Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,437 results found
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Subcapital fracture

Subcapital fracture is the most common type of intracapsular neck of femur fracture. The fracture line extends through the junction of the head and neck of femur. Classification Although many classifications are proposed Garden classification and Pauwel classification are generally followed fr...
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Subchondral bone plate

The subchondral bone plate is composed of two layers that separate articular cartilage from the marrow-containing cancellous bone. The superficial layer consists of calcified cartilage, which is separated by the cement line (tidemark) from the deep layer of compact cortical bone 1-3.  Radiograp...
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Subchondral cysts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of subchondral cysts is: COORS Mnemonic C: CPPD  O: osteoarthritis  O: osteonecrosis R: rheumatoid arthritis S: synovial-based tumors See also Geode
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Subchondral fracture

A subchondral fracture is a fracture of the trabecular cancellous bone just beneath the subchondral bone plate without disruption of the articular surface 1. Epidemiology Subchondral insufficiency fractures are more common in elderly women 1,4,6. Subchondral fractures due to trauma can occur a...
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Subchondral insufficiency fracture

A subchondral insufficiency fracture refers to a type of stress fracture that occurs below the chondral surface on a weight-bearing surface of a bone. Pathology They tend to occur when normal physiological forces are repeatedly applied to an area of bone. Location Typical sites include knee...
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Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee (SIF/SIFK) are stress fractures in the femoral condyles or tibial plateau that occur in the absence of acute trauma, typically affecting older adults. Terminology The entity subsumes that previously known as spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (...
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Subclavian nerve

The subclavian nerve, also known as the nerve to subclavius, is an anterior branch from the C5 and C6 roots of the brachial plexus, and supplies the subclavius muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The subclavian nerve is a small branch from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus that arises from the ...
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Subclavian trunk

The subclavian trunks are small short paired lymphatic trunks, each one draining its respective upper limb, and formed from efferent lymphatics draining from the apical (subclavicular) subgroup of the axillary nodes. In turn the subclavian trunks pass through the cervicoaxillary canal and drain...
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Subclavius muscle

The subclavius muscle is a small triangular muscle of the pectoral region which depresses the shoulder. Summary origin: 1st costochondral joint insertion: subclavian groove on the inferior aspect of the clavicle innervation: nerve to subclavius arterial supply: clavicular branch of the thor...
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Subclavius posticus muscle

Subclavius posticus muscle is an accessory muscle in the root of the neck, lying between the subclavius muscle and the inferior belly of omohyoid. It has an incidence of ~ 7.5% 2,4. Summary origin: first costal cartilage insertion: superior margin of scapula nerve supply: nerve to subclavius...
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Subcoracoid bursa

The subcoracoid bursa is located anterior to subscapularis and beneath the coracoid process and extends caudal to the conjoined tendons of coracobrachialis and short head of biceps brachii. Fluid in the subcoracoid bursa does not normally communicate with the glenohumeral joint but may communica...
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Subcoracoid impingement

Subcoracoid impingement is an unusual form of shoulder impingement, and results from narrowing of the coracohumeral interval (space between the tip of the coracoid and the humerus). Narrowing is typically seen in the setting of prior rotator cuff repair, but occasionally also results from congen...
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Subcoracoid triangle sign

The subcoracoid triangle sign refers to the obliteration of the fat triangle between the coracohumeral ligament (superiorly), coracoid process / coracobrachialis (anterosuperiorly) and glenohumeral joint capsule (posteroinferiorly). It is considered a specific but not sensitive sign for adhesive...
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Subcutaneous abscess

A subcutaneous abscess is a manifestation of a spectrum of soft tissue skin infection which includes cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. It is a form of abscess which lies within the dermis and subdermal cutaneous layers. Along with dental abscesses, subcutaneous abscesses are the most common ...
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Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa

The subcutaneous calcaneal bursa, also referred to as retroachilleal bursa or superficial retrocalcaneal bursa is located between the calcaneal tendon and the skin.  It is distinct from the retrocalcaneal bursa, which is located between the calcaneal tendon and the posterior angle of the calcan...
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Subcutaneous calcification (differential)

Subcutaneous calcification can be associated with a number of disorders. The list includes: dermatomyositis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum basal cell nevus syndrome subcutaneous lipodystrophy venous thrombosis as a manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus varicose v...
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Subcutaneous glucose monitors

Subcutaneous glucose monitors are becoming increasingly common in the monitoring and management of glucose for diabetics. The majority of these are unlikely to impact routine imaging but are important to consider in MRI. In the UK, the commonest device available on prescription is the FreeStyl...
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Subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules

Subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules are the most common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis, occurring in up to 40% of patients. They are universally associated with a positive rheumatoid factor (RF) 1.  The size of the nodules varies from 2 mm to 5 cm; they are firm, non-tender, ...
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Subgaleal lipoma

Subgaleal lipomas are benign adipose-containing tumors that occur between the periosteum and the galeal aponeurosis of the scalp. Epidemiology They comprise 2% of all lipomas. They are more common in middle-aged patients and have a male predilection Clinical presentation Subgaleal lipomas pr...
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Sublabral foramen

A sublabral foramen or hole is simply separation of the labrum from the underlying glenoid. It is a labral variant of no clinical significance and can be confused with a SLAP lesion.  Sublabral foramen are located anterosuperiorly and can extend down to but not below the 3 o'clock position, whi...
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Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
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Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
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Suboccipital triangle

The suboccipital triangles are a paired triangular-shaped space formed by the configuration of three paired muscles in the posterior neck between the occipital bone, C1 and C2. Gross Anatomy The suboccipital triangle has an inferomedial pointing apex (pointing towards the nuchal ligament) form...
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Subperiosteal bone resorption

Subperiosteal bone resorption is the most consistent and specific finding of hyperparathyroidism and is virtually pathognomonic of the condition. Radiographic features While the terminal tufts of the phalanges are the most commonly involved bones, many others are involved: tufts of the distal...
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Subscapularis muscle

The subscapularis muscle is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, the others being: supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor. Summary origin: subscapular fossa of the scapula insertion: lesser tubercle of the humerus some fibers also extend to the greater tubercle and bi...
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Subscapularis recess

The subscapularis recess, also known as the superior subscapularis recess or subscapularis bursa, is a normal extension of the glenohumeral joint capsule in between the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments. Radiographic features MRI On sagittal oblique sequences and when distended with ...
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Subspine impingement of the hip

Subspine impingement of the hip is a type of extra-articular hip impingement, also known as anterior inferior iliac spine impingement. This condition occurs when a low-lying or enlarged anterior inferior iliac spine contacts the femoral neck with hip flexion. Presenting symptoms of this conditio...
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Subtalar arthritis

Subtalar arthritis refers to arthritis affecting the subtalar joint. Pathology Etiology primary osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis trauma: fractures (e.g. prior calcaneal fracture) infection: septic arthritis deposition disease: gout, pseudogout  tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction t...
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Subtalar dislocation

Subtalar dislocations is the simultaneous dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcaneal joints, without tibiotalar or talar neck fractures 1. Epidemiology Subtalar dislocations comprise 1-2% of all dislocations. Pathology Mechanism Subtalar dislocations are often associated with high e...
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Subtalar joint

The subtalar joint may refer to one or two articulations: the anatomic subtalar joint, i.e. talocalcaneal joint the clinical subtalar joint, i.e. talocalcaneal and talonavicular joints Please see the main articles for further descriptions of the separate joints.  Related pathology subtalar ...
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Subungual exostosis

Subungual exostoses are benign osteocartilaginous tumors that occur beneath the nail bed.  Epidemiology These lesions are most commonly found in children and young adolescents 1,2.  Clinical presentation Although they can be found beneath any nail, they most commonly affect the big (first) t...
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Sulcus angle (knee)

