Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

721 results found
Article

Multiple placental cysts

Multiple placental cystic spaces can be seen in many conditions: within the placenta venous lakes true placental cysts allantoic ducts cysts hydropic degeneration of placenta placental mesenchymal dysplasia adjacent the placenta subchorionic/retroplacental hematoma subamniotic hematomas...
Article

Multiple pterygium syndrome

The multiple pterygium syndrome(s) (MPS) refers to a group of disorders which are collectively characterised by multiple soft tissue webs (or pterygia) across the neck and various joints. They can be broadly classified into two main groups lethal multiple pterygium syndrome non lethal multipl...
Article

MURCS association

MURCS association refers to the combination of: MU: Müllerian duct aplasia R: renal aplasia /renal agenesis CS: cervicothoracic somite dysplasia See also Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
Article

Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be a...
Article

Naegele's formula

The Naegele's formula is simple arithmetic method for calculating the EDD (estimated date of delivery) based on the LMP (last menstrual period). To the date of the first day of the LMP (e.g. 22nd June 2008): add seven days (i.e 29th) subtract 3 months (i.e March) add one year (i.e 2009)
Article

Nager syndrome

The Nager syndrome (also known as acrofacial dysostosis) is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterised by facial and skeletal features Clinical presentation Recognised features include: facial: antimongoloid slant lower lid ptosis microtia micrognathia mandibular hypoplasia hear...
Article

Narrow fetal thorax

A narrow fetal thorax on antenatal ultrasound can be present with a number of anomalies which include: achondrogenesis camptomelic dysplasia homozygous achondroplasia Jarcho-Levin syndrome Jeune syndrome - asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia Russell-Silver dwarfism short rib polydactyly syndr...
Article

Neu-Laxova syndrome

Neu-Laxova syndrome is a lethal autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome with a heterogeneous phenotype. Clinical presentation The clinical spectrum can be quite wide and includes: dermal / cutaneous severe skin restriction ichthyosis decreased fetal movement marked intrauterine...
Article

Neural tube defects

Neural tube defect (NTD) refers to the incomplete closure of the neural tube in very early pregnancy.  The neural tube comprises of a bundle of nerve sheath which closes to form brain at the anterior end and spinal cord at the posterior end. The closure should occur at around the 28th day of co...
Article

Neurenteric canal of Kovalevsky

The neurenteric canal or canal of Kovalevsky is the transient communication of the amnion through notochordal canal to the yolk sac during notochordal formation at day 16-17. Abnormalities during this stage produce the neurenteric cyst spectrum.
Article

Noack syndrome

The Noack syndrome is a type of acrocephalopolysyndactyly. It is now considered a variant of the Pfeiffer syndrome 2.
Article

Non gestational choriocarcinoma

Non-gestational choriocarcinoma is choriocarcinoma occurring in the absence of a preceding gestation.  As opposed to a gestational choriocarcinoma, this is a much rarer situation. Pathology In women they often tend to occur in ovary. Most ovarian non-gestational choriocarcinomas occur in mixed...
Article

Non-invasive perinatal testing (NIPT)

Non-invasive perinatal testing (NIPT) is an antenatal screening technique which has relatively recently come into practice.  It relies on the detection of small amounts of cell free fetal DNA to be detected in the maternal bloodstream, hence allowing prenatal genetic diagnosis to occur by way of...
Article

Non visualisation of the fetal gallbladder

Non visualisation of the fetal gallbladder is often a transient finding and in most bases can be eventually detected. However it can be rarely associated with certain pathological conditions. Associations cystic fibrosis aneuploidy agenesis of the gallbladder biliary atresia See also dif...
Article

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal numbe...
Article

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
Article

Nuchal cord

Nuchal cord is a term given to the situation where there are one or more loops of umbilical cord wrapped around the fetal neck for ≥360°. Epidemiology The prevalence is dependent on the extent of coiling and range from ~25% for a single loop to 2.5% for a double loop to ~0.5% for more than two...
Article

Nuchal fold

The nuchal fold is a normal fold of skin seen at the back of the fetal neck during the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased thickness of the nuchal fold is a soft marker associated with multiple fetal anomalies, and is measured on a routine second trimester ultrasound.  Terminology It shou...
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is the normal fluid-filled subcutaneous space identified at the back of the fetal neck during the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks). It should not be confused with the nuchal fold, which is seen in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased...
Article

Obstetric curriculum

The obstetric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core obstetric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the normal and abnormal pregnancy, the gravid uterus and fetal environment, placenta, normal fetal development and fet...
Article

Obstetrics and gynaecology imaging (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Obstetrics and Gynaecology imaging for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathologies seen on the wards, in theatre and in the emergency O&G patient. Fundamental to most imaging of the O&G patient is an un...
Article

Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia

Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, or Potter type IV cystic renal disease, is a potential complication that can occur from prolonged obstruction of the bladder outlet or urethra during gestation.  Pathology Ureteric obstruction during active nephrogenesis results in cystic renal dysplasia; th...
Article

