Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

4,047 results found
Article

Tenosynovial giant cell tumor

Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (GCT) are a group of usually benign tumors that arise from the synovium of joints, bursae or tendon sheaths. Despite identical histology, there are two subtypes that have different clinical presentations and management and they are discussed separetely 3: localize...
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Giant cell tumor (disambiguation)

There are a few types of giant cell tumors that may be morphologically similar but are genetically unrelated: giant cell tumor of bone giant cell tumor of soft tissue tenosynovial giant cell tumor extra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumor intra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumor l...
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Flat-top talus

Flat-top talus is considered a complication of non-operative treatment of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) but can also be seen in surgically treated and non-treated patients and the etiology is not clear 1,2. It results in reduced ankle dorsiflexion due to anterior ankle impingement fr...
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Pseudo-Madelung deformity

Pseudo-Madelung deformity refers to increased radial inclination (i.e. ulnar tilt) of the distal radius but with negative ulnar variance and the absence of other typical features of Madelung deformity 1.  Pathology Pseudo-Madelung deformity can be due to 1-3: hereditary multiple exostoses po...
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Lister's tubercle fracture

Lister's tubercle fractures are a type of distal radial fracture which involves the dorsal aspect of the distal radius including Lister's tubercle. Radiographic features Plain radiograph / CT  Can be seen as a fracture and/or avulsed ossific fragment at the Lister's tubercle to varying degree...
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Solitary circumscribed neuroma

Solitary circumscribed neuromas, also known as palisaded encapsulated neuromas,  are benign tumors primarily occurring in the cutaneous tissues of the face, often at the mucocutaneous border 1.  Epidemiology Although they can occur at any age, there is a predilection for later middle age (40-6...
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Subtalar arthroereisis

Subtalar arthroereisis is a non-fusion surgical treatment of pediatric symptomatic flexible flatfoot (pes planus). The procedure involves the insertion of an implant into the subtalar joint to correct excessive hindfoot eversion. Procedure There are two techniques for subtalar arthroereisis 1:...
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VEXAS syndrome

VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome is a severe, treatment-refractory, monogenic, multiorgan, autoinflammatory condition with vasculitic and hematological complications. Epidemiology VEXAS syndrome is likely to be rare, but also likely to be underdiagnosed...
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Donohue syndrome

Donohue syndrome, also known as leprechaunism, is a rare autosomal recessive form of insulin resistance syndrome with a distinctive phenotype including elfin facies and severe disturbances of glucose homeostasis. It is universally fatal in early childhood. Epidemiology Donohue syndrome is very...
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Nail unit (anatomy)

The nail unit or nail apparatus refers to a group of distal digital structures involved in the function and support of the nail plate. Gross anatomy Structures of the distal phalanx composing the nail unit include 1: nail plate nail matrix nail bed periungual soft tissues eponychium (cuti...
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Soft tissue mass

Soft tissue masses or lesions are a common medical condition seen by primary care physicians, family physicians, surgeons and orthopedists. They include all soft tissue outgrowths benign and malignant 1-3. Epidemiology Soft tissue masses are very common, with benign lesions being much more fre...
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Ulnar bow sign

The ulnar bow sign is a radiographic indication of a plastic deformity of the ulna, its assessment is quite useful in the case of a suspected "isolated" radial head dislocation in the pediatric population 1,3. "Isolated" dislocation of the radial head is almost always in fact associated with a ...
Article

Osteolytic bone lesion

Osteolytic lesions, lytic or lucent bone lesions are descriptive terms for lesions that replace normal bone or with a vast proportion showing a lower density or attenuation than the normal cancellous bone. This comprises lesions with fatty liquid and solid soft tissue components. Pathology Luc...
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Accessory muscles of respiration

Accessory muscles of respiration refer to muscles that provide assistance to the main breathing muscles, mainly when additional power is needed, for example during exercise or those with airway pathologies (e.g. COPD) 1,2. During normal quiet breathing, inspiration is an active process primaril...
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Mixed density bone lesion

The term mixed density bone lesion is used to describe lesions with a combination of osteolytic and osteosclerotic components within or adjacent to cancellous bone. The amount of osteolytic and osteoblastic areas within the lesion remains more or less subjective 1. Differential diagnosis Simil...
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Epiphyseal triangle (femur)

Epiphyseal triangle, also known as Ludloff space (or Ludloff fleck in German), of the femur is a prominent triangular area of radiolucency on lateral radiographs which may be mistaken for pathology but is a radiological variant.  The epiphyseal triangle when seen is most prominent in older chil...
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Neck axis distance

