Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,741 results found
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Bone mineral density

Bone mineral density (BMD) is defined as amount of mineral (calcium hydroxyapatite) per unit of bone. Radiographic features BMD can be measured by various methods: gamma rays: replaced by radiographic methods single-energy photon absorptiometry (SPA) was superseded by the introduction of sin...
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Bone scan

Bone scans are a nuclear medicine (scintigraphic) study that makes use of Technetium 99m (commonly Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP)) as the active agent. The study has three phases which follow intravenous injection of the tracer. Sometimes a fourth (delayed/delayed) phase is performed.  Cl...
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Bones of the upper limb

The bones in the upper limb can be divided into those within the arm and pectoral girdle (3), forearm (2) and wrist and hand (27). There are also a number of accessory ossicles, predominantly occurring at the wrist.  Bones of the arm and pectoral girdle clavicle scapula humerus Bones of the...
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Bones types

There are many types of bone within the body: long bones (longer than they are wide) short bones (not long bones) flat bones sesamoid bones (for within a tendon) irregular bones (don't fit into a category) The majority of the bones of the appendicular skeleton are long bones. However, the ...
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Bone tumours

There are a bewildering number of bone tumours with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumours osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma bone island / enostosis osteopoikilosis osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumours enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffucc...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassamia, tuberculosis D: disease of Caf...
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Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (BHAGL) lesion is just like its slightly shorter relative HAGL lesion, except as the name suggests a bony avulsion fracture is seen at humeral insertion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. It is often associated with a subscapularis tear, an...
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Bony lesions without periostitis or pain (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember bony lesions that have no pain or periostitis is: E FUN Mnemonic E: enchondroma F: fibrous dysplasia U: unicameral bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma If periostitis or pain is present (assuming no trauma, which can be a foolhardy assumption), you can exclude E-...
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Bony pelvis

The bony pelvis is formed by the sacrum and coccyx and a pair of hip bones (os coxae or innominate bones), comprising the ischium, pubis and ilium and are part of the appendicular skeleton.  Its primary function is the transmission of forces from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs as well as...
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Bony sequestrum

The radiological definition of a bony sequestrum refers to an image of calcification within a lucent lesion, completely separated from the surrounding bone and without referring to the histological nature and vascular status of the calcified tissue 1.  The pathological definition of a sequestru...
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Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
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Bony skeleton

The skeleton is the complete set of bones that make up a human. There are 206 bones in total which can be divided into: axial skeleton appendicular skeleton
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Bony trabeculae of proximal femur

The proximal femur has four major groups of trabeculae, distributing the compressive and tensile forces from the femoral head into the femoral diaphysis through the femoral neck. Together these trabeculae create the Ward triangle. The individual trabecular groups include: principal compressive ...
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Boogard's angle

Boogard's angle is measured by drawing a line from basion to opisthion and another line along the plane of the clivus to the basion intersecting the first line - the angle between these two lines is measured . The normal angle is 126° +/- 6°. If the angle measures more than 136° it is indicativ...
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Boomerang sign (knee)

The boomerang sign is defined as a small displaced flap from a longitudinal horizontal type medial meniscal tear which is displaced inferiorly into the medial meniscotibial recess. The imaging diagnosis of this type of tear is crucial because it is normally hidden from the surgeon during routine...
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Bosworth fracture

The term Bosworth fracture is no longer used. However, it was classically used to refer to a fracture-dislocation of the ankle in which there was fracture of the fibula and posterior dislocation of the talus. History and etymology Named after David M Bosworth (1897-1979), orthopaedic surgeon f...
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Both hands series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Both hands series (or both hands x-ray) is an investigation almost exclusively performed in the rheumatology service to assess patients with arthritis. It is not used in trauma. Reference article This is a summary article...
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Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma

A botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and accounts for 5-10% of all rhabdomyosarcomas 6.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in paediatric population, often between birth and 15 years of age 7. Pathology Rhabdomyosarcomas generally have a nonspecific infiltrative ap...
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Bouchard node

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the the proximal interphalangeal joints, and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associat...
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Boutonniere deformity

Boutonniere deformity is one of the musculoskeletal manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in the hand with: flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints extension of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints  The defect appears in the tendon which splays open. The appearanc...
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Bowdler spurs

Bowdler spurs refer to transverse long bone midshaft spurs or osteochondral projections associated with hypophosphatasia. They typically occur in the fibulae and less commonly in the forearms.
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Bowing fracture

