Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,660 results found
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Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ganglion cysts, commonly referred to simply as ACL cysts, along with ganglion cysts arising from the alar folds that cover the infrapatellar fat pad, make up the vast majority of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligamen...
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Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement

Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement is a complication of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and usually associated with a decreased range of motion. Epidemiology Associations Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement is associated with improper tunnel placement and...
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Anterior cruciate ligament graft stretching

Anterior cruciate ligament graft stretching or graft elongation refers to a clinical scenario of increased knee laxity in the setting of intact graft fibers and can occur as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft stretch...
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Anterior cruciate ligament graft tear

Anterior cruciate ligament graft tears can occur as complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or as a consequence of a traumatic reinjury. Epidemiology An anterior cruciate ligament reinjury occurs in about 7% of patients with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 1. R...
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Anterior cruciate ligament mucoid degeneration

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mucoid degeneration, along with tears and anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cysts, is a relatively common cause of increased signal within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The appearance can mimic acute or chronic interstitial partial tears of the ACL. How...
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Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure post ACL tear. It aims to reduce knee joint instability and thus prevent any further meniscal and/or cartilage damage.  Procedure There are numerous surgical techniques for ACL reconstruction 1-3: autograft reconstruction ...
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Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction complications (overview)

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction complications are common, occurring in 10-25% of patients. Clinical presentation Patients with complications of ACL reconstruction can present with decreased range of motion (impingement or arthrofibrosis) and/or laxity (graft rupture or stretchi...
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Anterior cruciate ligament tear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology and orthopedic practice. Clinical presentation  Patients typically present with symptoms of knee instability, usually after acute trauma. The following signs and symptoms are common: poppi...
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Anterior dislocation of the hip

Anterior hip dislocation is much less common than a posterior hip dislocation. It constitutes only 5-18% of all hip dislocations. Pathology While the posterior dislocation is often associated with fractures, the anterior dislocation is mostly an isolated injury 1. Subtypes It can be classifi...
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Anterior fontanelle

The anterior or frontal fontanelle is the diamond-shaped soft membranous gap (fontanelle) at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 18-24 months after birth, after which it is known as the bregma. The precise timing of the anterior fontanelle closure is...
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Anterior glenolabral injuries

Anterior glenolabral injuries are common in the setting of anterior shoulder dislocation and comprise a number of closely related entities: Bankart lesion bony Bankart lesion anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) Perthes lesion glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) ...
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Anterior hip pain

Causes of anterior hip pain include: osteoarthritis synovitis including pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial osteochondromatosis inflammatory arthropathy (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) iliopsoas bursitis ganglion cyst synovial cyst muscle tear malignancy inguinal adenopathy ...
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Anterior humeral circumflex artery

The anterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. It is smaller in size relative to the posterior humeral circumflex artery.  Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm location: proximal arm...
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Anterior humeral line

The anterior humeral line is key to demonstrating normal elbow alignment and should be used whenever reading a pediatric elbow radiograph to exclude a subtle supracondylar fracture. Measurement A line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle third of the capit...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine

The anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) is bony prominence on the anterior border of the ilium forming the superior border of the acetabulum. Attachments include the Iliacus, origin of straight head of the rectus femoris, and also the proximal ileofemoral ligament (Y-ligament or ligament of Bi...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion injuries are one of the six main types of pelvic apophyseal avulsion fractures. Subacute or chronic avulsion injuries can be mistaken for a pseudotumor.  Epidemiology As with many pelvic avulsion injuries, they most often occur in adolescents (most...
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Anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament

The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) is part of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle.  Gross anatomy It generally has a trapezoidal shape, with multiple bands of fibers that extends obliquely in a distal and lateral direction from the tibia to the fibula 1. It us...
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Anterior interosseous nerve

The anterior interosseous nerve also known as the volar interosseous nerve arises from the median nerve in the forearm, and supplies the flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus and the lateral portion of flexor digitorum profundus. Gross anatomy Origin The anterior interosseous nerve conti...
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Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS), also known as Kiloh-Nevin syndrome, is one of three common median nerve entrapment syndromes; the other two being pronator teres syndrome and the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome. Epidemiology AINS is a rare entrapment syndrome, with comparati...
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Anterior knee fat pads

