Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,673 results found
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Elastofibroma dorsi

Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft-tissue tumour with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Epidemiology It is more frequently seen in older women, with a reported female predilection of 5-13:1. The estimated mean age at diagnosis around 65-70 years. Clinical presentation Elast...
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Ectrodactyly

Ectrodactyly (also known as a split hand-split foot malformation, cleft hand or lobster claw hand) is a skeletal anomaly predominantly affecting the hands (although the feet can also be affected). The condition has a highly variable severity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1 in 9...
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Ectodermal dysplasia

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that cause abnormal ectoderm development. The effect is a non-progressive defect in the development of two or more tissues derived from embryonic ectoderm.  Epidemiology ED is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main differential diagnoses for benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 years of age is: SCAN Everything Mnemonic S: Simple bone cyst C: Chondroblastoma A: Aneurysmal bone cyst N: Non-ossifying fibroma  E: Eosinophilic granuloma The other differentials i...
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Dupuytren contracture

A Dupuytren contracture, or palmar fibromatosis, is a fibrosing condition that characteristically presents as a firm nodularity on the palmar surface of the hand with coalescing cords of soft tissue on the webs and digits. Epidemiology It is considered the most common of the superficial fibrom...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumours but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fract...
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Lumbosacral transitional vertebra

e (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and can be seen in ~25% (range 15-35%) of the general population 1-3. Non-recognition of this variant and/or poor description in the report can lead to operations or procedures performed at the wrong level.  Depending on the number of thoracic vertebrae,...
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Duverney fracture

Duverney fractures are a type of pelvic fracture most commonly occurring in the setting of a direct blow to the ilium, with a resultant isolated iliac wing fracture. It is regarded as a stable injury but may be operated on in the event of severe comminution.  History and etymology It is named ...
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Dracunculiasis

Dracunculiasis (also known as guinea worm disease) is a potentially disabling infection caused by Dracunculus medinensis (meaning "little worm from Medina"). Clinical presentation The radiologic finding of a calcified guinea worm is common in endemic areas.  In the vast majority of cases (one...
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Dorsal epidural disc migration

Dorsal epidural disc migration represents, as the name suggests, migration of disc material, usually a sequestrated disc fragment, into the dorsal (posterior) epidural space, posterior to the theca. This is a rare occurrence, often not suspected preoperatively and is almost invariably encountere...
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Disc sequestration

Sequestrated disc, also referred to as a free disc fragment, corresponds to extruded disc material that has no continuity with the parent disc and is displaced away from the site of extrusion. By definition, it corresponds to a subtype of disc extrusion. The term "migrated" disc refers only to ...
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Discogenic vertebral sclerosis

Discogenic vertebral sclerosis is one of the skeletal "do not touch" lesions and should not be confused with a metastatic lesion or disc space infection. It can lead to an unnecessary biopsy. Clinical presentation The typical clinical presentation is a middle-aged female with chronic low back ...
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Desmoid tumour

Desmoid tumours are benign, non-inflammatory fibroblastic tumours (see WHO 2002 classification of soft tissue tumours) with a tendency for local invasion and recurrence but without metastasis. Terminology The terms desmoid tumour and aggressive fibromatosis are occasionally used synonymously b...
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Disc extrusion

Disc extrusion is a type of intervertebral disc herniation and is distinguished from a disc protrusion in that it: in at least one plane, has a broader dome (B) than a neck (A) and/or extends above or below the disc level (into the suprapedicular or infrapedicular zone) Disc extrusions are a...
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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also referred to as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterised by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion of the spine affecting elderly individuals. On imaging, it is typically characterised by the flowing ...
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Diaphragmatic eventration

Diaphragmatic eventration refers to an abnormal contour of the diaphragmatic dome. It typically affects only a segment of the hemidiaphragm, compared to paralysis/weakness where the entire hemidiaphragm is typically affected.  Pathology Diaphragmatic eventration is congenital in nature and due...
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Desmoplastic fibroma

Desmoplastic fibromas are extremely rare bone tumours that do not metastasise but may be locally aggressive. They are considered to be a bony counterpart of soft tissue desmoid tumours and are histologically identical.  Clinical presentation Incidence is ~0.3%. The most common areas of involve...
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De Quervain tenosynovitis

De Quervain tenosynovitis, also known as washerwoman's sprain/strain, is a painful stenosing tenosynovitis involving the first extensor (dorsal) tendon compartment of the wrist (typically at the radial styloid). This compartment contains the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis b...
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Delayed onset muscle soreness

