Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,616 results found
Article

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease). Epidemiology There is a recognised male predominance. Clinical presentation Clinically manifests by skin hyperelasticity and fragility, joint hypermobility and blood vessel fr...
Article

Elastofibroma dorsi

Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft-tissue tumour with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Epidemiology It is more frequently seen in older women, with a reported female predilection of 5-13:1. The estimated mean age at diagnosis around 65-70 years. Clinical presentation Elast...
Article

Elbow

The elbow is a complex synovial joint formed by the articulations of the humerus, the radius and the ulna.  Gross anatomy Articulations The elbow joint is made up of three articulations 2,3: radiohumeral: capitellum of the humerus with the radial head ulnohumeral: trochlea of the humerus wi...
Article

Elbow (AP view)

The elbow AP view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articulations of the elbow including the radiohum...
Article

Elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
Article

Elbow arthroplasty

Elbow arthroplasties are an increasingly common joint replacement, most often used for treatment of late stage rheumatoid arthritis, but which may also be used as a treatment for late stage osteoarthritis or complex fractures of the proximal radius, proximal ulna, or distal humerus. total elbow...
Article

Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in the adult population.  A dislocation with no fracture is simple whereas an accompanying fracture makes the dislocation complex. The most common fracture is a radial head fracture, although coronoid process fracture is also c...
Article

Elbow extension test

The elbow extension test is a clinical decision rule aimed at reducing the number of unnecessary elbow radiographs in patients aged ≥3 years.  The test has a specific examination whereby the seated patient, with the arm in supination and 90º shoulder flexion, is asked to fully extend the elbow ...
Article

Elbow joint effusion

Recognising an elbow joint effusion on lateral radiographs is an essential radiology skill. While the fluid itself is not discretely seen because it is the same density as the surrounding muscles, an effusion can be inferred by observing displacement of the anterior and / or posterior fat pads s...
Article

Elbow ossification

Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicodylar fracture for a normal ossification center.  Appearance Order The order of appearances of the elbow os...
Article

Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O ...
Article

Elbow radiograph (summary approach)

Elbow radiographs are common plain films that are obtained frequently in the emergency department. Summary approach alignment anterior humeral line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle 1/3 of the capitellum if it does not, think distal humeral fracture...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilised for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
Article

Elbow series (summary)

An elbow series is the standard series of radiographs that are performed when looking for evidence of fracture, dislocation or elbow joint effusion following trauma. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-depth reference article: elbow series....
Article

Elbow synovial fold syndrome

Elbow synovial fold syndrome refers to a condition where patients experience a cluster of symptoms due to the presence of synovial folds (also known as synovial fringe or plicae). Epidemiology It tends to be more common in athletic young adults. It is associated with certain sporting activitie...
Article

Eleventh rib

The atypical 11th rib is one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 11th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T11 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. The angle is slight. Its costal groove is shallow. The internal surface of this rib faces slightl...
Article

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

The embryonal subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common variety of rhabdomyosarcoma, accounting for 50-70% of cases 1-2. It is typically seen in children below the age of 15. Pathology Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas are further divided into three sub types 1: spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma ...
Article

Emphysematous osteomyelitis

Emphysematous osteomyelitis is an extremly rare form of osteomyelitis which is complicated by infection with gas forming organims. Only a handful of cases are published in literature. Pathology Commonely reported organisms include 1 Fusobacterium necrophorum   Escherichia coli Bacteroides s...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
Article

Enchondroma

Enchondromas (or chondromas 7) are a relatively common benign medullary cartilaginous neoplasm with benign imaging features. They account for the E in the popular mnemonic for bubbly bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC. They are sometimes classified under the umbrella term low grade chondral series tumours...
Article

Enchondroma vs low grade chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between enchondromas and low-grade conventional chondrosarcomas is a frequent difficulty as the lesions are both histologically and radiographically very similar. It is important to remember, though, that differentiating between them may be a moot point since both can either be c...
Article

Enchondromatosis

Enchondromatosis, also known as Ollier disease, is a non-hereditary, sporadic, skeletal disorder characterised by multiple enchondromas that are principally located in the metaphyseal regions. Terminology Some authors make a distinction between Ollier disease and enchondromatosis on the basis ...
Article