The sulcus angle is formed by the trochlear opening of the knee, measuring the angle between the medial and lateral facets. Classically described in axial x-rays of the knee performed at 30-45º of flexion (skyline view), it is valuable in both CT and MR studies. Interpretation Its normal value...
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Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst appearance is a type of periosteal reaction giving the appearance of a sunburst secondary to an aggressive periostitis. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  The sunburst appearance occurs when the lesion grows too fast and the periosteum does not...
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Superficial bursae

Superficial bursae are those bursae that are located superficial to the fibrous fascia. They form in the months to years following birth, as a result of direct pressure or friction 1.  An example is the olecranon bursa. In contrast, deep bursae are located deep in the fibrous fascia.
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Superficial circumflex iliac artery

The superficial circumflex iliac artery is the smallest cutaneous branch of the common femoral artery. It contributes to the arterial supply of the anterolateral abdominal wall and groin. Summary origin: common femoral artery course: pierces the fascia lata lateral to the saphenous opening an...
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Superficial epigastric artery

The superficial epigastric artery is a small cutaneous branch of the common femoral artery which contributes to the arterial supply of the anterior abdominal wall below the umbilicus. Summary origin: common femoral artery, approximately 1 cm below the inguinal ligament course: passes superior...
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Superficial inguinal lymph nodes

The superficial inguinal lymph nodes (often shortened to superficial inguinal nodes) form a subgroup of the inguinal lymph nodes and are located in the superficial fascia of the upper thigh near the inguinal ligament and great saphenous vein. They number around ten, although a range of 5-17 nod...
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Superficial peroneal nerve

The superficial peroneal (fibular) nerve is one of two terminal branches of the common peroneal nerve. Summary origin: arises as a terminal branch of the common peroneal nerve in the lateral compartment of the leg course: passes between peroneus longus muscle and the fibula proximally and per...
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Superficial posterior compartment of the leg

The superficial posterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle plantarflexion as all 3 muscles form the Achilles tendon. Of the two posterior compartments, the superficial compartment ...
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Superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament

The superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament (SPTTL) is the most posteriorly located superficial component of the four superficial components of the deltoid ligament 1-3. Gross anatomy The superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament is located superficial to the deep posterior tibiotalar ligame...
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Superficial radial nerve

The superficial radial nerve, also known as the superficial branch of the radial nerve, is a sensory cutaneous nerve that arises from the radial nerve. It supplies the skin on the dorsum of the hand as well as providing articular branches to joints in the hand. Gross anatomy Origin As a branc...
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Superior gemellus muscle

The superior gemellus muscle is a small triangular muscle in the gluteal region that together with the inferior gemellus and obturator internus muscles form the tricipital (three headed) triceps coxae which occupies the space between the piriformis muscle (superiorly) and quadratus femoris muscl...
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Superior gluteal nerve

The superior gluteal nerve is formed from posterior divisions of L4, L5 and S1 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The nerve supplies branches to the gluteus minimus and medius muscles and terminates by innervating the tensor fasciae latae muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The superior gluteal nerve...
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Superior labral anterior posterior tear

Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are injuries of the glenoid labrum, and can often be confused with a sublabral sulcus on MRI.  Pathology SLAP tears involve the superior glenoid labrum, where the long head of biceps tendon inserts. Unlike Bankart lesions and ALPSA lesions, they ...
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Superior lumbar triangle

The superior lumbar triangle, also known as the triangle of Grynfeltt-Lesshaft, is one of the locations for a lumbar hernia. It is not to be confused with the adjacent inferior lumbar triangle (of Petit). Gross anatomy Boundaries medially: the quadratus lumborum muscle  superiorly: twelfth r...
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Superior peroneal retinaculum injuries

