Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,192 results found
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Wrisberg rip

Wrisberg rips, also known as zip tears or zipper tears, are longitudinal vertical meniscal tears. They occur at the junction of the ligament of Wrisberg and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears 1. 
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Wrist (carpal bridge view)

The carpal bridge view an additional view to the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is used to assess the dorsal aspect of the scaphoid, lunate and the triquetrum. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table dorsal aspect of affected wrist is placed on the dete...
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Wrist (carpal tunnel view)

The carpal tunnel view is an axial projection to demonstrate the medial and lateral prominences and the concavity. It can be utilized to investigate potential hook of hamate, pisiform and trapezium factures. Patient position patient stands with the back facing the table palmar surface of hand...
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Wrist (clenched fist view)

The clenched fist view is an additional projection used to evaluate suspected widening of the scapholunate interval, often performed bilaterally it is a functional view that requires the patient to clench both hands.  Patient position patient is seated in front of the table  both hands are pl...
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Wrist (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral wrist view is a modified lateral projection when performing the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones in trauma. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist without any patient movement, making it the most appropriate projection for patients in pain. Pa...
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Wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table abduct the hum...
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Wrist ligaments

The intrinsic and extrinsic wrist ligaments play a vital role in the stability of the wrist joint. There are numerous ligaments but included below are the most clinically significant. Wrist ligaments are best assessed with dedicated wrist MRI. Gross anatomy intrinsic ligaments (only attach to ...
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Wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is not generally performed in follow-up studies unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can ...
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Wrist (PA view)

The PA wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table ...
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Wrist (radial deviation view)

The wrist PA radial deviation view is specialized projection employed to better demonstrate the carpal bones that lay on the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the tab...
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Wrist radiograph

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous in the emergency departments. They are commonly performed in the pediatric and elderly populations after a fall on an outstretched hand as well as in patients after higher force trauma. Moreover, they may be performed as part of a skeletal survey looking for meta...
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Wrist radiograph (an approach)

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous on any night of the week in emergency departments, especially when pavements are icy! Choosing a search strategy and using it consistently is a helpful method to overcome common errors seen in diagnostic radiology. Systematic review Distal radial contour Check...
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Wrist radiograph (approach)

Wrist x-rays are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma. This is usually a fall onto an outstretched hand. Systematic review It is useful to have a systematic approach; I tend to start proximally and work distally looking at structures on both views together: distal ra...
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Wrist radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Wrist radiographs are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma.  Summary approach alignment AP distal radius and ulna have smooth joint surface carpal arcs are smooth carpal bones do not overlap ...
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Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint al...
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Wrist series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A wrist series (or wrist x-ray) may be performed for a multitude of reasons. However, they are most commonly used in the assessment of trauma, by clinical teams within the Emergency Department or Orthopedic service. Refere...
Article

Xiphisternal joint

The xiphisternal joint (or more rarely, the sternoxiphoid joint) is a symphysis between the inferior margin of the body of the sternum and the superior margin of the xiphoid process. In most people it ossifies with age, usually becoming fully fused by the age of 40 years, forming a synostosis.  ...
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Xiphoid shape variations

There is considerable anatomic variation in the shape of the xiphoid of the sternum: xiphoid ending is classified as single, double, or triple. xiphoid size varies (e.g. elongated process) xiphoid morphology (e.g. ventral or dorsal deviation, hook-like, reverse S-shape). Clinical presentatio...
Article

Yaws

Yaws, also known as framboesia, is a tropical disease produced by the Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. Epidemiology Yaws is a tropical disease. Infections have declined dramatically over the last century, however the disease is still present in several countries in Africa and Asia 1. Y...
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Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures

The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability. Three basic mechanistic ...
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Yo-yo on a string sign (Stener lesion)

The yo-yo on a string sign denotes the characteristic appearance of the torn, proximally retracted and superficially displaced ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) due to a Stener lesion. Mechanism The sign occurs as a consequence of the tear of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb (gamekeepe...
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Yunis-Varón syndrome

Yunis Varón syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia. It is thought to be autosomal recessive. Radiographic features severe neurologic impairment cleidocranial dysplasia absent clavicles macrocrania diastasis of sutures micrognathia absent thumbs and distal phalanges of fingers hypoplasia ...
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Z deformity

The Z deformity is one of the musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis in hand: radial deviation at the wrist ulnar deviation of the digits, and often palmar subluxation of the proximal phalanges
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Zebra stripe sign (bones)

The zebra stripe sign occurs where children with osteogenesis imperfecta have been treated with cyclical bisphosphonate therapy, e.g. pamidronate. When the drug is delivered in cycles, dense bone is formed while treatment is being given. This results in dense stripes across the metaphyses of bon...
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Zimmerman-Laband syndrome

Zimmerman-Laband syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome, characterized primarily by gingival hypertrophy and skeletal abnormalities.  Pathology The molecular basis of the syndrome is currently unknown. An autosomal dominant mutation with a high mutation rate and rare instances of germinal mosa...
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Zona orbicularis

The zona orbicularis are circular fibers of the hip joint capsule and form a collar around the femoral neck. Though partly blended with the pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments, these fibers are not directly attached to bone. 
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Z-score

Z-scores are a way to translate individual data points into terms of a standard deviation.  Z = (X - Xbar) / σ X: individual data point Xbar: the arithmetic mean σ: the standard deviation The purpose of the Z-score is to allow comparison between values in different normal distributions. Two...
Article

Zygoma

The zygoma (also known as zygomatic bone or malar bone) is an important facial bone which forms the prominence of the cheek. It is roughly quadrangular in shape. Gross anatomy Zygoma has three surfaces, five borders, and two processes. Surfaces anterolateral surface is convex, pierced at its...
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Zygomaticus major muscle

The zygomaticus major muscle is a member of the buccolabial muscle group of the upper lip1. It joins with the fibers of levator anguli oris, orbicularis oris and the more deeply placed muscular bands to move the side of the mouth upwards and sideways during facial movements such as laughing. Su...
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Zygomaticus minor muscle

The zygomaticus minor muscle is a member of the buccolabial muscle group of the muscles of facial expression. Together with the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and levator labii superioris muscles it is one of the main elevators of the lip, exposing the maxillary teeth 1. Along with its o...

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