Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,850 results found
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Tenosynovitis

Tenosynovitis is a term describing the inflammation of the synovial membrane surrounding a tendon. The synovial membrane is part of a fluid-filled sheath that surrounds a tendon. Clinical presentation joint swelling pain in the affected area and pain moving a joint reddening along the length...
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Tensor fasciae latae muscle

The tensor fasciae latae muscle is the most anterior of the superficial group of muscles in the gluteal region and overlies the gluteus minimus and the anterior part of the gluteus medius. Summary origin: lateral aspect of crest of ilium between anterior superior iliac spine and tubercle of cr...
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Tensor fasciae suralis muscle

The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is an uncommon accessory muscle in the popliteal fossa. It can be an unusual cause of a popliteal fossa soft-tissue swelling or mass.  Summary origin: may arise from the distal aspect of any of the hamstring muscles, in the majority of reported cases it origin...
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Teres major

Teres major is one of the seven scapulohumeral muscles that act around the glenohumeral joint to facilitate shoulder movement. Summary origin: caudal two thirds of lateral border and inferior angle of scapula insertion: medial border of the intertubercular groove, which is the crest of lesser...
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Teres minor

Teres minor is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, the others being: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. Summary origin: lateral border of the scapula insertion: greater tuberosity of the humerus innervation: axillary nerve (C5-6) arterial supply: circumflex ...
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Terminal tuft

The terminal tuft is the most distal part of a distal phalanx, and comprises of the flared bone distal to the shaft. Related pathology acro-osteolysis spade phalanx sign terminal tuft masses osteomyelitis as it is close to the nail, pathology or injuries of one can affect the other
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Terminal tuft masses

There is only a short list of terminal tuft masses, which can arise from the adjacent soft tissues and erode the terminal tuft as well as arising from the terminal tuft itself: epidermal inclusion cyst: history of penetrating trauma giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath: occur laterally subu...
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Terrible triad of the elbow

The terrible triad of the elbow is a severe elbow fracture-dislocation pattern and is so-called because it has poor medium-to-long term outcome.  Pathology Mechanism Most commonly due to a fall onto an outstretched hand, not necessarily high-energy, with the arm in semi-flexion and supination...
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Terry Thomas sign

The Terry Thomas sign refers to an increase in the scapholunate space on an AP radiograph of the wrist (or coronal CT). The increased distance indicates scapholunate dissociation (often with rotary subluxation of the scaphoid) due to ligamentous injury. There is no consensus as to what measureme...
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Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
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Thalidomide embryopathy

Thalidomide embryopathy refers to a syndrome resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide, and is characterized by multiple fetal anomalies. Fetal exposure to thalidomide occurred primarily from 1957 to 1961, when it was used as a treatment for nausea in pregnant women.  Epidemiology  Expos...
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Thanatophoric dysplasia

Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a lethal skeletal dysplasia. It is the most common lethal skeletal dysplasia followed by osteogenesis imperfecta type II.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1:25,000-50,000 3. Pathology Genetics It results from a mutation coding for the fibroblas...
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Thenar eminence

The thenar eminence is the muscular bulge on the radial side of the palm due to the thenar muscles. Together the muscle group primarily acts to oppose the thumb. The four muscles are: opponens pollicis flexor pollicis brevis abductor pollicis brevis adductor pollicis
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Thiemann's disease

Thiemann disease (also called familial osteoarthropathy of the fingers or osteonecrosis of the base of phalanx) is a non-inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology and refers to osteonecrosis of the epiphyses of phalanges which leads to deformity of fingers. Epidemiology Thiemann disease is a ...
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Thigh

Thigh refers to the portion of the lower limb between the hip and knee joints. Note that in an anatomical context "leg" refers to the portion between the knee and ankle joints and not to the entire lower limb.
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Third condyle

The third condyle (also known as condylus tertius or median occipital condyle) is a rare anatomic variant of the occipital condyles. It is a small separate ossicle at the anteromedial margin of the occipital condyle formed by the failure of the embryonic proatlas (4th occipital sclerotome) to un...
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Thoracic spine

