Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,742 results found
Article

Hook of hamate fracture

Hook of hamate fractures are rare. They occur from the hamate fracturing after blunt trauma, falls, and in sports player (e.g. golf, baseball, racquet sports) from a direct blow while swinging. Stress fractures have also been reported.  It may result in Guyon's canal syndrome. Differential dia...
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Os hamuli proprium

The hook of the hamate has its own ossification center, which may fail to fuse with body of the hamate, creating an ossicle. This ossicle is reffered to as an os hamuli proprium or unfused hamulus  In some instances, this can be difficult to distinguish from a fracture of the hook, but is sugge...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. It is also sometimes classified as a vasculitis.  Epidemiology There is an overall increased female predilection. In adults, women are affected 9-13 times more than males. In children, this ratio i...
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Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid

Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid, also known as a pseudo-Jones fracture or a dancer fracture, is one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and accounts for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Despite what should be a simple entity, controversy exists, as ...
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Haemochromatosis (skeletal manifestations)

Haemochromatosis is a systemic disease which affects many organs systems, including the joints, characterised by haemosiderin and calcium pyrophosphate deposition. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis.  ...
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Shoulder arthrography

Shoulder arthrography is an imaging technique used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint to evaluate the joint components. Glenohumeral joint injection is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance although the use of US has also been reported 1. An alternative to direct arthrography (where cont...
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Indirect arthrography

Indirect arthrography is an MRI technique to produce arthrographic images without the need to perform a direct joint injection.  A standard dose of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent is injected intravenously and imaging of the shoulder performed after a delay of typically between 5 and 15 ...
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Morel-Lavallée lesion

A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed degloving injury associated with trauma which then evolves to form a haemolymphatic mass. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions, s...
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Patella

The patella (plural: patellae)  is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. It lies within the quadriceps tendon / patellar ligament and forms part of the knee joint.  Gross anatomy Osteology The patella is triangular in shape with a superior base and inferior apex. The posterior surface ...
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Rocker bottom foot

A rocker bottom foot (also known as a congenital vertical talus) is a congenital anomaly of the foot. It is characterised by a prominent calcaneus/heel and a convex rounded sole. Pathology It results from a dorsal and lateral dislocation of the talonavicular joint. Associations aneuploidic s...
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Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5 . Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there i...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumours but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fract...
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Sever disease

Sever disease refers to a calcaneal apophysitis, an inflammation of the apophysis of the heel. Epidemiology It typically presents in active young children and adolescents, especially those who enjoy jumping and running sports.  Clinical presentation Patients tend to present with posterior he...
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Mueller-Weiss syndrome (classification)

Mueller Weiss syndrome refers to a spontaneous adult onset osteonecrosis of the tarsal navicular. This syndrome is multifactorial and related to chronic loading on a suboptimally ossified navicular bone which is susceptible to central osteonecrosis due to its centripetal blood supply. It is dist...
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Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
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Anterior cruciate ligament tear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology and orthopaedic practice. Pathology The ACL is the most commonly disrupted ligament of the knee, especially in athletes who participate in sports that involve rapid starting, stopping, and ...
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Focal periphyseal oedema zone

Focal periphyseal oedema zones, also known as FOPE zones, are regions of bone marrow oedema seen on MRI that are principally located at the physes about the knee. They are thought to represent potentially painful manifestations of physiologic physeal fusion 1. Epidemiology FOPE zones are seen ...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Arcuate sign (knee)

The arcuate sign is often a subtle but important finding on knee x-rays and represents an avulsion fracture of the proximal fibula at the site of insertion of the arcuate ligament complex, and is usually associated with cruciate ligament injury (~90% of cases) 2. The fracture fragment is attache...
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Bone age assessment

Bone age assessment is used to radiologically assess the biological and structural maturity of immature patients from the hand and wrist x-ray appearances. It forms an important part of the diagnostic and management pathway in children with growth and endocrine disorders. It is helpful in the di...
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Olecranon

The olecranon is a large bony prominence at the proximal end of the ulna. It is palpable at the posterior aspect of the elbow.  Summary location proximal end of the ulna articulates with the olecranon fossa of the humerus blood supply ​deep nutrient branch of the ulnar artery relations p...
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Deep vein thrombosis

The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for those that occur in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate article...
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Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
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Interparietal hernia

Interparietal hernias are a general category of ventral abdominal wall hernia, defined by occurrence of the hernia sac lies between the layers of the anterior abdominal wall. They are commonly incisional hernias and most Spigelian hernias are of this type. See also abdominal hernia
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Seronegative spondyloarthritides

