Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,778 results found
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Epiphyseal spur

Epiphyseal spur refers to a spur seen in skeletally mature individuals arising at the level of closed epiphyseal line. It may be seen in any epiphysis. Differential diagnosis avulsion fracture
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Epiphysis

The epiphyses (singular: epiphysis) are the rounded portions at the ends of a bone separated from the metaphysis by the physis. The epiphysis contributes to a joint, compared with an apophysis which is a site of tendon or ligament attachment. Once the growth plate has fused, the epiphysis and me...
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Episternal ossicles

Episternal (or suprasternal) ossicles are accessory bones and a normal variant of the sternum. They result from supernumerary ossification centers and are seen in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population. Gross anatomy Episternal ossicles are usually located posterior or superior to the superior bor...
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Eponymous fractures

There are numerous eponymous fractures which are named after the people who first described their existence 1: Bankart fracture: glenoid Barton fracture: wrist Bennett fracture: thumb Bosworth fracture: ankle Chance fracture: vertebral Charcot joint: foot Chopart fracture: foot Colles fr...
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Erdheim-Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell, non-familial multisystemic granulomatosis, with widespread manifestations and of highly variable severity. The most common presenting symptom is bone pain. Epidemiology Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-inherited disease of midd...
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Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. The iliocostalis group occurs most laterally, followed by the longissimus group, and finally the spinalis as the most me...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD) (also known as metaphyseal flaring) refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. It has been classically used with reference to the distal ends of the fe...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher dis...
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Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
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Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1-2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
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Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
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Erosive osteoarthritis

Erosive (inflammatory) osteoarthritis (EOA) is a form of osteoarthritis (OA) where, as the name implies, there is an additional erosive/inflammatory component. Epidemiology There is marked female predilection (F:M ~12:1), typically presenting in the postmenopausal patient. Clinical presentati...
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Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations comprise of a comminuted fracture of the radial head accompanied by dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. The force of trauma is transmitted down the forearm through the interosseous membrane causing disruption. The distal radioulnar joint injury may be...
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Evaluation of recurrent bone tumours

Recurrent bone tumours are a common complication post curettage or resection. Radiographic features Radiographs taken pre- and postoperatively are sufficient for evaluation of recurrence based on the following features: osteolytic changes cortical changes matrix mineralisation (characterist...
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Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
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Ewing sarcoma (chest wall)

Ewing sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), also referred as Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall, are malignant tumours affecting children and young adults, originating either from the osseous structures or the soft tissues of the chest wall.  On imaging, they are usually characterised as a large extr...
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Excessive lateral pressure syndrome

Excessive lateral pressure syndrome (ELPS) or patellar compression syndrome is the abnormal lateral tilt of the patella without lateral translation and considered one of the relatively common causes of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology It can affect both adolescents and adults.  Clinical prese...
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Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
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Extension teardrop fracture

Extension teardrop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extension ...
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Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

Extensor carpis radialis brevis (ECRB) is a muscle of superficial layer on posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. ECRB is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ann...
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Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

Extensor carpis radialis longus (ECRL) is a muscle of the superficial layer in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral supracondyle ridge of hu...
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Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor carpis ulnaris (ECU) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is separated from the extensor digitorum and the extensor digiti minimi muscles by a distinct intermuscular septum. It is the only forearm extensor that lies in its own fibro-osseou...
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Extensor compartments of the wrist

The extensor tendons at the level of the wrist are divided into six extensor compartments that are designated by Roman numerals from lateral to medial 1: I: extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus II: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis III: extensor poll...
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Extensor digiti minimi

Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, and with other extensor muscles arises from a common extensor tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The EDM represents a medial group of superficial extensor muscles...
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Extensor digitorum

Extensor digitorum (ED), also known as extensor digitorum communis (EDC), is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and with other extensor muscles arises from a common tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. ED represents a medial group o...
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Extensor digitorum brevis manus

The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle is an accessory muscle in the hand and is a normal anatomical variant.  Summary origin: distal radius and posterior radiocarpal ligament insertion: extensor hood of 2nd or 3rd digits (variable) innervation: posterior interosseous nerve actio...
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Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps extend digits 2 through 4. Summary origin: superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion: lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV action: extension of toes II to I...
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Extensor digitorum longus muscle