There are three anterior knee fat pads 1: infrapatellar fat pad (of Hoffa) fills the space between the patella ligament and the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia 2 posterior suprapatellar (prefemoral or supratrochlear) fat pad anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad fills the spa...
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Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is common with a variety of causes which can be divided anatomically using a layered approach1 from superficial to deep: Superficial soft tissues prepatellar bursitis Morel-Lavallée lesion infrapatellar bursitis  Extensor mechanism quadriceps tendinosis / partial tear q...
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Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Epidemiology It is often the result of chronic injury rather than acute dislocation;...
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Anterior lateral malleolar artery

The anterior lateral malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior medial malleolar artery, supplies the lateral aspect of the ankle.  Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery runs posterior to the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to th...
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Anterior longitudinal ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies (firmly united to the periosteum) and intervertebral discs (attaching to the anterior annulus). It ascends from the anterosuperior portion of the sacrum superiorly to become the anterior atlantooccip...
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Anterior medial malleolar artery

Anterior medial malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior lateral malleolar artery, and supplies the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery arises approximately 5 cm proximal to the ankle passes posterior to the tendons of exte...
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Anterior oblique ligament of the thumb

The anterior oblique ligament of the thumb is one of several carpometacarpal ligaments of the thumb and also one of its main stabilizers 1. Terminology The anterior oblique ligament of the thumb is also known as ‘beak ligament’. It can be divided into a superficial and a deep component and som...
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Anterior shoulder capsular insertion

The anterior capsular insertion, unlike the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint capsule which has a constant scapular attachment along the margins of the glenoid labrum, inserts a variable distance from the labrum. The capsular insertions are classified as follows: type I: at or very near t...
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Anterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is by far the commonest type of dislocation and usually results from forced abduction, external rotation and extension 1.  Epidemiology Broadly speaking, anterior shoulder dislocations occur in a bimodal age distribution. The first, and by far the more prevalent a...
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Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine

Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine, also known as hyperflexion sprain, is a ligamentous injury of the cervical spine. Clinical presentation Patients present with severe, focal neck pain. There may be neurological symptoms due to spinal cord injury. Pathology Anterior subluxation of t...
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Anterior superior iliac spine

The anterior superior iliac spine is an important bony surface landmark and is the prominence is the most anterior part of the ilium. It can be palpated at the lateral end of the inguinal fold. Attachments include the inguinal ligament, sartorius muscle and depending on which resource you read, ...
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Anterior superior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) avulsion injuries typically occur in athletes during forceful muscular contraction. The anterior superior iliac spine is the site of attachment for sartorius and tensor fascia latae muscles.  Pathology Anterior superior iliac spine avulsion, like other pelv...
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Anterior talofibular ligament

The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is part of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle. Its role is to stabilize the talus. It is also the weakest of the lateral collateral ankle ligaments.  Gross anatomy The ATFL is an intracapsular flat two-banded ligament that arises from ...
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Anterior talofibular ligament injury

Anterior talofibular ligament injury is the most common of the ligament injuries that can occur as part of the lateral ligament complex injuries 2. The injuries can comprise either soft tissue tears, avulsion fractures or both. Pathology Anterior talofibular ligament injuries typically occur w...
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Anterior tibial translocation sign

The anterior tibial translocation sign or anterior drawer sign (a.k.a. anterior translation of tibia) is seen in cases of complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and refers to anterior translocation (anterior tibial subluxation) of the tibia relative to the femur of >7 mm 1. It measur...
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Anterior tibial vein

The anterior tibial veins, continuations of the venae comitantes of the dorsalis pedis artery, leave the anterior compartment of the leg between the tibia and fibula and pass through the proximal end of the interosseous membrane. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal v...
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Anterior tibiotalar ligament

The anterior tibiotalar ligament (ATTL) is the weaker of the deep components of the deltoid ligament 1,2. Gross anatomy The anterior tibiotalar ligament is covered by the tibionavicular and tibiospring ligaments. It is a short and thin ligament which connects the medial tibial malleolus to the...
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Anterolateral impingement of the ankle

Anterolateral ankle impingement is one of the impingement syndromes of the ankle and can occur as a posttraumatic sequel of an inversion injury 1-6. Terminology Anterolateral ankle impingement has been known under the term anterolateral 'meniscoid lesion', which is the result of synovitis in t...
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Anterolateral ligament of the knee