The neck axis distance is a measurement of acetabular version, although it has only been described in one study (c.2022) 1. Measurement On an AP pelvic x-ray, a line (N) is drawn along the axis of the femoral neck bisecting a circle of best fit drawn around the femoral head. The neck axis dist...
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Metacarpophalangeal joint dislocation

Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) dislocations are uncommon dislocations of the hand. Epidemiology Metacarpophalangeal joint dislocations account for ~3-5% of all dislocations 1,2. The thumb is the most commonly affect digit, followed by the little finger 2. Clinical presentation The initial...
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Half-moon sign (femoral neck)

The half-moon sign describes the morphology of bone marrow edema at the femoral neck on fluid-sensitive MRI sequences, which can be seen in osteoid osteoma or stress fractures 1-3.  Differential diagnosis intra-articular osteoid osteoma in patients without history of overuse it is highly spec...
Article

Double-arc sign

The double-arc sign, also known as the McKee double-arc sign, is a radiographic indication of a coronal shear fracture of the distal humerus, which involves the capitellum and extends beyond the lateral trochlear ridge to include a part of the trochlea 1,2. The double-arc sign is characterized ...
Article

Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy

Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is classified as a form or myopathy and sometimes a form of myositis. Epidemiology Associations interstitial lung disease - anti-SRP autoantibody associated interstitial lung disease 3 cardiomyopathy 7 Clinical presentation It is clinically chara...
Article

Basivertebral nerve

The basivertebral nerve supplies the vertebral endplates and can be a target for treating back pain.  Gross anatomy The basivertebral nerve is a paired nerve arising from the sinuvertebral nerve. It ascends from its origin to enter the spinal canal, traversing centrally 1. It courses with the ...
Article

Fibulotalocalcaneal ligament

The fibulotalocalcaneal ligament is part of the deep crural fascia and runs medially from the posteromedial border of the lateral malleolus (anterior malleolar groove) with two sheet-like laminae that insert on the superolateral surface of the calcaneus and the lateral tubercle of the posterior ...
Article

Sugaya classification

The Sugaya classification is a 5-point system used to evaluate rotator cuff repair. Usage The Sugaya classification is the most common system used to evaulate rotator cuff repair 2 although intra- and inter-observer reproducibility is variable 3,4.  Classification The Sugaya classification a...
Article

Cervical foraminal stenosis

Cervical foraminal stenosis is a common condition that is mostly asymptomatic but in some results in cervical radiculopathy. Clinical presentation Cervical foraminal stenosis is most commonly asymptomatic but can result in cervical nerve root compression, which in turn results in cervical radi...
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Stener-like lesion of the medial collateral ligament of the knee

Stener-like lesions of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) occur when a tear involves the distal fibers of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) are displaced superficially to the pes anserinus, which can result in compromised healing. Pathology Usually, the sMCL runs deep to the p...
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Triceps tendon rupture

A triceps tendon rupture represents the extreme end of the spectrum of triceps tendon tears where there is complete detachment of the triceps tendon. It most often occurs at the distal end. Pathology If can either occur in an acute setting with trauma (e.g. as a result of a sudden forceful elb...
Article

Voriconazole-induced periostitis

Voriconazole-included periostitis is a type of drug-induced periostitis and is a rare cause of diffuse bone pain in those on high dose or prolonged voriconazole therapy.  Epidemiology Voriconazole-induced periostitis primarily occurs in the immunocompromised and transplant patient populations,...
Article

Zebra sign (disambiguation)

The evocative appearance of the coat of a zebra has been used for several distinctive signs in radiology: zebra sign: cerebellar hemorrhage 1 zebra sign: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 zebra spleen: arterial phase appearance of normal spleen 4,5 zebra stripe sign: treated osteogenesis imper...
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Liposuction

Liposuction is a cosmetic procedure to reduce the volume of adipose tissue in the neck, arms, legs and/or abdomen. Areolar fat, a deeper layer of adipose tissue, is the main target and shows a good response to vacuum-assisted liposuction.  There are three types of this procedure 1,2: power-ass...
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Bone marrow reconversion

Bone marrow reconversion generates a red bone marrow pattern that is in reverse to the normal yellow-to-red distribution.  Pathology Bone marrow reconversion occurs when there is increased hematopoietic demand, which may be 1,2: physiological cigarette smoking obesity high endurance athlet...
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Focal nodular marrow hyperplasia