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) refers to the muscular pain and swelling that follows unaccustomed exertion. Clinical presentation Patients may have an ache in affected muscles with reduced strength 4. Pathology DOMS is thought to occur from reversible microstructural muscle injury that...
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Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter th...
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Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is a type of total shoulder replacement. It is often the preferred method when there has been advanced damage to the rotator cuff as seen in rotator cuff arthropathy. Procedure The reverse total shoulder flips the normal mechanical arrangement of the ...
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Normal lower limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the lower limb, divided by region and modality. Pelvic girdle plain radiograph pelvis example 1: frontal example 2: frontal (young adult) example 3: paediatric example 4: paediatric (9/12, 11/12 and older child) example 5: trauma supine exam...
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Van Buchem disease

Van Buchem disease (VBD) is an extremely rare hereditary sclerosing bone dysplasia, also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. This disease is characterised most notably by mandibular enlargement and thickening of the skull. Epidemiology Less than 30 cases have been reported in the li...
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Vertebral haemangioma

Vertebral haemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected due to their characteristic features on imaging for other reasons. Please refer on the article on primary intraosseous haemangioma for a general discussion in this enti...
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Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the bony s...
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Vertebral pneumatocyst

Vertebral pneumatocysts refers to the presence of a gas-filled cavity within the vertebrae, more prevalent on the cervical spine. Intraosseous pneumatocysts are more common adjacent to the sacroiliac joint while it is rare in the vertebral column. Other causes of vertebral gas e.g. Kümmell disea...
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Wagstaffe-Le Forte fracture

A Wagstaffe-Le Forte fracture refers to an avulsion fracture of the medial aspect of the distal fibula due to avulsion of the anterior tibiofibular ligament attachment. See also lower extremity fractures
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Widening of diploic space

Widening of diploic space refers to expansion of the spongy or cancellous bone between the inner and outer tables of the calavarium. The diploic space is the medullary cavity of the skull, and a location of normal physiologic hematopoiesis in adults. Thus, expansion of this structure most common...
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Wilson disease (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a multisystem disease, which rarely has musculoskeletal manifestations secondary to the accumulation of copper in the articular cartilage.  Radiographic features Plain radiographs Reported manifestations include 1-3 premature os...
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Windswept pelvis

Wind-swept pelvis fracture is a combination a unilateral AP compression (open book) injury with a contralateral lateral compression injury.  It occurs when the internal rotation of one iliac wing causes a unilateral sacral compression fracture, while the same forces cause external rotation of t...
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Wrisberg rip

Wrisberg rips are longitudinal vertical meniscal tears. They occur at the at the junction of the ligament of Wrisberg and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, and are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears 1. 
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Z deformity

The Z deformity is one of the musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis in hand: radial deviation at the wrist ulnar deviation of the digits, and often palmar subluxation of the proximal phalanges
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Cysticercosis

Cysticercosis is a parasitic tissue infection caused by ingestion of tapeworm eggs through a fecal-oral transmission or auto-infection. Humans act as a definitive host in this disease. CNS manifestations are discussed individually on neurocysticercosis. Epidemiology The disease is endemic in ...
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Cystic adventitial disease

Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an uncommon vascular pathology predominantly affecting peripheral vessels. The vast majority of cases occur in arteries with venous involvement being an even extremely rare occurrence 8. Epidemiology It typically affects young to middle-aged individuals with...
Article

Cyclops lesion (knee)

The cyclops lesion, also known as localised anterior arthrofibrosis, is a painful anterior knee mass that arises as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Epidemiology Cyclops lesions occur with an estimated frequency of ~5% (range 1-9.8%) of patients following ACL ...
Article

Cutis laxa

Cutis laxa is a rare dermatological condition, characterised elastic fibre loss resulting in patients with very lax skin. Patients can also develop emphysema. Pathology Cutis laxa may be inherited (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive) or may occur sporadically. Asso...
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Critical zone in rotator cuff tendons

The critical zone of the rotator cuff is an area approximately 8-15 mm from the insertion of the rotator cuff tendons onto the greater tubercle of the humeral head, mainly within the supraspinatus tendon. This is a watershed zone between the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral, thoracoacro...
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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance. Pathology Primary forms are either sporadic or familial. Secondary craniosynosto...
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Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is one of four types of fibrous dysplasia and is characterised, as the name suggests, by involvement of the skull and facial bones. For a general discussion of the underlying pathology, refer to the parent article fibrous dysplasia. Terminology Although the term...
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Cortical desmoid

Cortical desmoids, also known as cortical avulsive injuries or the Bufkin lesion, are a benign self-limiting entity. This is a classic "do not touch" lesion, and should not be confused with an aggressive cortical/periosteal process (e.g. osteosarcoma).  Terminology Cortical desmoid is a misnom...
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Coraco-clavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with presence of an...
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Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Pathology The conus medullari...
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Congenital talipes equinovarus

Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is considered the most common anomaly affecting the feet diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. Terminology While some use CTEV and club foot (CF) synonymously, in certain publications term clubfoot is considered a more general descriptive term that describes ...
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Congenital radial head dislocation

Congenital radial head dislocation is the most common congenital elbow abnormality. It can occur in isolation, or more commonly may be associated with other conditions or syndromes. Epidemiology Overall, congenital radial head dislocation is rare 2. Clinical presentation Congenital radial he...
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a dystrophinopathy and the most common muscular dystrophy. Epidemiology DMD has an incidence of 1 in 3500 to 5000 males 1,2. The condition is extremely rare in females due to its inheritance pattern, as discussed below 1. Clinical presentation The charact...
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Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is a rare condition, which typically presents as an isolated anatomical variant.  Clinical presentation Usually presents as a midclavicular swelling in the neonate or young child 1.  Pathology Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is more commo...
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Congenital insensitivity to pain

Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) refers to group of rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) characterised by an inability to feel pain 1. Terminology Although not clearly defined in the literature, CIP is not one specific diagnosis, but describes symptoms common to man...
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Complex meniscal tear

Complex meniscal tears extend in more than one plane, and can in turn create separate flaps of meniscus.  Radiographic features MRI knee The mensical tear usually includes a combination of radial, horizontal, and longitudinal components (any two or all three). Often the meniscus substance app...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localised to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Becker muscular dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a dystrophinopathy that is considered to be a milder form of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Epidemiology It may be present in 3 to 6 per 100,000 male births. The condition is extremely rare in females due to its inheritance pattern, as discussed below. Clinica...
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Perched facet joint

Perched facet joint is a vertebral facet joint whose inferior articular process appears to sit 'perched' on the ipsilateral superior articular process of the vertebra below. Any further anterior subluxation will result in dislocation, with one facet "jumping" over the other and becoming locked ...
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Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is a type of vertebral central canal stenosis and has a different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology CLSS tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 years old) ...
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Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is...
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Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
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Accessory sacroiliac joint

Accessory sacroiliac joints are a common finding, present on ~15% (range 13-17.5%) of CT studies, and may be unilateral or bilateral. They are an articulation between the medial aspect of the posterior superior iliac spine and the sacrum just lateral to the second dorsal sacral foramen. They may...
Article

Uncovertebral joint

Uncovertebral joints, also called Luschka’s joints, are seen bilaterally between adjacent cervical vertebrae, identified by the cat ear shaped uncinate processes of the C3-7 vertebrae (C1 and C2 have no uncinate processes). Gross anatomy Articulations The articulation forms between the uncina...
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Chronic hip subluxation

Chronic hip subluxation most common occurs in paediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g. cerebral palsy). It is considered a form of developmental hip dysplasia.  Epidemiology Chronic hip subluxation occurs in ~45% of cerebral palsy patients who are not walking by 5 years of age 3....
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
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Charcot joint

Charcot joint, also known as a neuropathic or neurotrophic joint, refers to a progressive degenerative/destructive joint disorder in patients with abnormal pain sensation and proprioception. Epidemiology In modern Western societies by far the most common cause of Charcot joints is diabetes, an...
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Chondromyxoid fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMFs) are extremely rare, benign cartilaginous neoplasms that account for <1% of all bone tumours. Epidemiology  The majority of cases occur in the second and third decades, with ~75% of cases occurring before the age of 30 years 1,12-15.  There is no recognised gender ...
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Chondromalacia patellae

Chondromalacia patellae refers to softening and degeneration of the articular hyaline cartilage of the patella and is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology Tends to occur in young adults. There is a recognised female predilection. Clinical presentation Patients with chondromal...
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Chondrolysis

Chondrolysis, also known as acute cartilage necrosis, is an acute cartilage destruction of the femoral head. It is one of the complications that are specifically associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). It is a poorly understood phenomenon. Epidemiology The quoted incidence is...
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Chondroid lipoma

Chondroid lipomas are rare benign soft tissue tumours that, as you might guess, contain a varied ratio of both fat and cartilage. These lesions can be diagnostically confusing as they may mimic or be confused with other fat containing neoplasms, most importantly those of much greater clinical si...
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Chondrodysplasia punctata

Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a collective name for a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias. Calcific stippling of cartilage and peri-articular soft tissues is often a common feature. Pathology Subtypes It can be broadly divided into rhizomelic and non-rhizomelic forms: rhizomelic c...
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Chondroblastoma

Chondroblastomas, also referred as Codman tumours, are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms that characteristically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone in young patients. Despite being rare, they are one of the most frequently encountered benign epiphyseal neoplasms in skeletally i...
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Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
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Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Carpal boss