The anterolateral ligament of the knee (ALL) is a ligament that is thought to aid with rotational stability of the knee joint. Some think that its presence (or reconstruction) may result in better outcomes from ACL stabilization surgery 2. Gross anatomy origin: prominence of the lateral femora...
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Anterolateral recess of the ankle joint

The anterolateral recess of the ankle joint also known as the anterolateral gutter is a triangular or pyramidal formed topographical space of the anterolateral aspect of the ankle 1-4. Gross anatomy The space may contain joint fluid in asymptomatic individuals and is defined by the following a...
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Anterolisthesis

The term anterolisthesis refers to anterior displacement (forward slip) of a vertebral body relative to the one below. Its severity can be graded by the Meyerding classification and its etiology classified according to the Wiltse classification.
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Anteromedial impingement of the ankle

Anteromedial impingement of the ankle is one of the ankle impingement syndromes and can occur as late effect of a traumatic injury 1-3. Epidemiology It is one of the less common ankle impingement syndromes 2. It can occur as a result of a previous plantar flexion and inversion injury and can b...
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Antibiotic beads

Implanted antibiotic beads are a form of microbiological treatment inserted during orthopedic procedures to aid with the treatment of chronic infection. They are also used as a local treatment for osteomyelitis. The beads are radiopaque, thus lending themselves to visualization on all imaging m...
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Antibiotic joint spacer

Antibiotic joint spacers are temporary intra-articular devices with the main aim to control predominantly post-arthroplasty joint and bone infections via sustained, topical antibiotic release, whilst also ensuring reasonable joint function.  Antibiotic spacers are typically made of poly(methyl ...
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Antiglide plate fixation

Antiglide plate fixation is an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) technique used in oblique diaphyseal fractures of the distal fibular.  Usage They are used to counteract vertical shear forces during axial loading in the diaphyseal bone and to prevent sliding/shortening of the fracture fr...
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Anti melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis

Anti-MDA5 antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis is a subtype of dermatomyositis where there is positivity to an anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody. It has been reported to be associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) resulting in h...
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Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a heterogenous class of IgG autoantibodies raised against the cellular contents of neutrophils, monocytes and endothelial cells 1. Under indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy, three ANCA staining patterns are observed, based on the varying...
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Antley-Bixler syndrome

Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), also known as trapezoidocephaly-synostosis syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant or recessive condition characterized by craniosynostosis and extra-cranial synostoses. Mid-facial hypoplasia is also common. Epidemiology It is a very rare condition with only 50 cas...
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AO classification of clavicle fractures

The AO classification of clavicular fractures along with the Neer classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing distal clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into three categories focuses on the displacement and p...
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AO classification of proximal humeral fractures

The AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, along with the Neer classification, is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides proximal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C, each with subgroups, and place...
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AO classification of subaxial injuries

The AO Spine classification of subaxial injuries aims to simplify and universalise the classification of subaxial cervical spine fractures and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Usage Although its existence is widely known among the relevant subspecialty groups, its day-to-da...
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AO/OTA classification of acetabular fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying acetabular fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1. type A: partial articular isolated wall or column fracture A1: ...
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AO/OTA classification of distal humeral fractures

The AO/OTA classification of distal humeral fractures is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying distal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides distal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C with complexity and severity increasing 1. type A: extraarticular  A...
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AO/OTA classification of distal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying distal tibial fractures or tibial distal end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraarticular...
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AO/OTA classification of malleolar fractures

The AO/OTA classification of malleolar segment fractures is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying malleolar fractures. It takes the Danis-Weber classification into account and can be correlated to the Lauge-Hansen classification. Malleolar fractures are divided into three grou...
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AO Spine classification of sacral injuries

The AO Spine classification of sacral injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying sacral injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO Spine sacral classification is broken into three subsections that follow a hierarchical structure similar t...
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AO spine classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO Spine classification of thoracolumbar injuries is one of the more commonly used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems and aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. Unlike the othe...
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AO Spine classification of upper cervical injuries

The AO Spine classification of upper cervical injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying upper cervical injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Usage Although in routine clinical practice, at least in many institutions, injuries will be desc...
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AO Spine classification systems

The AO Spine classification systems is a group of imaging morphology-based classification system, combined with clinical factors for injury of spinal trauma. It is designed to be a simple and reproducible method of describing injury patterns. AO Spine has published four injury classification sy...
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Apert syndrome