Extensor digitorium longus (EDL) is a thin muscle situated in the anterior leg lateral to extensor hallucis longus and extends the lateral four toes. Summary origin: lateral tibial condyle, medial surface of the middle portion of the fibula and superior portion of the anterior surface of the i...
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Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps to extend the big toe. Summary origin superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion base of proximal phalanx of great toe action extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe arterial supply dors...
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Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Summary origin: anterior surface of the middle portion of the fibula and the interosseous membrane insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the distal pha...
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Extensor indicis

The extensor indicis muscle is an accessory extensor of the 2nd digit. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and its tendon passes through the 4th extensor compartment of the wrist. Summary origin: posterior surface of the ulna (distal to extensor pollicis...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee

The extensor mechanism of the knee comprises: quadriceps muscle quadriceps tendon medial patellar retinaculum lateral patellar retinaculum patella patellar tendon tibial tuberosity Related pathology extensor mechanism of the knee injuries
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries include: quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures Chronic injuries Osgood-Schlatter disease Sinding-Larsen-Johans...
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Extensor pollicis brevis

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis longus...
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Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues laterally towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The tendon of EPL defines the ulnar border of the Anat...
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Extensor retinaculum

The extensor retinaculum is located at the dorsal aspect of the foot and consists of the superior and inferior extensor retinacula.  Gross anatomy The superior extensor retinaculum is located proximally to the dorsal aspect of the ankle joint and houses the tibialis anterior, extensor digitoru...
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External intercostal muscle

The external (or outermost) intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal space, expanding the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during inspiration. Gross anatomy The external intercostal muscles are the o...
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External oblique muscle

The external oblique muscle (EOM) is one of the muscles that forms the anterior abdominal wall. Its free inferior border forms the inguinal ligament, and its aponeurotic part contributes to the anterior wall of the inguinal canal.  Summary origin: outer surface of the shaft of the lower 8 ribs...
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Extra-articular lateral hindfoot impingement syndrome

Extra-articular lateral hindfoot impingement syndrome refers a non-traumatic cause of ankle impingement. This can include talocalcaneal, subfibular, and /or talocalcaneal-subfibular impingements. It presents as the sequela of a pathological tibialis posterior tendon, which causes pes planus (fl...
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Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma

Extraskeletal chondrosarcomas make up only 2% of soft-tissue sarcomas  and only 1% of all chondrosarcomas. Pathology  They tend to be of higher grade than run-of-the-mill conventional intramedullary chondrosarcomas, with the majority being of the myxoid (most common) or mesenchymal varieties 3...
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Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma

Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is included in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) along with Ewing sarcoma of bone, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), peripheral neuroepithelioma, and thoracopulmonary PNET (Askin tumour). When compared with Ewing sarcoma of bone, extraskeletal Ewin...
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Extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment

Intermuscular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma fibromatosis ganglion leiomyosarcoma nodular fasciitis neurogenic tumours synovial cyst Intra-articular lipoma arborescens nodular synovitis pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial chondromatosis synovial haemangioma Intram...
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Extraskeletal osteosarcoma

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare mesenchymal malignant tumour that occurs in the retroperitoneum and soft tissue of extremities without any attachment to bone. Epidemiology Extraskeletal osteosarcoma in contrast to other subtypes of osteosarcoma occurs infrequently in individuals un...
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Fabella

The fabella is an accessory ossicle typically found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It occurs in ~20% (range 10-30%) of the population 1.  The fabella can also be fibrocartilaginous in nature and is occasionally found in the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The fabella articulates wi...
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Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
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Facet joint

The facet (or apophyseal or zygapophyseal) joints are the articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.  Gross anatomy They are symmetrical synovial-lined joints that have a fibrous capsule and connect the articular facets of the vertebrae. The sup...
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Facet joint capsule

Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.  In the cervical re...
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Facial muscles

The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin 1. Gross anatom...
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Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a form of muscular dystrophy characterised by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Epidemiology It is considered one of the more common hereditary muscular disorders with a prevalence of ~1 in 8,000. ...
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Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
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Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding is said to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture. Although it has occasionally been reported with other cystic le...
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Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for wrist-forearm fractures, in certain cases with involvement of elbow structures, particularly in children. Some injuries that result from such a fall include: Colles fracture Scaphoid fracture Monteggia fracture-dislocation Gal...
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Familial multiple lipomatosis

Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) is a hereditary syndrome of multiple encapsulated lipomas which are found on the trunk and extremities, with relative sparing of the head and shoulders.  Terminology It is clinically distinct from the similarly named multiple symmetric lipomatosis with which...
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Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaemia sh...
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign is the linear extension along the fascia/muscular aponeurosis from a deeper tumour. Radiographic features It appears as a tail and is best appreciated on MRI, classically seen in desmoid tumours as T2 hypointense bands that progressively enhance particularly on delayed ph...
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Fascicular sign

Fascicular sign is a finding on T2-weighted MRI images that suggests a lesion of neurogenic origin. It is characterised by multiple small ring-like structures with peripheral hyperintensity representing the fascicular bundles within the nerves. It is found in various neurogenic tumours, includi...
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Fatco syndrome

Fatco syndrome is a syndrome consisting of fibular aplasia tibial campomelia and oligosyndactyly. It is a syndrome of unknown genetic basis and inheritance with variable expressivity and penetrance. Differential diagnosis Fuhrmann syndrome and Al-Awadi syndrome are said to be similar to FA...
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Fatigue fracture

Fatigue fractures are a type of stress fracture due to abnormal stresses on normal bone. They should not be confused with an insufficiency fracture, which occurs due to normal stresses on abnormal bone. Plain films typically demonstrate a linear sclerotic region. MRI is the most sensitive and sp...
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Fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee

In fat-pad impingement syndromes the aetiologies are different for each knee fat pad. In anterior suprapatellar fat pad impingment syndrome the cause is usually due to either a developmental cause related to the anatomy of the extensor mechanism, or may be related to abnormal mechanics. In this...
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Fat redistribution syndrome

The fat redistribution syndrome (or HIV lipodystrophy syndrome) is seen in a number of AIDS patients on HAART. It is characterised by typical changes in body fat distribution. Features include : hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump) increased fat in the abdominal region (protease pau...
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Faulty fetal packing

Faulty fetal packing, also known as congenital vault depression, is a congenital concave depression of the skull in a newborn. Epidemiology Occurs in 1 in 10,000 births 1.  Pathology This appearance is due to external compression on the skull from 1,2: fetal limb or twin uterine fibroid b...
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FBI sign

The FBI sign is an acronym referring to the components that form a lipohaemarthrosis. It stands for: fat blood interface
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FCD (disambiguation)

FCD may refer to: focal cortical dysplasia (of the brain) fibrous cortical defect (of the bone)
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Features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonic: 6 Ds of Charcot joint Mnemonic increased Density (subchondral sclerosis) Destruction Debris (intra-articular loose bodies) Dislocation Distention Disorganisation The causes of Charcot arthrop...
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Feingold syndrome

Feingold syndrome is characterised by the combination of: microcephaly digital abnormalities alimentary tract atresias especially oesophageal atresia
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Felty syndrome

Felty syndrome comprises of the combination of: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) splenomegaly and neutropaenia It is thought to occur in ~ 1% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis 2. Pathology Serological markers rheumatoid factor (RF): Over 95% of FS patients are positive 5 antinuclear antibod...
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Femoral anteversion

Femoral anteversion refers to the orientation of the femoral neck in relation to the femoral condyles at the level of the knee. In most cases, the femoral neck is oriented anteriorly as compared to the femoral condyles. In the case of posterior orientation, the term femoral retroversion is also ...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal, or the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is the inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expand ...
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Femoral facial syndrome

Femoral facial syndrome, also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome, is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by varying degrees of femoral hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism 1. Clinical presentation Femoral facial syndrome can cause varying degrees of femoral malformation rang...
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Femoral hernia

Femoral hernias are a type of groin herniation and comprise of a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other structures. Epidemiology There...
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Femoral neck fracture

Neck of femur fractures (NOF) are common injuries sustained by older patients who are both more likely to have unsteadiness of gait and reduced bone mineral density, predisposing to fracture. Elderly osteoporotic women are at greatest risk. Epidemiology It is anticipated that the total number ...
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Femoral nerve