The thoracic spine forms the middle part of the vertebral column. It extends from below C7 on the cervical spine to above L1 on the lumbar spine. There are 12 thoracic vertebra, termed T1-T12 (some older doctors and texts refer to the dorsal spine and D1-D12).  The thoracic spine is unique due ...
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Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine AP view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imag...
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Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It is used in conjunction with the thoracic spine AP view to complete a thoracic spine series.  P...
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Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
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Thoracoacromial artery

The thoracoacromial artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the axilla. Summary origin: first branch of the second part of the axillary artery 1 location: axilla supply: pectoralis major and minor, anterior part of the deltoid, and dermal sensation overlying the clavipectoral ...
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Thoracodorsal nerve

The thoracodorsal nerve also known as the middle subscapular or long subscapular nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The thoracodorsal nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with fibres...
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Thoracoepigastric vein

The thoracoepigastric vein provides a communication between the superficial epigastric vein and the lateral thoracic vein as it ascends superficially on anterolateral chest and abdominal wall. It, therefore, drains into both the superior vena cava via the axillary vein and the inferior vena cava...
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Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
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Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

The two most commonly currently used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are the AO classification and the TLICS although a number of other classification systems have been proposed over the years 1. Each has benefits and drawbacks and each incorporates various features in an at...
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Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
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Throckmorton sign (pelvis)

Throckmorton sign, also known as John Thomas sign, refers to when the penis points in the direction of unilateral disease, typically of the pelvis or hip.  Throckmorton sign is a slang term used humorously by medical students and residents. According to the first serious study of the sign publ...
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Thumb (AP/PA view)

The thumb AP (anteroposterior) view is one of the standard views for assessment of the thumb. The PA (posteroanterior) view can be utilised when the patient is unable to achieve the position required for the AP view.  They are one part of the three view thumb series. There will be some magnific...
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Thumb (lateral view)

The thumb lateral view is an orthogonal projection of AP/PA view and helps in the localisation of a foreign body in the thenar eminence, as well as providing valuable information of suspected dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the forearm is placed on table ...
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Thumb (oblique view)

The thumb oblique view is a part of the thumb series and is particularly useful in cases with traumatic indications. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is placed on table the wrist is kept in ulnar deviation and thumb abducted fingers are kept in contact with the...
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Thumb series

The thumb series is comprised of a posteroanterior and oblique, projection. The posteroanterior projection is interchangeably performed anterioposter or posteroanterior depending on mobility. It examines in detail the first metacarpal and its articulations. Thumbs have a vital impact in our day ...
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Thumb series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A thumb series (or thumb x-ray) is usually performed in the Emergency Department or Orthopaedic service following thumb trauma with suspected fracture or dislocation. Reference article This is a summary article. For more ...
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Thurstan Holland fragment

The Thurstan Holland fragment also known as the Thurstan Holland sign is an eponymous radiological sign depicting a triangular portion of the metaphysis remaining with the epiphysis in a physeal fracture. This fragment is one of the tell-tale signs of a type 2 Salter-Harris fracture 1. History ...
Article

Thyroid acropachy

Thyroid acropachy is an unusual presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease, (~1% of patients with Graves disease). It can occur in hyperthyroid, euthyroid, hypothyroid, or even post-treatment patients. It is almost always associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy.  Epidemiology The majority of pa...
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Tib/fib x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A tib/fib x-ray, also known as tib/fib series or tib/fib radiograph, is a set of two x-rays of the leg (knee to ankle). It is performed to look for evidence of injury (or pathology) affecting the leg, often after trauma. R...
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Tibia

The tibia (plural: tibiae) is the largest bone of the leg and contributes to the knee and ankle joints. (shin- or shank-bone are lay terms). It is medial to and much stronger than the fibula, exceeded in length only by the femur. Gross anatomy Osteology The tibia has a prismoid shaft, expande...
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Tibia fibula (AP view)

The tibia fibula AP view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward th...
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Tibia fibula (lateral view)

The tibia fibula lateral view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint should be in contact with the table resulting...
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Tibia/fibula series

The tibia/fibula is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the entirety of the tibia and fibula after trauma.  Indications The tibia/fibula radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including: tr...
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Tibial hemimelia

Tibial hemimelia or tibial deficiency is an uncommon abnormality which can range from isolated mild shortening to complete tibial absence 1. Epidemiology Tibial hemimelia is extremely rare, occurring in only one out of one million live births 2. Clinical presentation The affected limb is sho...
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Tibialis anterior muscle