Endochondral ossification

Endochondral ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) with a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures. Bone formation occurs at centers of ossification (or ossification centres) which are either primary or secondary...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner margin of cortical bones, typically seen in long bones, due to slow growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to benign aetiology. In fact...
Article

Enlocated

Enlocated is a term popular among Australasian (Australia and New Zealand) radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons to describe a joint that is not dislocated.  It does not appear in the Oxford dictionary, nor is it widely used elsewhere in English-speaking countries. Most authors prefer the terms...
Article

Enneking surgical staging system

The Enneking surgical staging system (also known as the MSTS system) is based on tumour grade, local spread and metastatic disease of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. It does not classify skull tumours or marrow-originating tumours (e.g. lymphoma, plasmacytoma / multiple myeloma, Ewing sarcom...
Article

Enostosis

An enostosis (pl. enostoses, also known as a "bone island") is a common benign bone lesion, usually seen as an incidental finding. They constitute a small focus of compact bone within cancellous bone. Enostoses can be seen on radiographs, CT, and MRI, and are considered one of the skeletal “don’...
Article

Enteropathic arthritis

Enteropathic arthritis (EA) is a form of chronic, inflammatory arthritis associated with the occurrence of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and is classified as a form of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Epidemiology Approximately 20% of people with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis may...
Article

Enthesis

An enthesis (pl. entheses) is the connective tissue junction where ligaments and tendons attach to bone. There are two types of entheses: fibrous enthesis fibrocartilage enthesis Histology Fibrous enthesis The ligament or tendon attaches directly to the bone. Fibrocartilage enthesis Ther...
Article

Enthesitis

Enthesitis refers to inflammation of the enthesis (the attachment of ligament or tendon to bone).  Enthesitis may be the result of repetitive mechanical stress or a more generalised inflammatory condition. Enthesitis is associated with the HLA-B27 inflammatory arthritides such as ankylosing spo...
Article

Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a broad term that includes any disorder that occurs where tendons or ligaments attach to bone (the enthesis). The causes of enthesopathy is broad. It may be localised and secondary to repetitive mechanical strain, or secondary to another condition which may be confined to a sing...
Article

Eosinophilic fasciitis

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF), also known as Shulman syndrome, is an uncommon connective tissue disorder. Epidemiology It can potentially present at age. There is a recognized female predilection 3-4. Clinical presentation Patients typically present with pronounced extremity oedema and skin in...
Article

Epibasal fracture of the thumb

Epibasal fractures of the thumb (also called pseudo Bennett's fracture) are two-piece fractures of the proximal first metacarpal bone. They are usually stable, depending on the degree of displacement, and often do not require surgery. It is important to distinguish them from intra-articular frac...
Article

Epicondylar fracture

Epicondylar fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiothe...
Article

Epidermal inclusion cyst

Epidermal inclusion cysts are common cutaneous lesions that represent proliferation of squamous epithelium within a confined space in the dermis or subdermis. Terminology Synonyms include "epidermoid cyst" and "epidermoid inclusion cyst". These are occasionally termed "sebaceous cyst", althoug...
Article

Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anaesthetists.  Indications craniospinal hypotension...
Article

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space, typically in the lumbar region, such that the thecal sac is compressed, and in some instances results in compressive symptoms.  Epidemiology Demographic of affected individuals reflects the underl...
Article

Epiphyseal bracket

An epiphyseal bracket represents an abnormal development of physeal tissue along the diaphysis which occurs in the hand and the feet 1.
Article

Epiphyseal equivalent

An epiphyseal equivalent refers to bones that are considered similar to the epiphyses and therefore have a similar list of diseases that cause pathology. Examples include: patella calcaneum carpal bones most apophysis See also epiphyseal tumours
Article

Epiphyseal lesions

Epiphyseal lesions comprise of tumours and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumour found in young adults; it does not usually extend into the...
Article

Epiphyseal overgrowth (differential)

The differential diagnosis of epiphyseal overgrowth includes: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis haemophilia Legg-Perthes disease (healed ) dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica fibrous dysplasia of epiphysis Winchester syndrome infection tuberculous arthritis pyogenic arthritis (chronic) funga...
Article