Bowing fractures are incomplete fractures of tubular long bones in paediatric patients (especially the radius and ulna) that often require no intervention and heal with remodelling. Epidemiology Bowing fractures are almost exclusively found in children. However, there have been several case re...
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Boxer fracture

Boxer fractures are minimally comminuted, transverse fractures of the 5th metacarpal and are the most common type of metacarpal fracture. They typically occur (as the name suggests) when punching and are a common sight in all emergency departments on Friday nights. They should not be confused w...
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Boxer knuckle

Boxer knuckle (not to be confused with a Boxer fracture) refers to an appearance when there is a disruption to the sagittal bands involving the extensor hood. particularly the sagittal band over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint. Pathology It often tends to result when a clench fisted hand s...
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Boyd amputation

Boyd amputation refers to amputation at the level of the ankle with preservation of the calcaneus and heel pad and consequent fixation of the calcaneus to the tibia. It allows for complete weight bearing and provides both stabilisation of the heel pad and suspension for a prosthesis.
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Brachialis

The brachialis muscle (brachialis) is one of the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm.  It is only involved in flexion at the elbow and therefore the strongest flexor at the elbow, compared with the biceps brachii which is also involved in supination because of its insertion on t...
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Brachial plexitis

Brachial plexitis refers to inflammatory change involving the brachial plexus. This is in contrast to a brachial plexopathy meaning any form of pathology involving the brachial plexus. Epidemiology Brachial plexitis is more commonly seen in men between 30 and 70 years of age and is bilateral i...
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Brachial plexus

The brachial plexus is a complex neural network formed by lower cervical and upper thoracic ventral nerve roots which supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb and pectoral girdle. It is located in the neck extending into the axilla posterior to the clavicle. Summary origin: ven...
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Brachial plexus injuries

Brachial plexus injuries are a spectrum of upper limb neurological deficits secondary to partial or complete injury to the brachial plexus, which provides the nerve supply of upper limb muscles.  Clinical presentation Trauma, usually by motor vehicle accidents, involves severe traction on the ...
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Brachial plexus terminal branches (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus terminal branches includes: Most Alcoholics Must Really Urinate Where the first letter of each word represents the terminal branches of the brachial plexus:M: musculocutaneous nerveA: axillary nerveM: median nerveR: radial nerveU: ulnar nerve
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Brachioradialis

Brachioradialis is a flexor at the elbow and works with biceps brachii and brachialis. Is it located in the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and is particularly useful in elbow stabilisation. Despite the bulk of the muscle being visible from the anterior surface of ...
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Brachycephaly

Brachycephaly refers to a calvarial shape where the bi-parietal diameter to fronto-occipital diameter approaches the 95th percentile. It can result from a  craniosynostosis involving the coronal and lambdoid sutures. Pathology Associations Brachycephaly can be associated with numerous syndrom...
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Brachydactyly

Brachydactyly (BD) essentially refers to short digits. It is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait (all the types). The clinical spectrum can widely range from minor digital hypoplasia to complete aplasia. As a group, it most commonly involves the middle phalanx 2. Single or multiple b...
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Brachydactyly type A1 (Farabee type)

Brachydactyly type A1 or Farabee type brachydactyly is a subtype of brachydactyly. It was the first human anomaly recognised to have a mendelian pattern of inheritance. The anomaly is characterised by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of the second to fifth digits in hands and feet and p...
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Brachydactyly type A2 (Mohr-Wriedt type)

Brachydactyly type A2 or Mohr-Wriedt type is characterised by hypoplasia/aplasia of the second middle phalanx of the index finger, second toe and sometimes little finger. There is radial deviation of the index finger and tibial deviation of the second toe. Pathology Type A2 brachydactyly can b...
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Brachydactyly type A3

Brachydactyly type A3 is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanx of the little finger with radial deviation of distal phalanx. Slanting of the distal articular surface of the middle phalanx leads to radial deflection of the distal phalanx. However it is not always associated with clino...
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Brachydactyly type A4 (Temtamy type)

Brachydactyly type A4 or Temtamy type is characterised by brachymesophalangy (absent or hypoplastic middle phalanx) of the second and fifth fingers. Other less common features include club foot, clinodactyly, ulnar deviation of the second finger. Pathology Like other brachydactyly, type A4 is ...
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Brachydactyly type A5

