Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,191 results found
Article

Catterall classification of Perthes disease

The Catterall classification of Perthes disease is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog l...
Article

Causes of abnormal lunate signal on MRI

There are several important causes of an abnormal lunate signal on MRI, the most frequent causes being Kienbock disease (25%), ulnar impaction syndrome (25%) and intraosseous ganglia (20%).1 Appreciation of the pattern of bone signal change can often allow the correct diagnosis to be made. Kien...
Article

Causes of cone-shaped epiphysis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the causes of cone-shaped epiphysis is: ABCDE MOST Mnemonic A: achondroplasia, acrodysostosis B: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome C: chondroplasia punctata, Cockayne syndrome, conorenal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia D: dactylitis...
Article

Causes of sacroiliitis - symmetric vs asymmetric (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the symmetric vs asymmetric causes of sacroiliitis is: PAIR Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis A: ankylosing spondylitis I: inflammatory bowel disease related R: reactive (e.g. Reiter syndrome) The outside letters P & R (letters are far apart) are the asymmetric ca...
Article

Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous hemangioma (despite it not being a tumor) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma, ...
Article

Celery stalk (disambiguation)

Celery stalk appearance can refer to the following: celery stalk anterior cruciate ligament celery stalk metaphysis
Article

Celery stalk metaphysis

Celery stalk metaphysis refers to a plain film appearance of the metaphyses in a number of conditions characterized by longitudinally aligned linear bands of sclerosis. They are seen in: congenital infections congenital rubella congenital syphilis congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) osteopathi...
Article

Celery stalk sign (anterior cruciate ligament)

The celery stalk sign is a term given to the appearance of the anterior cruciate ligament which has undergone mucoid degeneration and has been likened to that of a celery stalk. Its low signal longitudinal fibers are separated from each other by higher signal mucinous material, best appreciated ...
Article

Cellulitis

Cellulitis (rare plural: cellulitides) is an acute infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It results in pain, erythema, edema, and warmth. Since the epidermis is not involved, cellulitis is not transmitted by person-to-person contact. Clinical presentation Cellulitis can affect any ...
Article

Cenani-Lenz syndactyly

Cenani-Lenz syndactyly (CLS) is a very syndrome primarily characterized by: syndactyly/oligodactly: syndactyly is often complete and gives a spoon hand type appearance radio-ulnar synostoses Pathology Genetics It carries an autosomal recessive inheritance. Etymology It was first described...
Article

Central osteophyte

Central osteophytes, also known as subchondral or button osteophytes, are located within the joint and are thought to arise from endochondral ossification of a cartilaginous lesion 1-3.  See also osteophyte
Article

Central sacral vertical line

The central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is used in the assessment of spinal scoliosis.  It is a line constructed on frontal films of the spine and pelvis to measure coronal balance, drawn as follows: a line connecting the top of the iliac crests is drawn a second line is drawn perpendicular t...
Article

Cerclage wire

Cerclage wire refers to a type of orthopedic fixation/stabilization wire placed to approximate fractured bone fragments. Types full - 360° circumferential wire used in diaphysis segments of long bones hemicerclage - wire is placed through one of the main fractured bone fragments, as used in t...
Article

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by defects in sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid synthesis. This leads to early cataract formation, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and tendinous xanthomas.  Clinical presentation Clinically ce...
Article

Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical ligament

The cervical ligament attaches to the calcaneus and talus. It is lateral to the tarsal sinus and medial to the attachment of extensor digitorum brevis. It is taut in inversion.
Article

Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females. Related pathology Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the mo...
Article

Cervical spine

The cervical spine (often shortened to C-spine) is the upper part of the spine extending from the skull base to the thorax at the level of the first vertebra with a rib attached to it. It normally consists of seven vertebrae. Its main function is to support the skull and maintain the relative po...
Article

Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. Patient position patient is standing erect with either the left or right posterior side clos...
Article

Cervical spine (flexion-extension views)

Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views are specialized projections of the cervical spine often requested to assess for spinal stability. Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views should not be performed on trauma patients without strict instructions of a qualified clinician. Patie...
Article

Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterized by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
Article

Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Pathology The cervical spine is susceptible to injury because it is highly mobile with relatively small vertebral bodies and supports the head which is both heavy and...
Article

Cervical spine (Fuchs view)

The closed mouth odontoid AP view (Fuchs view) is a nonangled AP radiograph of C1 and C2. This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process. The standard Fuchs view should not be used in a trauma setting and the modified Fuchs view may be used instead. Patient position supine or erect head...
Article

Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
Article

Cervical spine (lateral view)

Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine. It is often performed in the setting of trauma. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily availa...
Article