Apert syndrome (also known as type I acrocephalosyndactyly) is a syndrome that is predominantly characterized by skull and limb malformations. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 case per 65-80,000 pregnancies. Risk factors increased paternal age has been proposed 6 Associations CNS ...
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Apodia

Apodia is a rare non-syndromic transverse terminal lower limb defect characterized by the congenital absence of the foot and ankle. The remainder of the lower limb is present including both the tibia and fibular epiphyses. It can be unilateral or bilateral. See also acheiria hemimelia
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Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip

Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip are relatively common among physically active adolescents and young adults. Epidemiology Pelvic and hip apophyseal injuries typically occur in the 14 to 25 year age range. Mechanism Kicking sports, such as soccer, and gymnastics are frequen...
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Apophyseal stress injury

Apophyseal stress injury is a chronic overuse injury of the apophysis and a relatively common type of injury in young athletes. Terminology This entity has often been termed as apophysitis. However, as the suffix '-itis' is usually used in inflammatory-mediated conditions, it is regarded by ma...
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Apophysis

The apophysis is a normal secondary ossification center that is located in the non-weight-bearing part of the bone and eventually fuses with it over time (most of the apophyses fuse during the 2nd decade of life, but this process can be delayed, especially in female athletes). The apophysis is a...
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Apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal

The apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal (plural apophyses) lies laterally and is oriented longitudinally parallel to the shaft. Apophysis of the fifth metatarsal base appears on plain radiographs at age 12 for boys and 10 for girls. Fusion of the apophysis to the metatarsal base usually oc...
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Appendicular films (early clinical)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Appendicular films are x-rays taken of the bones and joints of the arms and legs. I've used this term to separate the x-rays taken as part of an assessment of non-acute disease from trauma films which represent x-rays taken...
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Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the bony skeleton that includes and supports the limbs (the appendages). It includes the pectoral girdle and the bony pelvis, connected to the axial skeleton centrally and is composed of 126 bones in total.  Appendicular bones form from cartilage, by ...
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Apple core sign (disambiguation)

The apple core sign has been described in two different pathologies: apple core sign (colon) apple core sign (femur)
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Apple core sign (femur)

The apple core sign has been used to describe the circumferential erosion of the femoral neck seen in synovial chondromatosis. Although this is the most common process that may lead to an apple core erosion of the femoral neck, this has also been observed with: pigmented villonodular synovitis ...
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Arachnodactyly

Arachnodactyly refers to the physical finding of elongated, thin "spider-like" fingers, which are a classic feature of Marfan disease, but by no means pathognomonic 1. Radiographic features The metacarpal index was historically-used as a radiographic criterion for arachnodactyly. To obtain it,...
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Arcade of Frohse

The arcade of Frohse (pronounced "\ˈfʁoːzə \") is also known as the supinator arch. The arcade is formed by a fibrous band between the two heads of the supinator muscle. The deep branch of the radial nerve passes beneath the arcade accompanied by vessels known as the leash of Henry. Radiograph...
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ARCO classification of osteonecrosis

The ARCO classification (Association Research Circulation Osseous classification) is one of the staging systems used in the assessment of the femoral head osteonecrosis. It was originally created in 1994 and periodically revised. The most recent revision from 20192 includes the use of radiograph...
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Arcuate foramen

The arcuate foramen (foramen arcuate atlantis, ponticulus posticus or posterior ponticle, or Kimerle anomaly) is a frequently encountered normal variant of the atlas and is easily appreciated on a lateral plain film of the craniocervical junction. Epidemiology Incidence is ~8% (range 1-15%) an...
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Arcuate ligament

The arcuate ligament is part of the posterolateral ligamentous complex of the knee that is variably present, being found in ~65% (range 47.9-71%) of knees. It is a Y-shaped thickening of the posterolateral capsule, which arises from the fibular styloid and divides into two limbs: medial limb: c...
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Arcuate line

The arcuate line or semicircular line of Douglas is located at roughly one-third of the distance from the pubic crest to the umbilicus. It is the demarcation where the internal oblique and transversus abdominis aponeuroses of the rectus sheath start to pass anteriorly to the rectus abdominis mus...
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Arcuate sign (knee)

The arcuate sign is often a subtle but important finding on knee x-rays and represents an avulsion fracture of the proximal fibula at the site of insertion of the arcuate ligament complex, and is usually associated with cruciate ligament injury (~90% of cases) 2. The fracture fragment is attache...
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Arm