Brachydactyly type A5 is characterized by absence of the middle phalanges and nail dysplasia with duplicated terminal phalanx of the thumb with resultant bifid thumb. Inheritance is suggested as autosomal dominant.  
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Brachymetatarsia

Brachymetatarsia (a.k.a. congenital short metatarsus) is a rare condition that develops from early closure of the growth plate.  Epidemiology Females are almost exclusively affected 1.  Pathology Location It typically involves the fourth ray or, less frequently, more than one metatarsal bon...
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Bridging of the pubic symphysis (differential)

Bridging (or fusion) of the pubic symphysis can be associated with various systemic and local causes, including 1-3: ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis surgical fusion post-traumatic post-infectious post-radiation therapy osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteitis pubis myo...
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Bright rim sign (anterior talofibular ligament injury)

The bright rim sign in anterior talofibular ligament injury refers to a sign seen on MRI. A cortical defect with a bright dot-like or curvilinear high-signal-intensity, usually at the fibular attachment site, is seen on MRI. It has been described as an indicator of ATFL injury 1. See also brig...
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Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
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Brown adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is one of two types of adipose tissue (the other one being white fat) important for producing thermal energy (heat, non-shivering thermogenesis) especially in the newborn. It constitutes ~5% of body mass in the newborn and tends to disappear in adulthood. It is importa...
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Brown tumour

Brown tumour, also known as osteitis fibrosa cystica and rarely as osteoclastoma, is one of the manifestations of hyperparathyroidism. It represents a reparative cellular process, rather than a neoplastic process. Histologically brown tumours are identical to giant cell tumour (both are osteocla...
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Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a global zoonotic infection secondary to any of the four Brucella spp. that infect humans. It can be focal or systemic, but has a particular affinity for the musculoskeletal system.  Epidemiology Brucellosis occurs worldwide but is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean regions...
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Brunelli procedure

Brunelli procedure is a surgical procedure aiming to reconstruct a torn scapholunate ligament by reconnecting the scaphoid and lunate using the flexor carpi radialis tendon 1. In the modified Brunelli technique the tendon is sutured upon itself, thereby preventing the crossing of the distal radi...
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Bucket handle fracture (disambiguation)

Bucket handle fracture may refer to: bucket handle fracture - non-accidental injury bucket handle fracture of the pelvis
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Bucket-handle meniscal tear

Bucket-handle meniscal tears are a type of displaced longitudinal meniscal tear where the inner part is displaced centrally. They are more commonly occur in the medial meniscus and are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears.  Radiographic features MRI Bucket-hand tears can man...
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Buckle rib fracture

Buckle rib fractures are typical of an anterior compressive force to the chest, most commonly external cardiac massage, but can be seen following any such traumatic injury. Pathology Buckle rib fractures occur in all ages, even very elderly patients. Thus ribs are not the same as most adult lo...
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Buford complex

Buford complex is a congenital glenoid labrum variant where the anterosuperior labrum is absent in the 1-3 o'clock position and the middle glenohumeral ligament is thickened (cord-like) and originates directly from the superior labrum at the base of the biceps tendon and crosses the subscapulari...
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Bullet-shaped vertebra

Bullet-shaped vertebra refers to the anterior beaking of the vertebral body. It is seen in the following conditions: mucopolysaccharidosis (Morquio disease, Hurler disease) achondroplasia congenital hypothyroidism  See also weapons and munitions inspired signs
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Bunionette

A bunionette, also known as a tailor's bunion, is a bony prominence at the lateral 5th metatarsal head. It is the lateral counterpart of the more common bunion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.  Clinical presentation Bunionettes are visible on clinical examination as an erythematous swel...
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Bursa

Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of synovial fluid. It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. They may or may not communicate ...
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Bursitis

Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa, a synovial membrane-lined space, present overlying a number of joints. The inflammation may be acute or chronic, in the later case calcification may be apparent on plain radiographs. MRI best illustrates the bursa and related pathology. Specific pathological...
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Burst fracture

Burst fractures are a type of compression fracture related to high-energy axial loading spinal trauma that results in disruption of the posterior vertebral body cortex with retropulsion into the spinal canal.  Clinical presentation They usually present as back pain and or lower limbs neurologi...
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Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome

Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (BOS) comprises of osteopoikilosis associated with disseminated connective tissue and cutaneous yellowish naevi, predominantly on the extremities and trunk 1-2.   Recent genetic work has linked BOS to both isolated osteopoikilosis and melorheostosis 1. Historical co...
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Butterfly fragment (fracture)