Focal nodular marrow hyperplasia is a rare, benign condition where there is a localized conversion of red/hematopoietic from yellow/fatty bone marrow. Its main relevance is of having a pseudotumor appearance mimicking skeletal metastases on MRI 1. Pathology Location Most commonly located in t...
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Low T1 bone lesion

Low T1 bone lesions or T1 hypointense bone lesions are radiological terms to categorize bone lesions according to their visually perceived low signal on T1 weighted images. Apart from the usual description of a bone lesion seen on MRI they are used to categorize incidentally found solitary bone ...
Article

Hook-like osteophytes

Hook-like osteophytes describe overhanging bone spurs seen at the metacarpal heads, usually at the radial aspect, and characteristically seen with hemochromatosis, although may be seen in other conditions 1. Differential diagnosis Hook-like osteophytes are seen in: hemochromatosis: characteri...
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High T1 bone lesion

High T1 bone lesions or T1 hyperintense bone lesions are radiological terms to categorize bone lesions with a high signal on T1 weighted images. Apart from the usual description of a bone lesion seen on MRI the terms can be used to categorize incidentally found solitary bone lesions in the Bone ...
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Ossification of the interosseous membrane of the leg

Ossification of the interosseous membrane of the leg is considered a form of heterotopic ossification. It is typically seen as bridging ossification between the tibia and fibula. Three types have been described. type I: usually occurs after a syndesmosis ankle sprain type II: usually from a t...
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Bone remodeling

Bone remodeling is the continuous lifelong coupled process of bone resorption and bone formation 1-4. It is the prerequisite for repairing bony microdamage during daily physical activities, the adaption of bone architecture to meet different mechanical demands and the prevention of aging effects...
Article

Monkeypox

Monkeypox is a rare zoonosis caused by an orthopoxvirus and in general, produces a mild flu-like illness and rash in humans. Virologically and clinically the condition is similar to smallpox, the first viral disease to be eradicated by humans. In 2022, a new outbreak of monkeypox was identified ...
Article

Speed test (shoulder)

The Speed test is used to clinically assess for biceps tendon pathology. Procedure In this test, the examiner places the patient's arm in shoulder flexion, external rotation, full elbow extension, and forearm supination. Manual resistance is then applied by the examiner in a downward direction...
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Cyanosis

Cyanosis (plural: cyanoses) is a physical sign represented by bluish discolouration of the skin. It indicates there is reduced oxygen bound to red blood cells in the bloodstream. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of cyanosis is based on a thorough history and physical examination. Pathology Et...
Article

Holstein-Lewis fracture

Holstein-Lewis fractures represent a special type of humeral shaft fracture. It is a simple spiral fracture of the distal humerus with a radial displacement of the distal fragment 1,3,4. These fractures are reported to have a higher rate of radial nerve palsy when compared to other humeral shaft...
Article

Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
Article

Tetanus

Tetanus is a rare vaccine-preventable disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous soil bacterium which contaminates open wounds. It secretes a powerful neurotoxin which degrades neuromuscular junction function, producing muscle spasms and, despite intensive intervention, is often fatal. ...
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Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures

The Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures is a classification system used when assessing intertrochanteric fractures. The Tronzo classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Due to its simplicity, the Tronzo classification has become the preferr...
Article

Vinyl chloride toxicity

Vinyl chloride toxicity (and polyvinyl chloride) may rarely result from occupational exposure, most notably manifesting as chronic liver disease and rare hepatic malignancies. However due to strict regulation of the industrial manufacturing and processing of vinyl chloride since the 1970s, signi...
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Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures

The Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures, also known as the Herbert and Fisher classification, is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing scaphoid fractures. The Herbert classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Cl...
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Ground glass (disambiguation)

The term ground glass may be used to refer to: ground glass opacity (lungs) ground glass matrix of fibrous dysplasia
Article

Matrix (bone)

The matrix (plural: matrices) of the bone is used in a general pathological context to refer to the extracellular material in which the cellular components of the bone lie. Indeed the term extracellular matrix, often shortened to matrix, is used for the secreted extracellular components of any t...
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Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS)

The Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) is an algorithm developed and proposed by the Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards Committee of the Society of Skeletal Radiology for the diagnostic workup of incidentally encountered solitary bone lesions in adults on MRI and/or CT 1. It has...
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Subperiosteal hematoma

A subperiosteal hematoma occurs between the periosteum and the cortex of a bone and is therefore geographically limited to the affected bone. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation varies with location. Subperiosteal hematomas have been described in the calvarium, iliac bone, humerus, fem...
Article