OEIS complex

The OEIS complex refers to the combined occurrence of: an omphalocele bladder exstrophy / cloacal exstrophy an imperforate anus and spinal anomalies: e.g kyphoscoliosis hemivertebrae Epidemiology The estimated occurrence is at around 1-200,000 to 400,000 live births 1,8. Pathology Pos...
Article

Oesophageal atresia

An oesophageal atresia refers to an absence in the contiguity of the oesophagus due to an inappropriate division of the primitive foregut into the trachea and oesophagus. This is the most common congenital anomaly of the oesophagus.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in ~1:3000-4500 live bir...
Article

Oligohydramnios

Oligohydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is less than expected for gestational age. Often these fetuses have <500 mL of amniotic fluid. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence can be up to ~6% of pregnancies 4. Pathology Causes The causes of oligohydramnios are pr...
Article

Omphalocoele

Omphalocoeles, or exomphalos, are congenital midline abdominal wall defects at the base of the umbilical cord insertion with herniation of gut (or occasionally other content) out of the fetal abdomen. Epidemiology The estimated occurrence can be up to 1:4000 of live births 3.  Pathology It i...
Article

Omphalomesenteric duct cyst

An omphalomesenteric duct cyst is a type of true umbilical cord cyst. Pathology The omphalomesenteric duct serves as a communication between the midgut and yolk sac In early embryonic life and usually obliterates between the 9-18th week of gestation. The omphalomesenteric duct cyst is an embry...
Article

Omphalopagus

Omphalopagus twins are joined at the front and at the level of the umbilicus. Commonly involved structures are lower thorax fusion and liver fusion. Pericardium may be common, but the heart is never shared. Stomach and the proximal small intestines are usually separate but the small intestines ...
Article

Oro-facial-digital syndromes

Oro-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) are a generic name for a variety of genetically heterogeneous disorders that result in malformations of the mouth, teeth, jaw, facial bones, hands, and feet. Classification There are several (at least 13 2 ) recognised subtypes which include: OFDS type I: G...
Article

Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery. Course Descends caudally in the retroperitone...
Article

Ovarian ectopic pregnancy

Ovarian ectopic pregnancies are rare (1-3%) when compared to other types of ectopic pregnancy such as tubal ectopic.  Pathology Risk factors Risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, IUCD use, endometriosis,  in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer 3, and previous adnexal surgery 4. Pa...
Article

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
Article

Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
Article

Overlapping fetal fingers

Overlapping fetal fingers is an antenatal ultrasound observation where the fetal fingers are seen to overlap each other. It may be seen seen with a concurrent clenched fetal hand.  If the hand is clenched typically the 2nd finger is seen to overlap the 3rd 4. Pathology Associations a well re...
Article

Pallister Killian syndrome

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremly rare chromosomal anomaly. Epidemiology It may be more prevalent in woman of advanced age 4. Pathology It is a polymalformative complex with tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p although many cases are mosaic. Genetics The majority of cases are th...
Article

Parapagus

Parapagus twins are conjoined twins that lie side-by-side with ventrolateral fusion.  This type of conjoined twins usually shares the umbilicus, abdomen, and pelvis. The conjoined pelvis may have a single symphysis pubis and one or two sacra.  The lower gastrointestinal tract (single colon and...
Article

Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole is a type of hydatidiform mole, which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are common but non...
Article

Parturition-induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
Article

Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. Patau syndrome along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Edward syndrome (trisomy 18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days...
Article

Pena-Shokeir syndrome

The Pena-Shokeir syndrome (PSS) is an autosomal recessive nonaneuploidic condition with some clinical features being similar to that of trisomy 18. The condition is most often lethal.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 12,000 births. Clinical features Features include 2,4: ar...
Article

Pentalogy of Cantrell

The pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare phenomenon with an incidence estimated at around 6 per million live births 3.  It encompasses the following 5 main features 1. omphalocoele ectopia cordis (abnormal location of heart) diaphragmatic defect pericardial defect or sternal cleft ca...
Article

Perigestational haemorrhage

Perigestational haemorrhage refers to haemorrhage that occurs around the fetus during the gestational period. The spectrum of haemorrhage includes: chorionic haemorrhage: caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium  subchorionic haemorrhage: most common type, occurs between th...
Article

Perigestational haemorrhage in the exam

Getting a film with perigestational haemorrhage in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal (TV) pelvic ultrasound shows an anteverted uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is 20 mm in TV study with a single, ...
Article

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH) is the most severe form of hypophosphatasia. If untreated, it is lethal in all cases. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:100,000 live births. Pathology Genetics As with all hypophosphatasia cases, this is due to a mutation in chromosome 1q3...
Article

Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
Article

Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital skeletal disorder that characteristically affects the limbs. It can affect either the upper limbs or lower limbs or both. Phocomelia is also a descriptive term to describe the characteristic limb anomalies occurring with its associated conditions. Path...
Article

Physiological gut herniation

Physiological gut herniation is a natural phenomenon that occurs in early pregnancy. It usually occurs from around 6-8 weeks up until 12-13 weeks in-utero, after which the bowel returns to the abdominal cavity.  Physiology It occurs as a result of the bowel (particularly ileum) growing faster ...
Article