The tibialis anterior muscle is one of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg involved in dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot. Summary origin: body of the tibia insertion: medial cuneiform and first metatarsal action: dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot arterial supply: an...
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Tibialis posterior muscle

The tibialis posterior muscle is one of the small muscles of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Summary origin: inner posterior borders of the tibia and fibula insertion: navicular and medial cuneiform the tendon splits into two slips after passing inferior to plantar calcaneonavicu...
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Tibial nerve

The tibial nerve is one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve and supplies the leg and foot with motor and sensory supply. Summary origin: the terminal branch of sciatic, at or above the popliteal fossa course: courses straight down the popliteal fossa, passing deep to gastrocnemius t...
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Tibial plateau

The tibial plateau is the proximal articular surface of the tibia. Gross anatomy The tibial plateau is composed of two parts: concave articular surfaces of the oval-shaped medial and circular-shaped lateral tibial condyles (medial and lateral tibial plateaus) the medial tibial plateau is lar...
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Tibial plateau fracture

Tibial plateau fractures were originally termed a bumper or fender fracture but only 25% of tibial plateau fractures result from impact with automobile bumpers. Pathology The most common mechanism of injury involves axial loading, e.g. fall from a significant height. In younger patients, the m...
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Tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture

Tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures are uncommon and usually associated with sports activities that require jumping. Avulsion occurs with the violent active extension of the knee or passive flexion against contracted quadriceps muscles. Although an acute injury, tibial tuberosity avulsion is m...
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Tibial tuberosity transfer

Tibial tuberosity transfer is surgical procedure performed for patella instability. Tibial tuberosity transfer can simultaneously correct a high-riding patella. The goal of the surgery is often to transfer the distal attachment of the patellar tendon, thereby shifting the force vector medially a...
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Tibia vara

Tibia vara (also known as genu varus and bow-leggedness) is a varus deformity with outward bowing at the knee and medial angulation (inward) of the lower leg in relation to the thigh's coronal axis. The differential of bow-legging in children is long, with common causes including Blount disease...
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Tibiofemoral joint

The tibiofemoral joint is a modified hinge synovial joint between the distal femur and the proximal tibia. Summary articulation: modified hinge joint between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and the tibial condyles joint: knee ligaments: transverse ligament of the knee, medial an...
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Tibiotalar slant

Tibiotalar slant is the superolateral inclination of the tibial plafond, and results in an ankle valgus deformity. There are a number of causes 1: trauma, i.e. distal tibial fractures osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis haemophilic arthropathy sickle cell dis...
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Tietze syndrome

Tietze syndrome refers to a benign costochondritis accompanied by hypertrophy of the costal cartilages. Epidemiology The exact incidence of occurrence is not known. It is seen most commonly in the 2nd to 5th decades of life. Both sexes are affected equally. Pathology It is characterised as a...
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Tillaux fracture

Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement. Epidemiology It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse. Path...
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Tinel sign

The Tinel sign refers to distal paresthesia which is induced by percussion over the affected portion of an entrapped nerve.  It is particularly useful in the diagnosis of entrapment syndromes: carpal tunnel syndrome tarsal tunnel syndrome
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Toddler fracture

Toddler fractures are minimally or undisplaced spiral fractures usually of the tibia, typically encountered in toddlers. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to establish on account of both the symptoms and imaging findings being subtle. Terminology The term has sometimes also been used to ...
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Toes (AP view)

Toes AP view is part of a three view toe series and includes the phalanges and the toe(s) of interest and the distal half of the associated metacarpals. Patient position the patient can be either supine or be sitting upright on the table knee should be flexed so the plantar surface of the foo...
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Toes (oblique view)

The toes medial oblique view is part of the toe series examining the phalange and metatarsals of the foot. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is resting on the image receptor th...
Article

Toes series

The toes series is comprised of an AP, AP oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in trauma situations. It examines the entirety of the proximal middle and distal phalanges of the foot.  Indications Toe radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1:...
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Toes (sesamoid view)

The sesamoid view of the toes is a specialed view examing the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes pulled back toward the patient  Technical factors ...
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Tombstone iliac wings

