Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,191 results found
Article

Coaptation

Coaptation refers to a joining or reuniting of two surfaces. This can be in the setting of ends of a broken bone or the edges of a wound or edges of a valve. See also coaptation zone
Article

Coarse trabecular pattern in bone (differentials)

Coarse trabecular bones can result from a number of causes. They include: Paget disease (bone) osteoporosis osteomalacia rickets hemaglobinopathies, e.g. thalassemia Gaucher's disease hyperparathyroidism  
Article

Cobb angle

The Cobb angle is the most widely used measurement to quantify the magnitude of spinal deformities, especially in the case of scoliosis, on plain radiographs. A scoliosis is defined as a lateral spinal curvature with a Cobb angle of 10° or more 4. Measurement To measure the Cobb angle, one mus...
Article

Cobb syndrome

Cobb syndrome, also called cutaneous vertebral medullary angiomatosis, or spinal arteriovenous metameric syndrome, consists of the presence of a vascular nevus with a spinal vascular malformation of the same body somite (metamere).  The importance of this syndrome is the recognition that cutane...
Article

Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
Article

Coccydynia

Coccydynia refers to pain in and among the area of the coccyx. It is characterized by coccygeal pain which is typically provocated by pressure. It may remain unclear in origin owing to the unpredictability of the source of pain 1. Epidemiology No accurate data about the frequency of coccydynia...
Article

Coccygeal fracture

Coccygeal fractures are generally low-severity injuries, which nonetheless can be diagnostically challenging.  Diagnosis may be delayed or missed due to coccygeal anatomy and patient/technical factors (e.g. obesity, overlying bowel gas/feces). Given that management of coccygeal fractures is nea...
Article

Coccygeus muscle

The coccygeus muscle, also known as the ischiococcygeus muscle, is a remnant muscle of the pelvic floor. Gross anatomy The coccygeus is a paired muscle which is triangular in shape and overlies the sacrospinous ligament. The coccygeus lies parallel to the inferior border of the piriformis musc...
Article

Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
Article

Coccyx (AP view)

The coccyx AP view is used to demonstrate the coccyx, in conjunction with the sacrum and coccyx (lateral view). Follow departmental protocol in relation to imaging this region.  Patient position the radiograph is performed with the patient in a supine position, with arms placed comfortably by ...
Article

Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (GI tumors) 4
Article

Cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma)

The cockade sign describes the classic appearance of a calcaneal intraosseous lipoma seen as a well-defined lytic lesion with a central calcification. History and etymology It is named after a cockade, which is a badge, usually in the form of a rosette or knot, generally worn on the hat.
Article

Codman triangle periosteal reaction

A Codman triangle is a type of periosteal reaction seen with aggressive bone lesions. The periosteum does not have time to ossify with shells of new bone (e.g. as seen in a single layer and multilayered periosteal reaction) in aggressive lesions, so only the edge of the raised periosteum will os...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognized, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Collateral ligaments of the foot

The collateral ligaments of the foot are attached to the dorsal tubercles on the metatarsal heads and the corresponding side of the phalangeal bases.
Article

Colles fracture

Colles fractures are very common extra-articular fractures of the distal radius that occur as the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand. They consist of a fracture of the distal radial metaphyseal region with dorsal angulation and impaction, but without the involvement of the articular surf...
Article

Comminuted fracture

Comminuted fractures are fractures where more than 2 bone components are created. The problem with the term is that it includes a very heterogeneous group of fractures from a 3 part humeral head fracture to a multi-part fracture of the femur following a high-energy road traffic accident.
Article

Common peroneal nerve

The common peroneal nerve, also known as common fibular nerve, forms the lateral part of the sciatic nerve and supplies the leg. Summary origin: one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve course: diverges laterally to enter the lateral compartment of the leg terminal branches deep pe...
Article

Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
Article

Complete fracture

Complete fractures are fractures where the parts of the bone that have been fractured are completely separated from each other. There is complete separation of the cortex circumferentially. Complete fractures can be classified as: transverse: straight across the bone oblique: oblique line acr...
Article

Complex meniscal tear

Complex meniscal tears extend in more than one plane, and can in turn create separate flaps of meniscus.  Radiographic features MRI knee The mensical tear usually includes a combination of radial, horizontal, and longitudinal components (any two or all three). Often the meniscus substance app...
Article

Complex regional pain syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as Sudeck atrophy, is a condition which can affect the extremities in a wide clinical spectrum. CRPS is principally a clinical diagnosis - no one imaging study is sensitive or specific to rule in or rule out the syndrome.  Terminology Two types...
Article

Complications of total hip arthroplasty

Complications of total hip arthroplasty are common and it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs of total hip replacements. Complications are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered ...
Article

Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/or ep...
Article

Computed tomography scanogram for leg length discrepancy assessment

Computed tomography scanogram for leg length discrepancy assessment is performed in patients (children in most of the cases) with suspected inequality in leg length (anisomelia).  Technique obtained images are typically anteroposterior (AP) scout views of the bilateral femurs and tibias femor...
Article

Conditions involving skin and bone

There are many conditions that can involve both skin and bone. osteolytic bone lesions congenital neurofibromatosis basal cell nevus syndrome angiodysplasias acquired scleroderma rheumatoid arthritis gout leprosy syphilis actinomycosis langerhans cell histiocytosis sarcoidosis mas...
Article

Condylar process fractures

Condylar process fractures are fractures of the condylar process of the mandible. The condylar process of the mandible is involved in around 30% of all mandibular fractures. Condylar fractures are classified according to the location of the fracture and the direction displacement of the condyle...
Article

Condyle-C1 interval (CCI)

The condyle-C1 interval (CCI) is the measurement of the interval between condyle and C1 at four equidistant points on the joint surface in sagittal and coronal reconstructions of computed tomography. The CCI is reported to have a high lateral symmetry in children 1. Used with a cut-off of 4 mm,...
Article

Condyloid joint

Condyloid joints are a type of synovial joint where the articular surface of one bone has an ovoid convexity sitting within an ellipsoidal cavity of the other bone.   Movements Condyloid joints allow movement with two degrees of freedom much like saddle joints. They allow flexion/extension, ab...
Article

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle is a rare congenital condition, but awareness of its characteristic imaging appearance is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Failure to recognize this entity can lead to misdiagnosis of unilateral facet subluxation/dislocation, leading to unnecessary treatmen...
Article

Congenital anomalies of the posterior atlas arch

Congenital anomalies of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) are relatively common anomalies. They may range from partial defects presenting as clefts to complete absence of the posterior arch (aplasia). These anomalies are classified according to Currarino (see below). It should not be confuse...
Article

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Congenital diaphragmatic herniation (CDH) accounts for a small proportion of all diaphragmatic herniae. However, it is one of the most common non-cardiac fetal intrathoracic anomalies. Epidemiology Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are seen in 1 of every 2000-4000 live births. 84% are left-side...
Article

Congenital insensitivity to pain

Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) refers to a group of rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) characterized by an inability to feel pain 1. Terminology Although not clearly defined in the literature, congenital insensitivity to pain is not one specific diagnosis, but d...
Article

Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputation is the absence of a fetal limb or part of a limb that usually occurs due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology They are slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than ...
Article

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is a type of spinal canal stenosis and has different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 ye...
Article

Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is a wid...
Article

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is a rare condition, which typically presents as an isolated anatomical variant.  Clinical presentation Usually presents as a midclavicular swelling in the neonate or young child 1.  Pathology Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is more commo...
Article

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia describes abnormal bowing that can progress to a segment of bone loss simulating the appearance of a joint. The condition is usually apparent shortly after birth and is rarely diagnosed after the age of two. Pathology The etiology is unclear, however, ar...
Article