The femoral nerve is a large nerve arising from the lumbar plexus and one of two major nerves supplying the lower limb. Gross anatomy Origin It arises from posterior divisions of L2-L4 roots of the lumbar plexus. Course emerges from the lateral border of the psoas muscle to descend between ...
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Femoral nerve neuropathy

Femoral nerve neuropathy occurs when the femoral nerve is compressed as it passes under the inguinal ligament, anterior to iliopsoas. Causes include surgery (hysterectomy, pelvic, hip, femoral artery catheterization, arterial bypass). Mass effect from iliacus or iliopsoas may be visualised and...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and...
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Femoral sheath

The femoral sheath is the funnel-shaped fascial space that extends from the abdomen, inferior to the inguinal ligament, into the femoral triangle. It has variable length and terminates by blending in with the adventitia of the femoral vessels. It is formed from the transversalis and psoas fascia...
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Femoral torsion analysis

Femoral torsion analysis is used to assess the alignment of a femur post surgery. If one side has been operated on it can be compared to the non-operated side. Method Superimpose axial images of: femoral heads the neck of femurs femoral condyles Draw a line from the centre of the femoral h...
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Femoral triangle

The femoral triangle is found in the anterior upper thigh. Gross anatomy Boundaries The major boundaries can be recalled with the mnemonic SAIL 1,2: lateral border: medial border of sartorius medial border: medial border of adductor longus superior border: inguinal ligament floor: iliopso...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts"...
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Femoroacetabular impingement

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) refers to a clinical syndrome of painful, limited hip motion resulting from certain types of underlying morphological abnormalities in the femoral head/neck region and/or surrounding acetabulum. FAI can lead to early degenerative disease. Epidemiology Pincer ...
Article

Femoroacetabular joint

The femoroacetabular or hip joint is a large ball-and-socket synovial joint between the femoral head and the acetabulum. Summary articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum ligaments: ischiofemoral, iliofemoral, pubofemoral and transverse acetabular li...
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Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, neck, greater tr...
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Femur sparing intrauterine growth restriction

Femur sparing intrauterine growth restriction is considered by some authors as a particular type of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) 1. In this type, the femoral length is the only standard fetal biometric parameter unaffected while all others are reduced.
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Femur x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A femur x-ray, also known as femur series or femur radiograph, is a set of two x-rays performed of the entire femur. It is performed to look for evidence of injury (or pathology) affecting the humerus. It may be performed a...
Article

Fetal rib fractures

Fetal rib fractures can be caused by certain skeletal dysplasias. These include: osteogenesis imperfecta: type II - one of the classical causes of fetal rib fractures achondrogenesis: type Ia - Houston-Harris sub type
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Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), previously known as myositis ossificans progressiva (MOP), is a rare, inherited disorder characterised by progressive fibrosis and ossification of muscles, tendons, fasciae, aponeuroses, and ligaments of multiple sites. It is disabling and ultimately ...
Article

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the nerve

A fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the nerve (also known as a neural fibrolipoma) is a benign neoplasm of nerves, resulting from anomalous growth of fibroadipose tissue of the nerve sheath. Pathology Fibrolipomatous hamartoma may be related to hypertrophy of mature fat and fibroblasts in the epine...
Article

Fibromatosis

Fibromatosis refers to a wide range of soft tissue lesions that share an underlying histopathologic pattern of fibrous tissue proliferation. They can occur in a variety of anatomic sites (e.g. musculoskeletal, abdominopelvic, breast, etc.) and also vary in their behaviour, ranging from indolent/...
Article

Fibromatosis colli

Fibromatosis colli is a rare form of infantile fibromatosis that occurs within the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection. It typically presents a few weeks after birth. Clinical presentation Presentation is usually with torticollis and is most frequ...
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Fibrosarcoma of the bone

Fibrosarcoma of the bone is a rare malignant bone tumour which may occur as a primary lesion, or secondarily after radiation treatment, dedifferentiation from other tumours 3 or pathologies such as Paget disease, bone infarction, or chronic osteomyelitis. Terminology It is a distinct entity fr...
Article

Fibrous cortical defect

Fibrous cortical defects (FCD) are benign bony lesions and are a type of fibroxanthoma, histologically identical to the larger non-ossifying fibroma (NOF). Epidemiology Fibrous cortical defects typically occur in children (usually 2-15 years), and indeed are one of the most common benign bony ...

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