Epiphyseal spur

Epiphyseal spur refers to spur seen in skeletally mature individuals arising at the level of closed epiphyseal line. It may be seen in any bone containing epiphysis. Differential diagnosis: avulsion fracture
Article

Epiphysis

The epiphysis (pl: epiphyses) is the rounded portion at the end of a bone distal to the physis. The epiphysis contributes to a joint, compared with an apophysis which is a site of tendon or ligament attachment. Once the growth plate has fused, the epiphysis and metaphysis are joined. Related pa...
Article

Episternal ossicles

Episternal (or suprasternal) ossicles are accessory bones and a normal variant of the sternum. They result from supernumerary ossification centers and are seen in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population. Gross anatomy Episternal ossicles are usually located posterior or superior to the superior bor...
Article

Eponymous fractures

There are numerous eponymous fractures which are named after the people who first described their existence 1: Bankart fracture: glenoid Barton fracture: wrist Bennett fracture: thumb Bosworth fracture: ankle Chance fracture: vertebral Charcot joint: foot Chopart fracture: foot Colles fr...
Article

Erdheim-Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell, non-familial multisystemic granulomatosis, with widespread manifestations and of highly variable severity. The most common presenting symptom is bone pain. Epidemiology Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-inherited disease of midd...
Article

Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. The iliocostalis group occurs most laterally, followed by the longissimus group, and finally the spinalis as the most me...
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity

An Erlenmeyer flask deformity refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. Causes include marrow infiltration/expansion lysosomal storage disease Gaucher disease - osteopenia with Leg...
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher disease Lead G...
Article

Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
Article

Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1-2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
Article

Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
Article

Erosive osteoarthritis

Erosive (inflammatory) osteoarthritis (EOA) is a form of osteoarthritis (OA) where, as the name implies, there is an additional erosive/inflammatory component. Epidemiology There is marked female predilection (F:M ~12:1), typically presenting in the postmenopausal patient. Clinical presentati...
Article

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations comprise of a comminuted fracture of the radial head accompanied by dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). The force of trauma is transmitted down the forearm through the interosseous membrane causing disruption. The DRUJ injury may be missed lead...
Article

Evaluation of recurrent bone tumours

Recurrent bone tumours are a common complication post curettage or resection. Radiographic features Radiographs taken pre- and postoperatively are sufficient for evaluation of recurrence based on the following features: osteolytic changes cortical changes matrix mineralisation (characterist...
Article

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
Article

Ewing sarcoma (chest wall)

Ewing sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), also referred as Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall, are malignant tumours affecting children and young adults, originating either from the osseous structures or the soft tissues of the chest wall.  On imaging, they are usually characterised as a large extr...
Article

Excessive lateral pressure syndrome

Excessive lateral pressure syndrome (ELPS) is abnormal  lateral tilt of the patella without lateral translation and considered one of the relatively common causes of anterior knee pain. It can affect both adolescents or adults. Patients usually present with insidious onset anterior knee pain agg...
Article

Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
Article

Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
Article

Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
Article

Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

Extensor carpis radialis brevis (ECRB) is a muscle of superficial layer on posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. ECRB is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ann...
Article

Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

Extensor carpis radialis longus (ECRL) is a muscle of the superficial layer in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral supracondyle ridge of hu...
Article

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor carpis ulnaris (ECU) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is separated from the extensor digitorum and the extensor digiti minimi muscles by a distinct intermuscular septum. It is the only forearm extensor that lies in its own fibro-osseou...
Article

Extensor compartments of the wrist

The extensor tendons at the level of the wrist are divided into six extensor compartments that are designated by Roman numerals from lateral to medial 1: I: extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus II: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis III: extensor poll...
Article

Extensor digiti minimi

Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, and with other extensor muscles arises from a common extensor tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The EDM represents a medial group of superficial extensor muscles...
Article

Extensor digitorum

Extensor digitorum (ED), also known as extensor digitorum communis (EDC), is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and with other extensor muscles arises from a common tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. ED represents a medial group o...
Article

Extensor digitorum brevis manus

The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle is an accessory muscle in the hand and is a normal anatomical variant.  Summary origin: distal radius and posterior radiocarpal ligament insertion: extensor hood of 2nd or 3rd digits (variable) innervation: posterior interosseous nerve actio...
Article

Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps extend digits 2 through 4. Summary origin: superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion: lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV action: extension of toes II to I...
Article

Extensor digitorum longus muscle

Extensor digitorium longus (EDL) is a thin muscle situated in the anterior leg lateral to extensor hallucis longus and extends the lateral four toes. Summary origin: lateral tibial condyle, medial surface of the middle portion of the fibula and superior portion of the anterior surface of the i...
Article

Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps to extend the big toe. Summary origin superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion base of proximal phalanx of great toe action extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe arterial supply dors...
Article

Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Summary origin: anterior surface of the middle portion of the fibula and the interosseous membrane insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the distal pha...
Article

Extensor indicis

The extensor indicis muscle is an accessory extensor of the 2nd digit. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and its tendon passes through the 4th extensor compartment of the wrist. Summary origin: posterior surface of the ulna (distal to extensor pollicis...
Article

Extensor mechanism of the knee

The extensor mechanism of the knee comprises of: quadriceps muscle quadriceps tendon medial patellar retinaculum lateral patellar retinaculum patella patellar tendon tibial tuberosity Related pathology extensor mechanism of the knee injuries
Article

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries include: quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patella tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patella sleeve fractures Chronic injuries: Osgood-Schlatter disease Sinding-Larsen-Johanss...
Article

Extensor pollicis brevis

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis longus...
Article

Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues medially towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The EPL defines the ulnar border of the anatomic snuff ...
Article

Extensor retinaculum

The extensor retinaculum is located at the dorsal aspect of the foot and consists of the superior and inferior extensor retinacula.  Gross anatomy The superior extensor retinaculum is located proximally to the dorsal aspect of the ankle joint and houses the tibialis anterior, extensor digitoru...
Article

External intercostal muscle

The external (or outermost) intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal space, expanding the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during inspiration. Gross anatomy The external intercostal muscles are the o...
Article

External oblique muscle

The external oblique muscle (EOM) is one of the muscles that forms the anterior abdominal wall. Its free inferior border forms the inguinal ligament, and its aponeurotic part contributes to the anterior wall of the inguinal canal.  Summary origin: outer surface of the shaft of the lower 8 ribs...
Article

Extra skeletal osteosarcoma

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare mesenchymal malignant tumour that occurs in the retroperitoneum and soft tissue of extremities without any attachment to bone. Epidemiology ESOS in contrast to other subtypes of osteosarcoma occurs infrequently in individuals under 40 years of age, m...
Article

Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma

Extraskeletal chondrosarcomas make up only 2% of soft-tissue sarcomas  and only 1% of all chondrosarcomas. Pathology  They tend to be of higher grade than run-of-the-mill conventional intramedullary chondrosarcomas, with the majority being of the myxoid (most common) or mesenchymal varieties 3...
Article

Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma

Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is included in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) along with Ewing sarcoma of bone, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), peripheral neuroepithelioma, and thoracopulmonary PNET (Askin tumour). When compared with Ewing sarcoma of bone, extraskeletal Ewin...
Article

Extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment

Intermuscular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma fibromatosis ganglion leiomyosarcoma nodular fasciitis neurogenic tumours synovial cyst Intra-articular lipoma arborescens nodular synovitis pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial chondromatosis synovial haemangioma Intram...
Article

Fabella

The fabella is an accessory ossicle typically found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It occurs in ~20% (range 10-30%) of the population 1.  The fabella can also be fibrocartilaginous in nature and is occasionally found in the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The fabella articulates wi...
Article

Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
Article

Facet joint

The facet (or apophyseal or zygapophyseal) joints are the articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.  Gross anatomy They are synovial-lined joints that have a fibrous capsule and connect the articular facets of the vertebrae. The superior facet ...
Article

Facet joint capsule

Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.  In the cervical re...
Article

Facial muscles

The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin 1. Gross anatom...
Article

Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
Article

Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for wrist-forearm fractures, in certain cases with involvement of elbow structures, particularly in children. Some injuries that result from such a fall include: Colles fracture Scaphoid fracture Monteggia fracture-dislocation Gal...
Article

Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding is said to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture. Although it has occasionally been reported with other cystic le...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.