Congenital radial head dislocation

Congenital radial head dislocation is the most common congenital elbow abnormality. It can occur in isolation, or more commonly may be associated with other conditions or syndromes. Epidemiology Overall, congenital radial head dislocation is rare 2. Clinical presentation Congenital radial he...
Article

Congenital talipes equinovarus

Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is considered the most common anomaly affecting the feet diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. Terminology While some use CTEV and clubfoot (CF) synonymously, in certain publications term clubfoot is considered a more general descriptive term that describes t...
Article

Congenital hallux valgus

Congenital hallux valgus is a very rare finding wherein a fetus or newborn shows lateral deviation of the first toe(s). When found on prenatal imaging, bilateral congenital/foetal hallux valgus is highly suggestive of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 1,2.
Article

Connolly procedure

The Connolly procedure is performed by an open posterior approach and involves transferring the infraspinatus with a portion of greater tuberosity into the defect, rendering the defect extra-articular; although this procedure restore the stability, it reduces the shoulder range of movement. The ...
Article

Conoid ligament

The conoid ligament is one of two components forming the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. The trapezoid ligament is the other component. Gross anatomy The conoid ligament takes the shape of an inverted cone. It is the posteromedial part of the coracoclavicular ligament. Its apex originates from...
Article

Conoid tubercle

The conoid tubercle also known as the coracoid tuberosity (not to be confused with the coracoid process of the scapula) is a bony prominence on the inferior surface of the lateral third of the clavicle.  It marks the insertion of the conoid ligament (which along with the trapezoid ligament) for...
Article

Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa is, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve
Article

Contiguous bone activity

Contiguous bone activity is a bone scan phenomenon seen in tumors which incite a regional hyperemia. Increased activity on blood pool images is seen extending across joints and to adjacent bones. This should not be mistaken for direct tumor involvement.  An example of a tumor which may demonstr...
Article

Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of intravenously-administered contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; it is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complication...
Article

Contrecoup injury (knee)

A contrecoup injury of the knee is a bone contusion of the posterior lip of the medial tibial plateau. It occurs during knee reduction after a pivot shift injury and is highly associated with ACL tears 1, and peripheral tear or meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus posterior horn 2. ...
Article

Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Clinical presentation Patient...
Article

Conventional intramedullary chondrosarcoma

Conventional chondrosarcoma also known as central chondrosarcoma is the most common subtype of chondrosarcoma and may be low, intermediate or high grade (see chondrosarcoma grading). Epidemiology They typically occur in the 4th and 5th decades with a slight male predominance 1.5-2:1. Clinical...
Article

Convolutional markings

Convolutional markings are normal impressions of the gyri on the inner table of the skull, seen predominantly posteriorly. If they are pronounced and over the more anterior parts of the skull, then this is referred to as a copper beaten skull and suggests the presence of raised intracranial pres...
Article

Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

Cookie bite skeletal metastases

Cookie bite metastases are characterized by small focal eccentric lytic external cortical destruction in long tubular bones. This type of destruction is typically described for metastases from lung cancer, however, they can also occur with other tumors.
Article

Copper beaten skull

Copper beaten skull, also known as beaten silver skull or beaten brass skull, refers to the prominence of convolutional markings (gyral impressions on the inner table of the skull) seen throughout the skull vault. Clinical presentation The appearance of a copper beaten skull is associated with...
Article

Coracoacromial ligament

The coracoacromial ligament is a flat triangular band that plays a supportive role for the shoulder joint. Gross anatomy originates from the medial border of the acromion attaches to the lateral border of the coracoid process overlies the subacromial bursa indirectly supports the head of th...
Article

Coracobrachialis muscle

The coracobrachialis muscle is one of the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. It sits beneath the biceps brachii, inserting via a flat tendon into the medial shaft of the humerus. origin: coracoid process of scapula insertion: via a flat tendon onto the midportion of the medi...
Article