Butterfly fragments are large, triangular fracture fragments seen commonly in comminuted long bone fractures. The term is commonly used in orthopaedic surgery, and results from two oblique fracture lines meeting to create a large triangular or wedge-shaped fragment located between the proximal a...
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Butterfly vertebra

Butterfly vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly that results from the failure of fusion of the lateral halves of the vertebral body because of persistent notochordal tissue between them. Pathology Associations an anterior spina bifida, with or without an anterior meningocele can be part of...
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Button sequestrum

A button sequestrum is a small sequestrum of devascularised bone surrounded by lucency. Although classically described in osteomyelitis and eosinophilic granuloma it is also occasionally seen in fibrosarcoma and lymphoma. Differential diagnoses osteoid osteoma tuberculous osteitis radiatio...
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C7 vertebra

C7, also known as the vertebra prominens, is the seventh cervical vertebra and looks like vertebra C3-C6, but has some distinct features making it one of the atypical vertebrae. The name vertebra prominens arises from its long spinous process, which is easily palpable.  Gross anatomy C7 posses...
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Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in colour.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to ...
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Caffey disease

Caffey disease or infantile cortical hyperostosis is a largely self-limiting disorder which affects infants. It causes bone changes, soft-tissue swelling, and irritability. A rare variant known as prenatal onset cortical hyperostosis is severe and fatal, though it is probably a separate entity ...
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Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: Arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
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Calcaneal fracture

Calcaneal fractures are the most common tarsal fracture, and can occur in a variety of settings. Epidemiology The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone and accounts for about 2% of all fractures 2 and ~60% of all tarsal fractures 3. Pathology Calcaneal fractures can be divided...
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Calcaneal inclination angle

The calcaneal inclination angle is drawn on a weightbearing lateral foot radiograph between the calcaneal inclination axis and the supporting surface. It is a measurement that reflects the height of the foot framework, but is affected by abnormal pronation or supination of the foot: low: 10-20...
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Calcaneal inclination axis

The calcaneal inclination axis is drawn between the most inferior portion of the calcaneal tuberosity and the most distal and inferior point of the calcaneus at the calcaneocuboid joint on a weightbearing lateral foot radiograph. It can be used to draw the calcaneal inclination angle.
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Calcaneal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for calcaneal lesions is: BIG G Mnemonic B: bone cyst (unicameral) I: intraosseous lipoma G: ganglion (intraosseous) G: giant cell tumour
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Calcaneal tendon

The calcaneal (Achilles) tendon is the strongest and largest tendon in the foot and even in the human body. It is also one of the commonest tendons to injure due to its high biomechanical load but poor vascularity 2. Gross anatomy The calcaneal tendon forms by the merging of fibres of the gast...
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Calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture

Avulsion fractures of the calcaneal tuberosity are rare, accounting for only 3% of all calcaneal fractures. There is a strong association with diabetes, where they may occur spontaneously, and are thought to be due to peripheral neuropathy. They also occur in osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism...
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Calcaneal vascular remnant

Calcaneal vascular remnant is a benign finding that may be seen on MRI of ankle and can be misinterpreted as an alarming bone lesion. It is typically located at the insertion site of sinus tarsi ligaments (cervical and interosseous ligaments). The focus of signal alteration is believed to be pr...
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Calcaneofibular ligament

The calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) is the middle ligament of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle and stabilises both the ankle and subtalar joints. Gross anatomy The CFL is an extracapsular round cord measuring 20-25 mm long x 6-8 mm width. Its origin is distal to the anterior...
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Calcaneonavicular coalition

Calcaneonavicular coalition is one of the two most common subtypes of tarsal coalition, the other being talocalcaneal coalition. As with any coalition it may be osseous (synostosis), cartilaginous (synchondrosis) or fibrous (syndesmosis). Radiographic features This type of coalition is more ea...
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Calcaneus

The calcaneus, also referred to as the calcaneum, is the largest tarsal bone and the major bone in the hindfoot. It articulates with the talus superiorly and the cuboid anteriorly and shares a joint space with the talonavicular joint, appropriately called the talocalcaneonavicular joint. The cal...
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Calcaneus (axial view)

Calcaneus axial view is part of the two view calcaneus series, this projection is best used to asses the talocalcaneal joint and plantar aspects of the calcaneus. The axial view has a diagnostic sensitivity of 87% for calcaneus fractures 1.  Patient position patient is supine or seated with th...
Article