Cervical spine ligaments

Cervical spine ligaments ordered from anterior to posterior include: anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) anterior atlanto-occipital membrane apical ligament alar ligaments (paired) cruciate ligament of the atlas longitudinal band: joins the body of the axis to the foramen magnum transver...
Article

Cervical spine (odontoid view)

The odontoid or 'peg' projection is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing strai...
Article

Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, Odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. This projection can be used to visualize the intervertebral foramina. Patient position patie...
Article

Cervical stenosis (disambiguation)

The term cervical stenosis can refer to: stenosis of the uterine cervix bony cervical canal stenosis (cervical spinal stenosis)
Article

Chalk stick fracture

Chalk stick, also known as carrot stick fractures, are fractures of the fused spine, classically seen in ankylosing spondylitis. Terminology Some authors define the chalk stick fracture as a fracture through a Pagetoid long bone (see Paget disease) 3. Pathology They usually occur through the...
Article

Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...
Article

Champagne glass pelvis (achondroplasia)

The champagne glass pelvis is a helpful sign in achondroplasia in which the iliac blades are flattened, giving rise to a pelvic inlet that resembles a champagne glass. The acetabular angles are flattened (horizontal) and the sacrosciatic notch is small.
Article

Chance fracture

Chance fractures, also referred to as seatbelt fractures, are flexion-distraction type injuries of the spine that extend to involve all three spinal columns. These are unstable injuries and have a high association with intra-abdominal injuries. Pathology Mechanism They tend to occur from a fl...
Article

Charcot joint

Charcot joint, also known as a neuropathic joint or Charcot (neuro/osteo)arthropathy, refers to a progressive degenerative/destructive joint disorder in patients with abnormal pain sensation and proprioception. Epidemiology In modern Western societies by far the most common cause of Charcot jo...
Article

Charcot joint causes (mnemonic)

The causes of a Charcot joint can be remembered, using a mnemonic - with a little poetic license - as they (all) start with the letter S. Mnemonic Ss s: sugar (diabetes) s: syphilis s: steroid use s: syringomyelia s: spinal cord injury s: spina bifida s: scleroderma s: scaly disease (l...
Article

Charm needles (susuk)

Charm needles or "susuk" are talismans alleged to be made of gold or other precious metals, which are inserted into the soft tissue of the body. They are believed to enhance beauty, youth, health and fortune. Epidemiology This practice is found among women of Southeast Asian countries, commonl...
Article

Chauffeur fracture

Chauffeur fractures (also known as Hutchinson fractures or backfire fractures) are intra-articular fractures of the radial styloid process. The radial styloid is within the fracture fragment, although the fragment can vary markedly in size. Pathology Mechanism These injuries are sustained eit...
Article

Chauveaux–Liet angle

The Chauveaux–Liet angle (CL angle) is represented by the difference between the angle of verticalization (α) and morphologic angle (β) of the calcaneus (CL angle = α − β). Angle α is the calcaneal pitch angle or angle of verticalization of calcaneus described as the intersection of the baselin...
Article

Cheerio sign (disambiguation)

The Cheerio sign has been described in two different scenarios: Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule) Cheerio sign (shoulder)
Article

Cheerio sign (shoulder)

The Cheerio sign has been described as a sign seen in a type III superior labral anterior posterior tear (SLAP lesion) of the glenoid labrum. In the cheerio sign, a rounded core of soft tissue is surrounded by a rim of contrast material and gas.  SLAP type III is the bucket handle tear of the s...
Article

Chest wall lipoma

Chest wall lipomas are benign fat containing thoracic lesion.  Epidemiology While they can occur at any age, they typically occur in older patients who are 50-70 years of age, and they are most frequent in those with increased an increased body mass index. Pathology They are well-circumscrib...
Article

Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
Article

Chevron deformity

Chevron deformity refers to an inverted V shaped sign noted in children with achondroplasia. It is most commonly seen in the epiphysis of distal femur and tends to disappear with age 1,2.
Article

Chikungunya fever

Chikungunya fever is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and is characterized by a classic viral prodrome of fever, skin exanthem, malaise and arthralgia. Its most striking manifestation is a marked, often fairly debilitating arthritis. Clinical presentation fever arthralgia skin rash ...
Article

Chondral delamination

Chondral delamination is a form of cartilage injury and refers to the separation of the articular cartilage from the underlying subchondral bone at the tidemark. It may or may not be associated with chondral fissure. Mechanism Often associated with twisting or traumatic shearing stress to the ...
Article

Chondroblastoma

Chondroblastomas, also referred as Codman tumors, are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms that characteristically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone in young patients. Despite being rare, they are one of the most frequently encountered benign epiphyseal neoplasms in skeletally im...
Article