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies or spondyloarthritis, are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and common immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished on the basis of the patient’...
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Pseudohypoparathyroidism

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a condition where there is end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Pathology Subtypes There are several recognised subtypes which include: type I: abnormal cAMP response to PTH stimulation type Ia (Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)): has c...
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Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination of biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter...
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Brachymetatarsia

Brachymetatarsia (a.k.a. congenital short metatarsus) is a rare condition that develops from early closure of the growth plate.  Epidemiology Females are almost exclusively affected 1.  Pathology Location It typically involves the fourth ray or, less frequently, more than one metatarsal bon...
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Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
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Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also known as subacute necrotising lymphadenitis or subacute necrotising histiocytosis, is an idiopathic disease characterised usually by cervical lymph node enlargement (80%). Epidemiology It typically affects young women. Clinical presentation It usually presents ...
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Levator ani syndrome

Levator ani syndrome (LAS) is a musculoskeletal pain syndrome involving the pelvic floor, thought to be caused by spasm or scarring of the levator ani muscles. Clinical presentation Levator ani syndrome is characterised by recurrent pain, pressure or discomfort in the region of the rectum, sac...
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Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries

Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations. Pathology The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results in inst...
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Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
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Tophus

Tophi (plural of tophus) appear as lumps on affected joints due to deposits of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in patients with longstanding high levels of serum uric acid (hyperuricaemia). Tophi are a pathognomonic feature of gout. History and etymology Tophus means "stone" in Latin.
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Levator palpebrae superioris

The levator palpebrae superioris muscle is a small muscle of the superior orbit that elevates and retracts the upper eyelid. It is not part of the extra-ocular muscles; it does not insert on the globe and therefore does not produce eye movements. It is mostly composed of skeletal muscle but ther...
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Avulsion injuries

Avulsion injuries or fractures occur where a portion of cortical bone is ripped from the rest of the bone by the attached tendon, are common among those who participate in sports, and there are numerous sites at which these occur. Being familiar with them is important as chronic injuries can app...
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Tibial plateau fracture

Tibial plateau fractures were originally termed a bumper or fender fracture but only 25% of tibial plateau fractures result from impact with automobile bumpers. Pathology The most common mechanism of injury involves axial loading, e.g. fall from a significant height. In younger patients, the m...
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Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
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Clinodactyly

Clinodactyly is a descriptive term that refers to a radial angulation at an interphalangeal joint in the radio-ulnar or palmar planes. It typically affects the 5th finger. Epidemiology  The estimated incidence is highly variable dependent on sampling and has been reported to range between 1-18...
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Slipped upper femoral epiphysis

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnormalities in adolescence and is bilateral in ~20% of cases. Epidemiology ...
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Genitofemoral nerve

The genitofemoral nerve is a branch of the lumbar plexus arising within the substance of the psoas major muscle from the union of anterior rami of L1 and L2 spinal nerves. The nerve descends in the retroperitoneum to give off genital and femoral terminal branches supplying the skin over the ante...
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Indirect inguinal hernia

Indirect inguinal hernias are the most common type of abdominal hernias. Epidemiology It is five times more common than a direct inguinal hernia, and is seven times more frequent in males, due to the persistence of the processus vaginalis during testicular descent.  In children, the vast majo...
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Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
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Die-punch fracture

Die-punch fractures result from an axial loading force on the distal radius. It is an intra-articular fracture of the lunate fossa of the distal radius 1. It is by definition depressed or impacted and is named after the machining technique of shearing a shape, depression or hole in a material wi...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females.  Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anato...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Gout

Gout is a crystal arthropathy due to deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints. Epidemiology Typically occurs in those above 40 years. There is a strong male predilection of 20:1. Clinical presentation Acute gouty arthritis presents with a monoarticular red, inflamed, ...
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Accessory soleus muscle

The accessory soleus muscle is an anatomical variant characterised by an additional distinct muscle encountered along a normal soleus muscle. It is uncommon with a prevalence of ~3% (range 0.7-5.5%). Summary origin: fibula, soleal line of the tibia, or the anterior surface of the soleus muscle...
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Tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture

Tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures are uncommon and usually associated with sports activities that require jumping. Avulsion occurs with the violent active extension of the knee or passive flexion against contracted quadriceps muscles. Although an acute injury, tibial tuberosity avulsion is m...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
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Extensor pollicis brevis

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis longus...
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Mandibular condylar hyperplasia