Calcaneus (lateral view)

Calcaneus lateral view is part of the two view calcaneus series; this projection is used to assess the calcaneus, talocrural, talonavicular and talocalcaneal joint. Patient position the patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint shou...
Article

Calcaneus series

The calcaneus series is comprised of a lateral and axial (plantodorsal) projection. The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone accounting for ~60% of all tarsal fractures 1. This series provides a two view investigation of the calcaneus alongside the talar articulations and talocal...
Article

Calcaneus x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A calcaneus x-ray, also known as calcaneus series or calcaneus radiograph, is a set of two x-rays of the calcaneus. It is performed to look for evidence of injury (or pathology) affecting the leg, often after trauma. Refer...
Article

Calcar femorale

The calcar femorale is a normal ridge of dense bone that originates from the postero-medial endosteal surface of the proximal femoral shaft, near the lesser trochanter. It is vertical in orientation, and the ridge projects laterally toward the greater trochanter. This ridge of bone provides mech...
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Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis is the result of deposition calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. It is closely related to calcific tendinitis, and many authors refer to them as being the same condition. 
Article

Calcific myonecrosis

Calcific myonecrosis refers to a rare post-traumatic phenomenon. It characterised by latent formation of a dystrophic calcified mass occurring almost exclusively in the lower limb (it has been occasionally reported at other sites 5). Radiographic features Plain film Plain radiographs typicall...
Article

Calcific tendinitis

Calcific tendinitis (or calcific tendonitis) is a self-limiting condition due to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of the hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD).  Epidemiology Typically this condition affects...
Article

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscles is an inflammatory/granulomatous response to the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the tendons of the longus colli muscle. Epidemiology This condition typically occurs in adults in middle age (20-50 years of age) with a slight pred...
Article

Calcified intra-articular lesions (differential)

Calcified intra-articular lesions have a relatively limited differential, including:  synovial osteochondromatosis impaction fracture fragments intraarticular avulsion fractures chondrocalcinosis charcot joint intraarticular chondroma meniscal ossicle steroid injection synovial chondros...
Article

Calcinosis circumscripta

Calcinosis circumscripta is a condition involving calcium deposition in the subcutaneous tissues, muscles and fascia. It is considered a localised form of calcinosis cutis universalis most often seen in the hands and feet. Clinical presentation Patients present with firm white dermal papules, ...
Article

Calcinosis universalis

Calcinosis universalis is a condition characterised by long bands or sheets of symmetrical subcutaneous calcification. Clinical presentation It usually presents <20 years of age, and is more common in women. palpable calcific plaques in subcutaneous or deeper tissue fatigue, muscle pain, and...
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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD disease), also referred as pyrophosphate arthropathy and perhaps confusingly as pseudogout, is common, especially in the elderly, and is characterised by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in soft tissues and cartilage. Terminology  CPPD is on...
Article

Calvarial thinning

Calvarial thinning can result from many causes. They include: osteogenesis imperfecta hypophosphatasia achondrogenesis Menkes syndrome craniofacial syndromes 1 Apert syndrome Crouzon syndrome Saethre-Chotzen syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome See also focal calvarial thinning calvarial thick...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Associations This condition may be associated Parkinson disease: ...
Article

Camptodactyly

Camptodactyly is a clinical or imaging descriptive term where there is a flexion contracture (usually congenital) classically at the proximal interphalangeal joint. Clinical presentation The age of presentation can vary from being detected in utero in an antenatal scan or as an obvious deformi...
Article

Camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis syndrome

Camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is a rare condition principally characterised by congenital or early-onset camptodactyly and childhood-onset non-inflammatory arthropathy coxa vara deformity or other dysplasia associated with progressive hip disease  pericardit...
Article

Camptomelic dwarfism

Camptomelic dwarfism, also known as camptomalic dysplasia, is a rare form of skeletal dysplasia.  Epidemiology Camptomelic dwarfism is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1:200,000 births.   Clinical presentation Diagnosis is usually readily made at birth or with antenatal ultrasound. It is...
Article

Camurati-Engelmann disease

Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED), also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD), is a rare autosomal dominant sclerosing bone dysplasia. It begins in childhood and follows a progressive course. Clinical presentation Common symptoms include extremity pain, muscle weakness, cranial nerve ...

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