Superior peroneal retinaculum injuries refer to a spectrum of acute and chronic injuries to the superior peroneal retinaculum in the ankle. They are one of the causes of lateral ankle pain and instability.  Pathology  Classification One method of grading is the Oden's classification 1,7 which...
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Superior tibiofibular joint

The superior tibiofibular joint is a synovial joint between the superior aspects of the tibia and fibula and is one of the multiple sites of cartilaginous and fibrous articulation carrying the name of the tibiofibular joint. Gross anatomy Articulation fibula: flat facet of fibular head tibia...
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Superior sublabral sulcus

The superior sublabral sulcus is a normal variant of the superior sublabral recess, which is normally present at the attachment of the biceps tendon to the glenoid labrum. The superior sublabral sulcus has been described as being shallow or deep and may be continuous with a sublabral foramen if...
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Supernumerary ribs

Supernumerary ribs occur most commonly as a cervical rib arising from C7 or a lumbar rib arising from L1. In extremely rare situations, there can be sacral, coccygeal, intrathoracic, or aberrant lumbar ribs 3. Rarely supernumerary ribs (cervical and lumbar ribs aside) have been found as 'normal'...
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Superscan

Superscan is intense symmetric activity in the bones with diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc99m diphosphonate bone scan. Pathology This appearance can result from a range of etiological factors: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell c...
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Supinator muscle

The supinator muscle is, as its name suggests, a supinator of the forearm. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and together with brachialis, forms the floor of the cubital fossa. Summary origin: posterior proximal shaft of ulna; lateral epicondyle of hum...
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Supra-acetabular fossa

A supra-acetabular fossa, also known as pseudodefect of acetabular cartilage, is an anatomic variant whereby a focal defect is evident within the subchondral bone of the acetabular roof. It is seen in as many as 10% of hips and is typically located at the 12 o'clock position both in the coronal ...
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Supraclavicular foramen

The supraclavicular foramen is a normal variant and typically found as an incidental finding on radiographs. It occurs in ~4% (range 2-6%) of the population.  Supraclavicular foramen appear as an osseous tunnel or tunnels, with the most typical position at the superior aspect of the junction of...
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Supracondylar fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Supracondylar fractures are the commonest fracture at the elbow in pediatric patients. They result from force applied across the elbow, usually following a fall. The supracondylar region is the weakest point in the developi...
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Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic pediatric injury which requires vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
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Supracondylar spur

A supracondylar spur, supracondylar process, supratrochlear spur, or avian spur of the distal anteromedial humeral cortex is an anatomical variant present in ~1% 1,2 of the population.  Gross anatomy The supracondylar spur is typically located on the anteromedial humeral cortex, 5 cm proximal ...
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Supraorbital foramen

The supraorbital foramen or notch is the small opening at the central edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone just below the superciliary arches that transmits the supra-orbital nerve, artery and vein. It is lateral to the supratrochlear foramen, where the supratrochlear nerve, ...
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Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge, also known as the supraorbital margin or superciliary arch is the superior margin of the bony orbit. Part of the frontal bone, the supraorbital ridge contains the supraorbital foramen (or notch). The corrugator supercilii muscles arise from the medial end of the supraorbi...
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Suprapatellar bursa

The suprapatellar bursa, also known as the suprapatellar recess or suprapatellar pouch, is one of several bursae of the knee. It is located proximal to the knee joint, between the prefemoral and suprapatellar fat pads. As with all bursae, its purpose is to reduce friction between moving structur...
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Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst

Suprapubic cartilaginous cysts (SPCC) are rare cystic lesions arising from the symphysis pubis thought to be degenerative in origin. They have also been called retropubic or subpubic cysts. Epidemiology In the small number of cases in the literature, all bar one patient, have been female. The ...
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Suprascapular nerve

The suprascapular nerve is the only branch of the upper trunk (C5 and C6) of the brachial plexus, supplying the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and sensation to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Gross anatomy Origin The suprascapular nerve arises from the upper trunk of t...
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Suprascapular neuropathy