Pudendal nerve entrapment syndrome

Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) syndrome is a rare and under-diagnosed condition associated with chronic pain, sexual dysfunction and impaired sphincter control due to compression of the pudendal nerve.   Anatomy The pudendal nerve arises from S2-S4 roots of the sacral plexus, carrying both s...
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Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
Article

V sign of interphalangeal joint dislocation

The V sign is characterized on a lateral radiograph of the digit by the separation of the dorsal base of the dislocated phalanx and the head of the phalanx proximal to the incongruent joint 1,2. Before reduction, the V sign might be assessed to identify more subtle dorsal subluxations 1. If th...
Article

Scapulothoracic bursa

Scapulothoracic bursae refer to a number of bursae that allow for the gliding movement of the scapulothoracic joint. Two major bursae have been reliably described 1,3: infraserratus (scapulothoracic) bursa: between the serratus anterior muscle and the chest wall supraserratus (subscapularis) ...
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Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures

The Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures is a commonly used classification system when assessing thumb metacarpal fractures. However, since most types of fractures coincide with famous eponymous fractures, the system itself isn't usually used properly, giving preferenc...
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Subperiosteal abscess

Subperiosteal abscesses refer to the subperiosteal spread of infection characterized by purulent encapsulated fluid collections within the subperiosteal space. Epidemiology Subperiosteal abscesses are more often seen in children than in adults 1,2. Associations Subperiosteal abscesses have b...
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Ulcer (soft tissue)

An ulcer refers to the break in the skin, epithelium, or mucous membrane resulting in the discontinuity in the surface tissue, necrosis, and often pus formation 1. Risk factors immunocompromised (e.g. diabetics) 1 immobile patients 1,2 advanced age 2 poor nutrition 2 increased moisture 2 ...
Article

Intraosseous abscess

Intraosseous abscess refers to the pus-filled cavity within the bone with the surrounding rim of granulation tissue 1. Terminology The term intraosseous abscess should be used for fluid-signal cavities within the bone showing peripheral rim enhancement or show a penumbra sign or diffusion rest...
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Planar wort

Planar worts or plantar verruca refer to superficially based benign epithelial lesions occurring in the dermal / subdermal layers of the skin.  Pathology They are thought to be caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63 and sometimes by types 57, 65, 66, nd 156. Radi...
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Mayo classification of olecranon fractures

The Mayo classification of olecranon fractures is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing olecranon fractures. The Mayo classification can be used to aid in treatment choice. Mayo type II and III fractures usually require operative treatment. Classification The M...
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Devitalised soft tissue

Devitalised soft tissue occurs in diabetic feet or peripheral vascular disease, particularly deep to and around ulcers. Terminology Devitalised soft tissue is preferred to necrotic or ischemic soft tissue as the current understanding (c. 2022) is whether MRI appearances truly reflect necrosis ...
Article

Sinus tract

Sinus tracts are an abnormal connection between a fluid collection with a mucous mucosal surface and/or skin 1,2. It can result from acute or chronic processes and occasionally extend into the joints and bones 1. Terminology The term sinus tract is non-specific; however, when used in soft tiss...
Article

Floating knee

A floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular injury is p...
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Prognathism

Prognathism or mandibular prognathism refers to a type of morphological jaw positional anomaly in which the lower jaw protrudes ahead of the upper jaw. This results in an extended chin and dental malocclusion. It can be associated with certain conditions such as acromegaly syphilis - late cong...
Article

Subscapularis tendon tear

Subscapularis tendon tears are a less common rotator cuff tear, and have been considered more difficult to diagnose pre-operatively (both clinically and radiological) and have been known as a "hidden lesion" 5. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important as it affects the surgical approach and...
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Infectious tenosynovitis

Infectious or septic tenosynovitis refers to an infection of the closed synovial tendon sheath 1-3. Terminology The term ‘infectious or septic tenosynovitis’ applies for tendons with a tendon sheath, for tendons without a tendon sheath with a paratenon the term ‘infective paratenonitis’ can be...
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Soft tissue abscess

Soft tissue abscesses are focal or localized collections of pus caused by bacteria or other pathogens surrounded by a peripheral rim or abscess membrane found within the soft tissues in any part of the body 1. Soft tissue abscesses include subcutaneous abscesses, intramuscular abscesses and int...
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Foot (DP talus view)

The medial oblique axial talus view, also known as the Canale view, is a specialized projection of the talus bone, more specifically the talar neck. Indications This view is specifically indicated when assessing talar neck fracture and/or their follow-up. It is particularly useful to assess va...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
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Center edge angle of Wiberg