The carpal boss is an unmovable hypertrophied bony protuberance at the base of the second or third metacarpals on the dorsal surface, near the capitate and trapezium.  Pathology The condition may represent either or a combination of: degenerative osteophyte formation os styloideum (an access...
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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD disease), also referred as pyrophosphate arthropathy and perhaps confusingly as pseudogout, is common, especially in the elderly, and is characterised by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in soft tissues and cartilage. Terminology  CPPD is on...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Associations This condition may be associated Parkinson disease: ...
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Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis is the result of deposition calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. It is closely related to calcific tendinitis, and many authors refer to them as being the same condition. 
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Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: Arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
Article

Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in colour.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to ...
Article

Orthogonal projection

The orthogonal projection (or view) is, by definition, a radiographic projection obtained 90 degrees to the original view. It forms the basic requirements of a 'radiographic series', that being 'two orthogonal projections of the region of interest' Acute imaging  Cases can appear normal in one...
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Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a synovial and fibrous joint between ilium and the sacrum. It has little movement and its main function is to transfer weight between the axial and lower appendicular skeletons. The SI joint is a symmetrical joint (i.e. is paired) with an oblique coronal orientation ...
Article

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, also known as Ahlback disease, SONK or even SPONK, has similar appearances to osteochondritis dissecans of the knee but is found in an older age group. Epidemiology SONK is seen more frequently in women (M:F 1:3) and affects older patients, typically over...
Article

Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle / rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical Pres...
Article

Bone infarction

Bone infarction is a term used to refer to osteonecrosis within the metaphysis or diaphysis of a bone. Necrosis is a type of cell death due to irreversible cell injury, which can be recognised microscopically by alterations in the cytoplasm (becomes eosinophilic) and in the nucleus (swelling, py...
Article

Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries, ...
Article

Bursitis

Bursitis is inflammation of abursa, a synovial membrane-lined space, present overlying a number of joints. The inflammation may be acute or chronic, in the later case calcification may be apparent on plain radiographs. MRI best illustrates the bursa and related pathology. Specific pathological ...
Article

Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
Article

Brachymetatarsia

Brachymetatarsia (a.k.a. congenital short metatarsus) is a rare condition that develops from early closure of the growth plate.  Epidemiology Females are almost exclusively affected 1.  Pathology Location It typically involves the fourth ray or, less frequently, more than one metatarsal bon...
Article

Brachial plexus injuries

Brachial plexus injuries are a spectrum of upper limb neurological deficits secondary to partial or complete injury to the brachial plexus, which provides the nerve supply of upper limb muscles.  Clinical presentation Trauma, usually by motor vehicle accidents, involves severe traction on the ...
Article

Bowdler spurs

Bowdler spurs refer to transverse long bone midshaft spurs or osteochondral projections associated with hypophosphatasia. They typically occur in the fibulae and less commonly in the forearms.
Article

Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma

A botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and accounts for 5-10% of all rhabdomyosarcomas 6.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in paediatric population, often between birth and 15 years of age 7. Pathology Rhabdomyosarcomas generally have a nonspecific infiltrative ap...
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Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (BHAGL) lesion is just like its slightly shorter relative HAGL lesion, except as the name suggests a bony avulsion fracture is seen at humeral insertion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. It is often associated with a subscapularis tear, an...
Article

Bone deformity from softening

Conditions associated with bone deformity from softening includes: hourglass thorax bowing of long bones acetabular protrusion buckled/compressed pelvis biconcave vertebral bodies / codfish vertebra
Article

Blount disease

Blount disease refers to a local disturbance of growth of the medial proximal tibial epiphysis that results in tibia vara. The condition is commonly bilateral.  Epidemiology There is no recognised inheritance pattern.  Clinical presentation Clinically, the child often presents with leg bowin...
Article

Bloom syndrome

Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, malar hypoplasia and facial telangiectasia, erythema and cafe au lait spots. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing malignancies. Pathology There is extreme chromosomal fragi...
Article

Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation

Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) (also known as a Nora lesion) is a benign exophytic osteochondral lesion which has an appearance similar to an osteochondroma, and is typically seen in the hands and feet.  BPOPs are continuous with the underlying cortex, but usually wit...
Article

Biceps chondromalacia

Biceps chondromalacia is an attritional lesion of the humeral head caused by repeated abrasion by the intra-articular segment of the long head of biceps tendon. Pathology The long head of biceps brachii arises from the supraglenoid tubercle of the glenoid fossa and has an intra- and extra-arti...
Article

Bisphosphonate related proximal femoral fractures

Bisphosphonate-related proximal femoral fractures are an example of insufficiency fractures, although the direct causative link remains somewhat controversial 2. The atypical fracture pattern occurs in the proximal third of the femur, typically subtrochanteric, and may be unilateral or bilatera...

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