Suprascapular neuropathy or suprascapular nerve entrapment occurs if the suprascapular nerve is compressed as it passes through the suprascapular notch or spinoglenoid notch. Clinical presentation Non-specific posterior shoulder pain and weakness.  Pathology Etiology masses (e.g. ganglion c...
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Suprascapular notch

The suprascapular notch is located on the superior aspect of the scapula, at the scapula's anterolateral aspect. Gross anatomy The suprascapular notch separates the superior border of the scapula from the anterior coracoid process.  Relations and/or boundaries The suprascapular nerve passes ...
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Supraspinatus muscle

The supraspinatus muscle is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, the others being: infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. Summary origin: supraspinous fossa of the scapula insertion: superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus innervation: suprascapular ne...
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Suprasternal tubercle

Suprasternal tubercle is a sternal normal variant which forms when a suprasternal ossicle fuses with the manubrium 1. It can be unilateral or bilateral. It usually appears as triangular or pyramidal bony projection in continuity with the superior margin of manubrium. It is better depicted in cor...
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Supratrochlear foramen (head)

The supratrochlear foramen is the small opening at the medial edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone that transmitts the supratrochlear nerve, artery and vein. When incomplete, it forms a notch. It is variably present, and when absent the neurovascular bundle will simple exit th...
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Sural nerve

The sural nerve is a sensory nerve of the lower limb formed by the union of sural branch of the tibial nerve and the communicating sural branch of the common fibular nerve supplying sensation to the lower lateral aspect of the calf and foot. Gross anatomy It travels within subcutaneous tissue ...
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Suspected physical abuse

Suspected physical abuse (SPA), also known as non-accidental injury (NAI) or inflicted injury, in infants and young children represents both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists may be the first clinical staff to suspect non-accidental injuries when confronted with ...
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Sustentaculum tali

The sustentaculum tali is a horizontal shelf that arises from the anteromedial portion of the calcaneus. The superior surface is concave and articulates with the middle calcaneal surface of the talus. The inferior surface has a groove for the tendon of flexor hallucis longus. Several ligamentou...
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Sutures

There are many sutures of the skull, which are where skull bones meet. In general, sutures don't fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Sutures are fibrous joints with the periosteum externally and outer la...
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Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a deformity of the digits that consists of: hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints compensatory flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP)  joints Pathology Swan neck deformity is seen in 3,4: rheumatoid arthritis (classical association) post-tr...
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Swischuk line

The Swischuk line is helpful in differentiating pathological anterior displacement of the cervical spine from physiological displacement, termed pseudosubluxation. Measurement the line is drawn from anterior aspect of posterior arch of C1 to anterior aspect of posterior arch of C3 the anterio...
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Symmetrical periosteal reaction

There are a large number of causes for a symmetrical periosteal reaction 1,2: chronic venous insufficiency hypertrophic osteoarthropathy physiologic periostitis, most common cause before 6 months old Caffey disease juvenile idiopathic arthritis pachydermoperiostosis congenital syphilis ...
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Symphalangism

Symphalangism refers to ankylosis of the interphalangeal joints (i.e. fusion of the phalanges) in either the toes or the fingers. Less commonly, the metacarpophalangeal joints may be affected. Epidemiology One study reports symphalangism of the fifth toe in ~55% (range 40-75%) of the populatio...
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Symphyseal cleft injection

Symphyseal cleft injections (symphysography) are performed as both diagnostic and therapeutic measures for patients with (suspected) osteitis pubis, usually under CT or fluoroscopy.  Indications suspected or confirmed osteitis pubis Contraindications factors to be considered as per any muscu...
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Symphysis

Symphyses (singular: symphysis) are secondary cartilaginous joints composed of fibrocartilage (and hence also known as fibrocartilaginous joints). They are considered amphiarthroses, meaning that they allow only slight movement and are all found at the skeletal midline.  Examples symphysis pub...
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Synarthroses