Coracoclavicular distance

The coracoclavicular (CC) distance is an indicator of the integrity of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. Radiographic features The CC distance is assessed on a frontal radiography of the shoulder or clavicle or the coronal projection or a CT or MRI as the distance between the superior cortex...
Article

Coracoclavicular joint

The coracoclavicular joint is a normal variant of the pectoral girdle, where the conoid tubercle of the clavicle appears enlarged or elongated, with a flattened inferior surface where it approximates the coracoid process of the scapula to form an articulation.  Epidemiology More common in Asia...
Article

Coracoclavicular ligament

The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament is the major vertical stabilizing factor of the acromioclavicular joint. Gross anatomy The coracoclavicular ligament can be divided into two parts, the more medial conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament.  conoid ligament origin: knuckle of the coracoid proc...
Article

Coracoclavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with the presence o...
Article

Coracohumeral interval

The normal coracohumeral interval measures between 7-11 mm. A measurement less than 6 mm is always considered abnormal 1. It is usually measured on axial or oblique sagittal CT or MRI 2.
Article

Coracohumeral ligament

The coracohumeral ligament (CHL) is a strong supportive ligament of the shoulder joint and is a part of rotator cuff interval. Gross anatomy originates from the lateral surface of the base of the coracoid process runs laterally across the glenohumeral capsule and covers the long head of bicep...
Article

Coracoid process

The coracoid process is an anteriorly projecting hook-like process on the superolateral edge of the scapula that projects anterolaterally. Gross anatomy Attachments muscles: coracobrachialis from the medial apex short head of biceps brachii from the lateral apex pectoralis minor from the m...
Article

Coracoid process fracture

Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or scapular fracture, as well as humeral head dislocation. In general, the coracoid process tends to fracture at its base and be minimal...
Article

Corduroy sign (vertebral hemangioma)

The corduroy sign refers to vertically-oriented, thickened trabeculae seen in intraosseous hemangiomas of the spine. It is the sagittal/coronal equivalent of the polka-dot sign seen on axial imaging.  It is caused by the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae...
Article

Coronal balance

Coronal balance is one of the features that needs to be assessed on long spine radiographs obtained for spinal deformity, particularly scoliosis. It measures whether or not the upper spine is located over the midline (normal) or off to one side.  To assess coronal balance, a vertical (plumb) li...
Article

Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral clefts refer to the presence of radiolucent vertical defects on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) t...
Article

Coronoid process (disambiguation)

Coronoid process can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: coronoid process (mandible) coronoid process (ulna)
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
Article

Corpectomy

Corpectomy (followed by fusion) refers to the removal of one or more vertebral bodies to treat compressive myelopathy caused by extensive hypertrophic osteoarthritis, tumor, infection or severe trauma. In most cases, the intervertebral discs are removed as well 1-3.  Technique An anterior or p...
Article

Corrugator supercilii muscle

The corrugator supercilii muscles are two small, triangular muscles of facial expression, which contribute to movement of the eyebrows, including frowning. They are located deep to the frontal part of occipitofrontalis and orbicularis oculi muscles, with which they blend 2. Summary origin: med...
Article

Cortical bone

The outer shell of compact bone is called cortical bone or cortex.  Gross anatomy Cortical bone contains Haversian systems (osteons) which contain a central Haversian canal surrounded by osseous tissue in a concentric lamellar pattern. Two fibrovascular layers surround the cortical bone which...
Article

Cortical desmoid

Cortical desmoids, also known as cortical avulsive injuries or the Bufkin lesion, are a benign self-limiting entity. This is a classic "do not touch" lesion, and should not be confused with an aggressive cortical/periosteal process (e.g. osteosarcoma).  Terminology Cortical desmoid is a misnom...
Article

Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
Article

Costochondral joint

The costochondral joints are the joints between each rib and its costal cartilage.  They are primary cartilaginous joints.  These joints represent the demarcation of the unossified and ossified part of the rib 1.  The joint is held together by periosteum, with the lateral aspect of the costal ca...
Article