Condylar hyperplasia is a rare pathology of the mandible, which refers to an asymmetrical, non-neoplastic growth of a mandibular condyle.   Epidemiology Mandibular condylar hyperplasia usually occurs unilaterally. It affects males and females equally and is usually encountered between 10-30 ye...
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Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account for ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Very rarely the pisiform may be dislocated without fracture and ...
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Cellulitis

Cellulitis (more specifically referred to as superficial cellulitis) is an acute infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It results in pain, erythema, oedema, and warmth. Since the epidermis is not involved, cellulitis is not transmitted by person-to-person contact. Pathology Celluli...
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Pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum (or funnel chest) is a congenital chest wall deformity characterised by concave depression of the sternum, resulting in cosmetic and radiographic alterations. Epidemiology It is the most common chest wall deformity, accounting for approximately 90% of cases, occurs in up to 1 ...
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Gastrocnemius muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is one of the calf muscles (triceps sure) in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg which sits superificial to the much larger soleus muscle. It gives the calf its distinctive two-headed appearance and is a primary plantarflexor. Summary origin: superior to a...
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Fibrous cortical defect

Fibrous cortical defects (FCD) are benign bony lesions and are a type of fibroxanthoma, histologically identical to the larger non-ossifying fibroma (NOF). Epidemiology Fibrous cortical defects typically occur in children (usually 2-15 years), and indeed are one of the most common benign bony ...
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Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a form of muscular dystrophy characterised by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Epidemiology It is considered one of the more common hereditary muscular disorders with a prevalence of ~1 in 8,000. ...
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Os acromiale

Os acromiale is an anatomical variant and represents an unfused accessory centre of ossification of the acromion of the scapula. Epidemiology Os acromiale are relatively common, seen in ~8% (range 1-15%) of the population 1,2 and may be bilateral in 60% of individuals 5. Clinical presentation...
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Amputation

The term amputation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body. Specifically amputation is defined as removal of the structure through a bone. This is in contrast to disarticulation, which is removal of the structure through a joint. When due to trauma, traumatic amputat...
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Epiphyseal spur

Epiphyseal spur refers to a spur seen in skeletally mature individuals arising at the level of closed epiphyseal line. It may be seen in any epiphysis. Differential diagnosis avulsion fracture
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Isolated greater trochanteric fracture

Greater trochanteric fractures generally result from forceful muscle contraction of a fixed limb, which usually occurs in those who are young and physically active. It can also be caused by direct trauma. Epidemiology Generally, isolated trochanteric fractures are seen more so in young, active...
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Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis (multiplex congenita) is a clinical or imaging descriptor that denotes congenital non-progressive joint contractures involving two or more body regions.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in approximately 1:3000-10,000 live births 6,8. Pathology It can result from a number o...
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Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) is a muscle in the second (intermediate) layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm that splits into four tendons, passes under the flexor retinaculum and through the carpal tunnel, to insert into the middle phalanx of the 2nd-5th digits.  Summary ori...
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Hajdu-Cheney syndrome

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a very rare connective tissue disorder with only 50 cases reported in the literature 2. Clinical presentation It is mostly diagnosed in adulthood or adolescence with the presence of a positive family history. There has been no link between severity of disease and age o...
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Mazabraud syndrome

Mazabraud syndrome is a rare syndrome consisting of: fibrous dysplasia: usually polyostotic 2 multiple soft tissue myxomas (intramuscular myxomas): typically in large muscle groups Epidemiology It is very rare, with only 81 cases in the global literature reported to 2012 13. It is most frequ...
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Geographic appearance

Geographic appearance is a term used in imaging, and other clinical fields (e.g. histopathology) to describe lesions with a well-circumscribed margins with adjacent tissues.  The term derives from the somewhat similar appearance of the outline of countries on a map or the clear demarcation forme...
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Os peroneum

An os peroneum is a small accessory bone located at the lateral plantar aspect of the cuboid within the substance of the peroneus longus tendon as it arches around the cuboid. It is a very common anatomical variant, seen in up to 26% of feet 1. Differential diagnosis It should not be mistaken ...
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Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen in eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterised by destructive lytic bone lesions, the edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent. See also geographic appearance
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Lodwick classification

The Lodwick classification is a system for describing the margins of a lucent/lytic bone lesion. The terms used in the description suggest the level of concern for an aggressive, and possibly malignant, process. Classification type 1: geographic 1A: thin, sclerotic margin 1B: distinct, well-...
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Clavicle tumours

Clavicle tumours may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramed...
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Hanging and strangulation