Synarthroses are a functional class of joint that permit very little or no movement under normal conditions. Examples fibrous joints such as cranial sutures synchondroses (primary cartilaginous joints) such as growth plates See also  amphiarthroses diarthroses
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Synchondrosis

Synchondroses (singular: synchondrosis) are primary cartilaginous joints mainly found in the developing skeleton, but a few also persist in the mature skeleton as normal structures or as variants. Structure Synchondroses are cartilaginous unions between bone composed entirely of hyaline cartil...
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Syndactyly

Syndactyly (plural: syndactylies) refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly/simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly/complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2,500 to 5,000...
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Syndesmophyte

Syndesmophytes are calcifications or heterotopic ossifications inside a spinal ligament or of the annulus fibrosus.​ They are seen in only a limited number of conditions including:  ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis reactive arthritis psoriatic arthritis They can be classified as...
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Syndesmosis

Syndesmoses (singular: syndesmosis) are a type of fibrous joint where strong collagen rich connective tissue holds two portions of bone together allowing very little movement. They consist of an interosseous membrane and ligamentous thickenings. Examples distal tibiofibular syndesmosis radiou...
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Synovial chondromatosis

Synovial chondromatosis (osteochondromatosis or synovial chondrometaplasia) also known as Reichel syndrome, is a disorder characterized by loose cartilaginous bodies which may, or may not be calcified or ossified. It is classified under two main types: primary synovial chondromatosis: predomin...
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Synovial chondrosarcoma

Synovial chondrosarcoma refers to a very rare malignant cartilaginous neoplasm arising from the synovium.  Epidemiology There can be a wide spectrum in age of presentation from from 25-75 years of age. A slight male predilection may be present. Pathology It can  either as a primary lesion (p...
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Synovial cyst

Synovial cysts are para-articular fluid-filled sacs or pouch-like structures containing synovial fluid and lined by synovial membrane. They can occur around virtually every synovial joint in the body and also around tendon sheaths and bursae. Communication with the adjacent joint may or may not ...
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Synovial enhancement

Synovial enhancement is an imaging feature typically observed on MRI imaging. It can occur in various forms and can be focal or diffuse. Causes inflammatory synovitis transient synovitis of the hip infective synovitis inflammatory arthritides septic arthritis tuberculous septic arthritis...
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Synovial hemangioma

Synovial hemangiomas are rare benign vascular malformations that occur in relation to the joint. It is sometimes considered a subtype of soft tissue hemangiomas. Epidemiology The lesions typically present in children and young adults. Occasionally patients can have recurrent haemarthroses 8. ...
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Synovial joints

Synovial joints are a type of joint with an articular capsule, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane, which surrounds a fluid-filled synovial cavity. The articulating surfaces are covered by hyaline cartilage, designed to slide with little friction and to absorb com...
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Synovial plicae (knee)

Synovial plicae are folds of synovium, thought to represent embryologic remnants. They are common, present in ~90% of arthroscopies 3.  They have been implicated in anterior knee pain and possibly in chondromalacia patellae although their role remains controversial 1,3.  Gross anatomy Some pl...
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Synovial sarcoma

Synovial sarcomas are relatively common intermediate-to-high grade malignant soft tissue tumors, often with an initial indolent course, affecting young patients, and most commonly involving the soft tissue surrounding the knees. Epidemiology Synovial sarcomas typically present in adolescents a...
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Synovitis

Synovitis refers to any of inflammatory process that affecting the synovium of joints or structures lined with synovium. It can take many morphological forms and occur from many etiologies. It may not necessarily be infective. Pathology Specific sub types infective synovitis / infectious syno...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to autoantigens. Epidemiology There is a strong...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are common and often symptomatic. Characteristic manifestations are seen in approximately 80% of patients, but many less characteristic manifestations are important to be aware of. Multiple different presenting complain...

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