Costoclavicular ligament

The costoclavicular ligament or rhomboid ligament is the major stabilizing factor of the sternoclavicular joint and is the axis of movement of the joint. Gross anatomy The costoclavicular ligament binds the inferior medial clavicle (via the rhomboid fossa) to the first costal cartilage and adj...
Article

Costovertebral joint

The costovertebral joint is an articulation between the ribs and the vertebral column. Gross Anatomy The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae via two distinctly different joints: costovertebral joint - articulation between the head of the rib and the vertebral body costotransverse joi...
Article

Costoxiphoid ligament

The costoxiphoid ligaments, also known as the chondroxiphoid ligaments, are inconstant fibrous structures joining the anterior and posterior surfaces of the xiphoid to the respective surfaces of the adjacent seventh and, occasionally, sixth costal cartilages.
Article

Cotton wool appearance (bone)

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...
Article

Coughlin classification

The Coughlin classification is the most widely used to type bunionettes. It relies on simple angle measurements on weightbearing foot radiographs taken in the dorsoplantar projection 1,2. In 2013 DiDomenico et al added type IV 2. Classification Type I enlarged lateral surface of the head of t...
Article

Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterized by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden nevus when it is considered a type of ...
Article

Coxa magna

Coxa magna is the asymmetrical, circumferential enlargement and deformation of the femoral head and neck. Definitions in the literature vary but enlargement with asymmetry >10% in size is a reasonable cut-off for diagnosis 1.  Pathology Etiology Legg-Calve-Perthes disease transient synovitis...
Article

Coxa plana

Coxa plana is flattening of the femoral head epiphysis and is associated with many skeletal disorders: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease haemophilic hemarthrosis Gaucher disease hypothyroidism spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia multiple epiphyseal dysplasia hemoglobinopathies, e.g. sickle cell anemi...
Article

Coxa profunda

Coxa profunda refers to a deep acetabular socket. On pelvis x-rays it is seen as the acetabular fossa being medial to the ilioischial line. It should be differentiated from protrusio acetabuli, where the femoral head is seen additionally medial to the ilioischial line. Coxa profunda is much more...
Article

Coxa valga

Coxa valga describes a deformity of the hip where there is an increased angle between the femoral neck and femoral shaft.  Pathology Coxa valga is often associated with shallow acetabular angles and femoral head subluxation.  Etiology bilateral neuromuscular disorders, e.g. cerebral palsy ...
Article

Coxa vara

Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the angle formed between the head and neck of the femur and its shaft (Mikulicz angle) is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees. Pathology It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechanism in congenital cases is a failure of m...
Article

Cozen fracture

Cozen fracture or phenomenon is the valgus angulation deformity of the tibia following a proximal tibial metaphyseal fracture in children. Epidemiology This typically occurs as a late deformity in children aged 3-6 years. Pathology Etiology Proposed causes include: non-recognized or under ...
Article

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is one of four types of fibrous dysplasia and is characterized, as the name suggests, by involvement of the skull and facial bones. For a general discussion of the underlying pathology, refer to the parent article fibrous dysplasia. Terminology Although the term...
Article

Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance with an overall incidence of 1 in 2000-2500. 8% of cases are syndromic or famil...
Article

Craniotabes

Craniotabes is defined as a softening of the skull bones that may be normally present in newborns.
Article

Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology The craniovertebral junction ...
Article

Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is a key enzyme, for energy production in mitochondria and muscle tissues. It is important as a diagnostic assay in clinical practice, primarily because inflamed/injured muscle releases creatine kinase into the circulation 1. Phy...
Article

Crescent sign of avascular necrosis

The crescent sign of avascular necrosis is seen on conventional radiographs and refers to a linear area of subchondral lucency seen most frequently in the anterolateral aspect of the proximal femoral head (which is optimally depicted on the frog-leg radiographic view). It indicates imminent arti...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.