Tombstone iliac wings, also referred to as Mickey Mouse ears pelvis 1, are an imaging descriptor for the iliac wings of individuals with achondroplasia. These are seen to be small and squared and have been likened to the appearance of tombstones or the ears of Mickey Mouse.
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Tooth-knuckle injury

Tooth-knuckle injuries are sustained when the clenched fist of a patient strikes the teeth of an opponent. Terminology Tooth-knuckle injuries are also referred to as clenched fist injuries, closed fist injuries and fight bite injuries. Epidemiology These injuries are most commonly found in y...
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Toothpaste sign

The toothpaste sign in spinal imaging represents an extrusion of an intervertebral disc into the epidural space. It is called after the shape of extruded material relatively to the parent disc in a sagittal plane.
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Tophus

Tophi (plural of tophus) appear as lumps on affected joints due to deposits of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in patients with longstanding high levels of serum uric acid (hyperuricaemia). Tophi are a pathognomonic feature of gout. History and etymology Tophus means "stone" in Latin.
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Torg's classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Torg's classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based on the degree of sclerosis adjacent to the fracture on imaging at the time of presentation to determine the fracture age. Classification Type I narrow fracture line with sharp margins and no widening minimal cortical hyper...
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Torticollis

Torticollis (wryneck) is a clinical finding of head tilt with or without rotational spinal malalignment. It is not a diagnosis in itself and there are a wide range of underlying conditions. It is most common in the paediatric age group.  Pathology Torticollis can be acute (<1 week) or chronic ...
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Torus fracture

Torus fractures, also known as buckle fractures, are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterised by bulging of the cortex. They result from trabecular compression from an axial loading force along the long axis of the bone. They are usually seen in children, frequently...
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Total hip arthroplasty

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total hip replacement (THR) is an orthopaedic procedure which involves the surgical excision of the femoral head and cartilage of the acetabulum and replacement of the joint with articulating femoral and acetabular components. It is a commonly performed procedure ...
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Total knee arthroplasty

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), or total knee replacement (TKR), is an orthopaedic procedure whereby the three articular surfaces of the knee (femoral, tibial, and patellar) are replaced by prosthetic components. TKA is the most common joint arthroplasty performed in the United States, with an e...
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Total talar dislocation

Total talar dislocation, also known as extrusion of the talus, is a tri-articular dislocation of talus at the tibiotalar, talonavicular and subtalar joints. Most injuries are compound. Pathology Mechanism of injury Total talar dislocation is a rare injury caused by the combination of tibiotal...
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Trabecular pattern of proximal femur

Trabecular pattern of proximal femur refers to the five groups of trabeculae that are demonstrable within the femoral head and neck. Basic concept Trabecula is a supportive and connective tissue element which form in cancellous bone. Trabeculae develop in a normal bone and also in a healing bo...
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Trampoline fracture

Trampoline fractures are transverse fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis that occur in children while jumping on a trampoline (or inflatable castle). The fracture is thought to occur when a second, usually heavier individual causes the jumping surface to recoil upwards as the unsuspectin...
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Tramp-stamp oedema

Tramp-stamp oedema is a colloquial term used by some radiologists to denote posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema. The term is used to describe oedema in the distribution seen with lower back tattoos, usually in young women, which are known pejoratively as tramp-stamps.  This oedema is thought t...
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Tram-track sign (bone)

The tram-track sign is sometimes seen on delayed bone scan images. They can appear as symmetric linear increase in tracer accumulation along diaphyseal and metaphyseal surfaces of long bones. Corresponding to similar periosteal reaction seen on radiographs. Bone scan findings precede radiographi...
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Transient synovitis of the hip

Transient synovitis of the hip refers to a self-limiting acute inflammatory condition affecting the synovial lining of the hip. It is considered one of the most common causes of hip pain and limping in young children. Over 90% of hip joint effusions in children tend to be due to transient synovi...
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Transitional vertebra

Transitional vertebra is one that has indeterminate characteristic and features of vertebrae from adjacent vertebral segments. They occur at the junction between spinal morphological segments: atlanto-occipital junction atlanto-occipital assimilation: complete or partial fusion of C1 and the o...
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Transversalis fascia

Transversalis fascia is the lining fascia of the anterolateral abdominal wall which lies between the transversus abdominis muscle and peritoneum. Gross anatomy The transversalis fascia, inferior diaphragmatic fascia, pelvic fascia and iliacus fascia  form a continuous lining of the abdominal a...
Article