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Ossification centres of the pectoral girdle

Ossification centres of the pectoral girdle can be divided into each of the three bones that form it: clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus. Ossification centres of the clavicle lateral end: 5 weeks in utero medial end: 15 years Ossification centres of the scapula body: 8 weeks in utero c...
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Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
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Trimalleolar fracture

Trimalleolar fractures refer to a three-part fracture of the ankle. The fractures involve the medial malleolus, the posterior aspect of the tibial plafond (referred to as the posterior malleolus) and the lateral malleolus. Having three parts, this is a more unstable fracture and may be associate...
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Clavicle

The clavicle (or informally collar bone) is the only bone connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton and is the only long bone that lies horizontally in human skeleton.  Gross anatomy Osteology The clavicle is roughly "S-shaped" with a flattened, concave, lateral one-third and a thi...
Article

Conventional intramedullary chondrosarcoma

Conventional chondrosarcoma also known as central chondrosarcoma is the most common subtype of chondrosarcoma and may be low, intermediate or high grade (see chondrosarcoma grading). Epidemiology They typically occur in the 4th and 5th decades with a slight male predominance 1.5-2:1. Clinical...
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Palmar interossei muscles (hand)

The interossei muscles, as a group consist of four palmar (1st is often rudimentary) and four dorsal muscles. Collectively the interossei contribute to abduction and adduction of the fingers and also contribute to flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPJ) and extension of the interphalan...
Article

Lesser sciatic foramen contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the structures passing through the lesser sciatic foramen is: PINTO Mnemonic P: pudendal nerve I: internal pudendal artery and vein N: nerve to obturator internus TO: tendon of obturator internus
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Infrapiriform foramen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the structures passing below the piriformis muscle in the greater sciatic foramen is: PIN PINS or SNIP NIP Mnemonic P: posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh I: inferior gluteal artery, vein and nerve N: nerve to quadratus femoris P: pudendal nerve I: internal pudendal ...
Article

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability of the knee. Clinical presentation These injuries are frequ...
Article

Double PCL sign

The double PCL sign appears on sagittal MRI images of the knee when a bucket-handle meniscal tear (medial meniscus in 80% of cases) flips towards the centre of the joint so that it comes to lie anteroinferior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) mimicking a second smaller PCL. A double PCL ...
Article

Bucket-handle meniscal tear

Bucket-handle meniscal tears are a type of displaced longitudinal meniscal tear where the inner part is displaced centrally. They are more commonly occur in the medial meniscus and are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears.  Radiographic features MRI Bucket-hand tears can man...
Article

Haematometrocolpos

Haematometrocolpos refers to a blood-filled distended uterus and vagina usually due to an anatomical mechanical obstruction precluding the evacuation of the menstrual blood.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence in teenagers is at ~1 in 1000-2000 5. Pathology Causes imperforate hymen: in ~2...
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Peroneus brevis tear

Peroneus brevis tendon tears can present with lateral ankle pain with or without a history of trauma, worsening with activity. They are usually diagnosed with ultrasound or MRI and management is typically conservative. Epidemiology Little epidemiological information available but patients typi...
Article

Lateral epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an overuse syndrome of the common extensor tendon and predominantly affects the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. Epidemiology Lateral epicondylitis occurs with a frequency seven to ten times that of medial epicondylitis. As wit...
Article

Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis is characterised by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology Spondylodiscitis has a bimodal age distribution, which many authors consider essentially as separate entities: paediatric older population ~50 years Clinical presentation T...
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Psoas muscle abscess

Psoas muscle abscess and fluid collections are located in the retrofascial space rather than in the retroperitoneal space because the psoas muscles are located in the iliopsoas compartment posterior to the transversalis fascia, which is the posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum. Clinical pr...
Article

Intra-articular loose bodies

Intra-articular loose bodies can result from a variety of pathological processes. Terminology Use of the term "loose" is frowned upon by some because the fragments do not necessarily move around in the joint - the term intra-articular body or fragment is a safer alternative. Clinical presenta...
Article

Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic tumour-like congenital process, manifested as a localised defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, with the replacement of normal bone with large fibrous stroma and islands of immature woven bone. Fibrous dysplasia has a varied radiographi...
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Melorheostosis

Melorheostosis, also known as Leri disease, is an uncommon mesenchymal dysplasia manifesting as regions of sclerosing bone with a characteristic dripping wax appearance or flowing candle wax appearance.  Epidemiology Although changes occur in early childhood, age at presentation is often later...

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