The center-edge angle (CEA) of Wiberg is a measurement in the pelvis which is the angle formed by Perkin line and a line from the center of the femoral head to the lateral edge of the acetabulum. It can be used to assess for conditions such as developmental dysplasia of the hip although only con...
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Aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions (radiographs)

Bone lesions are generally characterized as either aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions, with radiographs forming much of an initial assessment.  Imaging features When describing a bone lesion, some of its features reflect its biological activity. These characteristics include zone of...
Article

Cruciate ligament tears (knee)

The cruciate ligaments of the knee commonly tear: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear the ACL is the most commonly torn knee ligament 1 posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear tears of the PCL are less common and usually less significant 2
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Talocrural angle

The talocrural angle can be used to assess for fibular shortening after a fracture. Measurement The talocrural angle is measured on the mortise view as the angle between a line along the distal tibial plafond articular surface and another line joining the tips of both malleoli 3,4.  Interpret...
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First metatarsal declination angle

The first metatarsal declination angle can be used to assess for metatarsus primus elevatus in hallux rigidus.  Measurement The first metatarsal declination angle is formed between the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal and the supporting surface 1-4.  Interpretation normal: 20-21° 1-...
Article

Patellofemoral angle

The patellofemoral angle is a measure of patellar tilt and is useful in the diagnosis of patellofemoral instability and excessive lateral pressure syndrome.  Measurement The patellofemoral angle is formed between a line drawn along the bony lateral patellar facet and another line drawn along t...
Article

Regional migratory osteoporosis

Regional migratory osteoporosis is a rare arthralgia affecting the weight-bearing joints of the lower limb.  Epidemiology Regional migratory osteoporosis is most common in middle-aged men 1. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation is a history of non-traumatic joint pain, whi...
Article

Ilizarov apparatus

The Ilizarov apparatus (aka Ilizarov frame) is an external metallic orthopedic fixation device used to length or reshape limbs from congenital deformity or following injury. The procedure was pioneered by the Polish surgeon Gavrill Abramovich Ilizarov.  
Article

Comma sign of subscapularis tear

The comma sign of subscapularis tear was first described on arthroscopy but recognized later on MRI. The comma sign represents a full thickness partial width superior subscapularis tear along with torn superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligament insertional fibers vertically retracted via a...
Article

Broden's view

The Broden's view (or Broden view) is a specialized projection that accurately 1 examines the large posterior calcaneal facet and the subtalar joint 2. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used to better visualize and characterize fragment displacements and fracture ...
Article

Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and...
Article

Friedman line

The Friedman or scapular line can be used to determine glenoid version and glenoid bone loss 4. Glenoid version angle measured by the Friedman method has better inter-reader reliability than the scapular body method 2.  Measurement The Friedman line is drawn along the long axis of the scapula ...
Article

AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
Article

Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
Article

Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
Article

Hair

Hair (TA: pilus/pili) remains important physiologically and psychologically for humans. The hair shaft develops from a structure known as the hair follicle. Each hair has an arrector pili muscle and both sensory and sympathetic neural connections. Gross anatomy The hair shaft (TA: stipes pili)...
Article

Tram-track sign (knee)

The tram-track sign refers to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) appearance when it has a diffuse or partial thickening of the anteroposterior diameter greater than 7 mm. It is associated with longitudinal intraligamentous signal abnormalities showing fluid signal characteristics (hyperintens...
Article

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is the measurement of the distance between the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform and the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal bone 1,2. Usage Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is an important measurement used in ass...
Article

Post-traumatic pseudolipoma

Post-traumatic pseudolipomas, also known as post-traumatic lipohypertrophy, are prominent increases in the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or even benign tumors arising at the location of a preceding blunt soft tissue trauma 1. Clinical presentation Focal palpable mass, not tender and wi...
Article

Lateral tibiotalar distance

Lateral tibiotalar distance is a measurement on an ankle anterior drawer lateral view to assess for ankle instability.  Measurement On an ankle anterior drawer lateral view (typically performed using a Telos device 2-4), the distance between the posterior tip of the distal tibial articular sur...
Article

Furuncle

A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...
Article

Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...
Article

Folliculitis

Folliculitis (plural: folliculitides) is an inflammation of the hair follicle, which is usually infective and due to bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus.  Epidemiology Folliculitis is more common in men 1. Risk factors shaving hot tubs, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa hot clima...
Article

Nunley-Vertullo classification

The Nunley-Vertullo classification is one of several classification systems used for the categorization of Lisfranc injuries. It is based on clinical, x-ray and bone scan findings and also associates the stages with management options or recommendations regarding those injuries 1-3. Usage The ...

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