Antebrachial fascia

The antebrachial fascia or deep fascia of the forearm is a thick connective tissue fascia investing the muscles of the forearm. It also formes the lateral intermuscular septum which divides the forearm muscle into the two following compartments of the forearm together with the radius, ulna and i...
Article

Omodysplasia

Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1: frontal bossing depressed nasal bridge anteverted nares low-set ears long philtrum rhizomelia short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri elbow dislocation radio-ulnar diastasis flared metaphyses shor...
Article

Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...

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