Chondroblastoma vs clear cell chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between a chondroblastoma and an epiphyseal clear cell chondrosarcoma can be difficult. Helpful features which suggest a clear cell chondrosarcoma include: older age (chondroblastomas tend to occur 10-20 years earlier) larger mass absent adjacent bone edema high T2 signal (sol...
Article

Chondrocalcinosis

Chondrocalcinosis (plural: chondrocalcinoses) is a descriptive term indicating the presence of gross calcium deposition within articular cartilage, i.e. both hyaline and fibrocartilage. Terminology Chondrocalcinosis articularis was an early term for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition d...
Article

Chondrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for chondrocalcinosis include: 3 Cs HOGWASH Mnemonics 3 Cs  C: crystals e.g. CPPD, sodium urate (gout) C: cations e.g. calcium (any cause of hypercalcemia), copper, iron C: cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis, acromegaly, ochronosis) HOGWASH H: hyperparathyroidism, hyp...
Article

Chondrodysplasia punctata

Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a collective name for a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias. Calcific stippling of cartilage and peri-articular soft tissues is often a common feature. Pathology Subtypes It can be broadly divided into rhizomelic and non-rhizomelic forms: rhizomelic c...
Article

Chondroectodermal dysplasia

Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a rare type of skeletal dysplasia. It is classified as a type of mesomelic limb shortening 5. Clinical spectrum Clinical features include: narrowing of thorax with short ribs small and flared ilia triradiate aceta...
Article

Chondroid lipoma

Chondroid lipomas are rare benign soft tissue tumors that, as you might guess, contain a varied ratio of both fat and cartilage. These lesions can be diagnostically confusing as they may mimic or be confused with other fat containing neoplasms, most importantly those of much greater clinical sig...
Article

Chondrolysis

Chondrolysis, also known as acute cartilage necrosis, represents acute cartilage destruction of the femoral head. It is one of the complications that are specifically associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). It may also be associated with infection, specifically septic arthritis...
Article

Chondromalacia patellae

Chondromalacia patellae refers to softening and degeneration of the articular hyaline cartilage of the patella and is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology Tends to occur in young adults. There is a recognized female predilection. Clinical presentation Patients with chondromal...
Article

Chondromyxoid fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMFs) are extremely rare, benign cartilaginous neoplasms that account for <1% of all bone tumors 1. Epidemiology  As with all rare lesions, reported epidemiology varies: age: most commonly diagnosed before 30 years of age (~75%), mostly during second and third decades...
Article

Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors that account for ~25% of all primary malignant bone tumors. They are most commonly found in older patients within the long bones and can arise de novo or secondary from an existing benign cartilaginous neoplasm. On imaging, these tumors have rin...
Article

Chondrosarcoma grading

Chondrosarcoma grading allows the division of chondrosarcoma into 3 (sometimes 4) grades.  Grade 1 - low grade low cellularity mostly chondroid matrix little if any myxoid difficult to distinguish from enchondroma (see enchondroma vs. low grade chondrosarcoma for imaging distinguishing feat...
Article

Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumors but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fracti...
Article

Chopart fracture-dislocation

Chopart fracture-dislocations occur at the midtarsal (Chopart) joint in the foot, i.e. talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints which separate the hindfoot from the midfoot. The commonly fractured bones are the calcaneus, cuboid and navicular. The foot is usually dislocated medially and superior...
Article

Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
Article

Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
Article

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), previously known as anterior tibial syndrome, is a type of compartment syndrome that is brought on by exercise. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is not known since sufferers may modify the way they exercise and therefore never present. CECS can ...
Article

Chronic granulomatous disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) refers to heterogeneous group of inherited immune deficiency disorders characterized by the inability to destroy phagocyted catalase-positive bacteria due to lack of NADPH oxidase which results in formation of granulomas in different tissues. Epidemiology It...
Article

Chronic hip subluxation

Chronic hip subluxation most common occurs in pediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g. cerebral palsy). It is considered a form of developmental hip dysplasia.  Epidemiology Chronic hip subluxation occurs in ~45% of cerebral palsy patients who are not walking by 5 years of age 3. ...
Article

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory bone disorder seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion once underlying infection and neoplasia has been ruled out. However, there are some cases in which lesion location and mo...
Article

Circumduction

Circumduction is the orderly combination of shoulder movements so that the hand traces a circle and the arm traces a cone. In order it is produced by shoulder flexion, abduction, extension and abduction (or the reverse). It is hence produced by co-ordination of all the muscles that produce thes...
Article