Transverse acetabular ligament

The transverse acetabular ligament is part of the labrum but has no cartilage cells. Its strong, flat fibres cross the acetabular notch forming a foramen through which vessels and nerves enter the joint.
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Transverse arch

The transverse arch of the foot is an arch in the coronal plane formed by the three cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the bases of the five metatarsals. They are held together by the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments. The peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons assist in maintaining the curv...
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Transverse fracture

Transverse fractures are complete fractures that traverse the bone perpendicular to the axis of the bone. The fracture involves the cortex circumferentially and there may be displacement. The term is predominantly used in the context of fractures of long bones although other types of bones may ...
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Transverse ligament of the hip

The transverse ligament of the hip bridges the acetabular notch (located anteroinferiorly along the margin of the acetabulum) and joins the two ends of the acetabular labrum, thus forming a complete ring. Beneath it (through the acetabular foramen) pass nutrient vessels which enter the ligamentu...
Article

Transverse ligament of the knee

The transverse ligament of the knee is a ligament within the anterior aspect of the knee joint. Gross anatomy The transverse ligament is a variable band-like intracapsular knee ligament. It attaches transversely across the anterior aspects of the convex margins of the medial and lateral menisci.
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Transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Common causes of transverse metaphyseal lines can be remembered using the mnemonic: DENSE LINES PRINCES Mnemonic DENSE LINES D: D-vitamin intoxication E: elemental arsenic and heavy metals (lead, bismuth, phosphorus) N: normal variation S: systemic illness E: estrogen to mother during p...
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Transverse process fracture

Transverse process fractures are a common sequelae of trauma, although they are considered a minor and stable lumbar spine fracture. There is strong association between transverse process fractures and other traumatic injuries. Pathology Transverse process fracture most commonly occur in the u...
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Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap

Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
Article

Transversospinalis group

The transversospinalis group is the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles. These muscles lie between the transverse and spinous processes and are grouped by length of the fascicles, as well as region covered. The groups are rotatores, multifidus, and semispinalis. Gross anatomy Rotatores T...
Article

Transversus abdominis muscle

The transversus abdominis muscle, named according to the direction of its muscle fibres, is one of the flat muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. It is deep to the internal oblique muscle and ends in the anterior aponeurosis, which ultimately blends with the linea alba.  Summary origi...
Article

Transversus thoracis muscle

The transversus thoracis muscle is the most anterior muscle of the inner layer (external intercostal, internal intercostal and transversus thoracis) of the thoracic wall.   Gross anatomy The transversus thoracis is a thin band of muscle and tendon arising from the lower posterior surface of th...
Article

Trapezium

The trapezium (greater multangular) is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is the most lateral (radial) bone of the distal row, located between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone . It articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the trapezoid medially, and the thumb and index meta...
Article

Trapezium fracture

Trapezium fractures are uncommon carpal bone injuries. They can either occur in isolation or combination with another carpal bony injury. Epidemiology Isolated fractures of the trapezium are only thought to account for 3-5% of all carpal fractures 1-2. Pathology They can be broadly classifie...
Article

Trapezium secondarium

The trapezium secondarium (or trapezium secundarium or secondary trapezium) is an accessory ossicle of the wrist. It can be seen adjacent to the tubercle of the trapezium superomedially 1,2. Embryology According to Pfitzner, the trapezium secondarium is one of four potential secondary ossifica...
Article

Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
Article

Trapezoid

The trapezoid bone (also known as the os trapezoideum or the lesser multangular) is the smallest carpal bone in the distal row, sitting lateral to the capitate.  Gross anatomy Osteology The trapezoid is an irregular, boot-shaped bone. The dorsal surface is larger than the palmar surface and i...
Article

Trapezoid ligament

The trapezoid ligament is one of two components forming the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. The conoid ligament is the other component. Gross anatomy The trapezoid ligament is a broad quadrilateral ligament that is quite thin. Its positioned almost horizontally. It is the anterolateral part of...
Article

Trauma films (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Trauma films are ubiquitous in an orthopaedic attachment and also in the Emergency Department. In most cases, a trauma film will come with two views. It is important that you review both films because in some cases a fract...

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