The arm (also known as the upper arm) is part of the upper limb below the pectoral girdle and above the forearm, comprising the humerus.  The elbow joint is inferior and the glenohumeral joint is superior. Arm flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation and external rotation occ...
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Arm abduction

Arm abduction represents movement of the arm away from the midline of the body in the coronal plane and, in most cases isolated abduction can be achieved to 160-180°. It is the opposite of arm adduction and contributes to the combined movement of shoulder circumduction. It is produced by: delt...
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Arm adduction

Arm adduction represents movement of the arm towards from the midline of the body in the coronal plane. Most individuals can manage 40° of isolated adduction. It is the opposite of arm abduction and contributes to the combined movement of shoulder circumduction. It is produced by: pectoralis m...
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Arm extension

Arm extension represents the opposite movement to arm flexion where the arm moves posteriorly. Only about 40° of movement posteriorly from the anatomic position is achievable in most individuals. It is the opposite of arm flexion and contributes to the combined movement of shoulder circumduction...
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Arm external rotation

External or lateral rotation of the arm represents the movement of the humerus when an arm flexed to 90° at the elbow is externally rotated around the longitudinal plane of the humerus such that the hand moves away from the midline of the body. It is the opposite of arm internal rotation. As wi...
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Arm flexion

Arm flexion represents rotation in the anatomic plane such that the distal humerus moves ventrally. Is represents raising the arm and isolated flexion can achieve approximately 150-170° of movement. The opposite movement is arm extension and contributes to the combined movement of shoulder circu...
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Arm internal rotation

Internal or medial rotation of the arm represents the movement of the humerus when an arm flexed to 90° at the elbow is internally rotated around the longitudinal plane of the humerus such that the hand moves towards the midline of the body.   The degree of rotation is dependent on the degree o...
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Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
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Arrested pneumatization of the skull base

Arrested pneumatization of the skull base is an anatomical variant that most commonly occurs in association with the sphenoid sinus. It is known that the sphenoid bones undergo early fatty marrow conversion antecedent to normal pneumatization. However, for unclear reasons, some individuals exper...
Article

Arterial tortuosity syndrome

Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a very rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disease. It is similar to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), the major differentiator being the general tortuous nature of the larger arteries. Clinical presentation It presents similarly to other collagen disor...
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Arthritis mutilans

Arthritis mutilans is a severe form of many inflammatory arthropathies, most commonly psoriatic (PsA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RhA), characterized by "telescoping" of the fingers where osteolysis leads to articular collapse allowing loose skin and the ability of these digits to have the motion ...
Article

Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis or joint aspiration is an interventional procedure done for the collection of synovial fluid. History The existence of liquid inside joints was first mentioned in the Corpus Hippocraticum, later in the 16th century, Paracelsus coined the name “synovia” for synovial fluid. Indic...
Article

Arthrofibrosis

Arthrofibrosis is a complication of injury or trauma to a joint. It can also be iatrogenic e.g. post knee surgeries. It consists of excessive scar tissue formation within the joint capsule, resulting in pain, stiffness, and swelling, which are greater than expected in the given clinical scenario...
Article

Arthrogram

An arthrogram (or arthrography) is a commonly performed procedure in musculoskeletal radiology, which can refer to both an injection into a joint, and cross-sectional imaging after a joint is injected. Indications Arthrograms are performed for a variety of indications including:  labral tear ...
Article

Arthrogram (anesthetic)

An arthrogram injection is a procedure in which a solution is administered into a joint under imaging guidance.  These procedures are more accurately named direct arthrogram injections, although they are routinely known as arthrograms.  Fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and CT can be used for image guida...
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Arthrogram (CT)

A CT arthrogram is a CT performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast.  They are not commonly abbreviated to CTA, which will be confused with CT angiography. An arthrogram also refers to the procedure of injecting a joint. Indications shoulder - instability/...
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Arthrogram (MRI)

An MR arthrogram is an MRI performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing gadolinium. Sometimes abbreviated to MRA, which can be confused with MR angiography. MRI can also be performed after an injection is not directly administered into the joint, via an indirect arthrogram. An ...
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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis (multiplex congenita) is a clinical or imaging descriptor that denotes congenital non-progressive joint contractures involving two or more body regions.  Epidemiology Mostly reported in individuals of Asian, African and European descent with equal incidence in males and females ...

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