Circumflex fibular artery

The circumflex fibular artery is a minor artery of the leg. Gross anatomy Origin and course Most often arises from the posterior tibial artery, passes laterally round the neck of the fibula through the soleus to anastomose with the lateral inferior genicular, medial genicular and anterior tib...
Article

Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
Article

Classification of gamekeeper thumb

This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al. 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a sp...
Article

Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which is ...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Clavicle

The clavicle, also colloquially known as the collarbone, is the only bone connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton and is the only long bone that lies horizontally in human skeleton.  Gross anatomy Osteology The clavicle is roughly "S-shaped" with a flattened, concave, lateral one...
Article

Clavicle (AP cephalic view)

The clavicle AP cephalic angulation view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. Often used in conjunction with the AP clavicle, this projection straightens out the clavicle and projects it above overlaying anatomy. Patient position patient is preferably erect midcoronal plane o...
Article

Clavicle (AP view)

The clavicle AP view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle, as well as the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints of the should...
Article

Clavicle fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Clavicle fracture usually occurs following trauma with a direct blow to the shoulder region, often following a fall. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-depth referenc...
Article

Clavicle series

The radiographic series of the clavicle is utilized in emergency departments to assess the clavicle, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint.   Indications Clavicle x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness suspected fracture  congenital abnormal...
Article

Clavicle series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A clavicle series (or clavicle x-ray) is a set of two images taken of the clavicle to determine whether there is evidence of injury or bony abnormality. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, y...
Article

Clavicle tumors

Clavicle tumors may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramedu...
Article

Clavicular fracture

Clavicular fractures are common and account for 2.6-10% of all fractures 2,3. They usually require minimal treatment, which relies on analgesia and a collar-and-cuff. However, in some cases, open reduction and internal fixation are required. Pathology Mechanisms of injury Fractures can occur ...
Article

Clavipectoral fascia

The clavipectoral fascia is a sheet of loose connective tissue which is the deep layer of fascia in the pectoral region. It acts to suspend the floor of the axilla.  Gross anatomy The clavipectoral fascia lies below the clavicular head of the pectoralis major. It fills in the space between the...
Article

Claw sign (MRI)

The claw sign on diffusion weighted imaging refers to a pattern of hyperintensity seen in degenerative changes in the spine. The presence of the claw sign makes spondylodiskitis less likely. Radiographic features MRI DWI the sign appears as well-defined paired regions of restricted diffusion...
Article

Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
Article

Clear cell chondrosarcoma

Clear cell chondrosarcomas are a subtype of chondrosarcoma constituting 1-2% of all chondrosarcomas. They are typically low-grade (see chondrosarcoma grading) and get their name from the presence of clear cell chondrocytes which contain abundant vacuolated cytoplasm due to the presence of glycog...
Article

Cleft epiphysis

Cleft epiphysis is a normal variant of an epiphysis. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. The most common site is the epiphysis of the first proximal phalanx of the foot. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Plain radiographs will demonstrate a lucent defect in the epiphysis. The borde...
Article

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...
Article

Clinodactyly

Clinodactyly is a descriptive term that refers to a radial angulation at an interphalangeal joint in the radio-ulnar or palmar planes. It typically affects the 5th finger. Epidemiology  The estimated incidence is highly variable dependent on sampling and has been reported to range between 1-18...
Article

Cloaca (osteomyelitis)

A cloaca (pl. cloacae/cloacas) can be found in chronic osteomyelitis. The cloaca is an opening in an involucrum which allows drainage of purulent and necrotic material out of the dead bone. If the tract extends to the skin surface, the portion extending beyond the involucrum to the skin surface...
Article

Closed fracture

Closed fracture (antonyms: compound or open fracture) refers to a fracture or dislocation in which the skin remains intact, i.e. there is no contact between the bone and the external environment.
Article

Closed reduction

Closed reduction or manipulation is a common non-invasive method of treating mildly displaced fractures. Usually performed in an emergency department or orthopedic clinic with light sedation and analgesia, the fracture is manipulated back into anatomic alignment and immobilized with a cast, brac...
Article

Close reduction-internal fixation

Closed reduction-internal fixation, abbreviated to CRIF, refers to the orthopedic operative management of a fracture (or fracture-dislocation complex) where closed reduction is performed (manipulation) and internal fixation is applied, usually in the form of K-wires to stabilize the fracture. C...
Article

Coalition

A coalition is a joining of two bones that are normally discrete 1. It is usually a congenital abnormality. The bridge between the bones is initially fibrous, then gradually becomes cartilaginous, finally ossifying. Symptoms tend to arise as the coalition forms a synostosis, which is usually fro...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.