Placenta

The placenta is a fetal organ of pregnancy, responsible for providing nutrition and oxygen to the fetus as well as excretory functions.  Embryology Placenta is formed by fetal and maternal components 2: maternal component: decidua placentalis is the inner portion of the placenta, which is for...
Article

Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta is both the general term applied to abnormal placental adherence and also the condition seen at the milder end of the spectrum of abnormal placental adherence. This article focuses on the second, more specific definition. In a placenta accreta, the placental villi extend beyond...
Article

Placenta fenestrata

Placenta fenestrata is one of the variations in placental morphology, which is characterised by one or more areas of focal placental atrophy lacking villi and covered only by the chorion membrane. 
Article

Placenta increta

Placenta increta is an intermediate level in the spectrum of abnormal placental villous implantation and accounts for ~20% of such cases. The placental villi extend beyond the confines of the endometrium and invade the myometrium.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is increasing (likely rel...
Article

Placental abruption

Placental abruption (or abruptio placentae) refers to a premature separation of the normally implanted placenta after the 20th week of gestation and before the 3rd stage of labour. It is a potentially fatal complication of pregnancy and is a significant cause of third-trimester bleeding/antepart...
Article

Placental abruption in the exam

Getting a film with placental abruption (premature separation of placenta from uterus) in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show a single live fetus with gestational age of 27 weeks. The cervix i...
Article

Placental calcification

Placental calcification has been considered a manifestation of “ageing” of the placenta. It commonly increases with gestational age.  Delayed placental calcification maternal diabetes Rh sensitization Accelerated placental calcification normal placental maturity maternal thrombotic disorde...
Article

Placental chorioangioma

Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours of placental origin. It is the most common tumour of the placenta and is usually found incidentally. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1% of all pregnancies 3. Clinical presentation In most cases, chorioangiomas are asymptomatic,...
Article

Placental chorioangiomatosis

Placental chorioangiomatosis is an extremely rare condition where numerous  placental chorioangiomas involve the placenta. The individual chorioangiomas can be of varying size. Complications Recognised complications include precipitation of fetal hydrops 2 fetal anaemia fetal cerebral embo...
Article

Placental cyst

Placental cyst refers to a simple cystic lesion that develops in relation to the placenta. Epidemiology Their estimated prevalence is at 2-20% of all pregnancies. Pathology Location They can be categorised by location: within the placental tissue (placental septal cysts)  under the fetal ...
Article

Placental evaluation with MRI

Placental evaluation with MRI is a problem-solving technique that can be used if ultrasound evaluation is insufficient or confusing. Even if the placenta is not the main point of evaluation, it is useful to understand the appearance of the placenta on obstetric imaging for other causes. Techniq...
Article

Placental fusion

Placental fusion is a phenomenon that can occur in a twin pregnancy. This can occur to varying degrees. Determination of chorionicity on ultrasound can sometimes be difficult if there has been a placental fusion.
Article

Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to an ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries, the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with advers...
Article

Placental infarction

Placental infarction refers to a localised area of ischaemic villous necrosis. It is a significant cause of placental insufficiency.  Epidemiology A localized infarction can occurs in up to ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of all gestations.  Pathology It usually results from an interrupted maternal blo...
Article

Placental insufficiency

Placental insufficiency is a term given to a situation where the placenta cannot bring enough oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Clinical presentation Fetuses may present with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) (especially asymmetrical IUGR). Pathology It can be primarily caused...
Article

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare, benign condition that is characterised by enlargement of the placenta with multiple bunches of grape-like vesicles that can resemble a molar pregnancy by ultrasound and gross pathologic examination.  Epidemiology This is an often underdiagnosed ...
Article

Placental mosaicism

Placental mosaicism is a situation where there discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta. According to one study fetal mosaicism was found in 50% of cases with placental mosacism. When the fetal cells are normal in chromosomal composition, this is then known as conf...
Article

Placental septal cyst

A placental septal cyst is a placental cyst typically located in the mid-placenta. It forms between the cotyledons of the placenta. The cysts contain gelatinous material and are usually 5-10 mm in diameter. They may be present in 10-20% of placentas from full term uncomplicated pregnancies. See...
Article

Placental shelf

A placental shelf refers to a ridge of placental tissue freely abutting the margin. It may represent part of a circumvallate placenta, although an early second-trimester placental shelf can be a common, benign and transient finding 1. Placental shelves detected in early second-trimester are tho...
Article

Placental site trophoblastic tumour

Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) is rare and one of the least common (~ 0.2% 7) forms of the gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Epidemiology PSTT typically occurs in women of reproductive age with the average age around 30. It may occur after a normal pregnancy, molar pregnancy...
Article

Placental surface cyst

Placental surface cysts are often related to cystic change in an area of subchorionic fibrin. They can be variable in size. Sub types subchorionic cyst: commonest type 2 amniotic epithelial inclusion cyst Significance Most placental surface cysts are associated with a normal pregnancy outco...
Article

Placental teratoma

A placental teratoma is a very rare placental tumour. Pathology A placental teratoma is benign and almost never associated with congenital deformities in the fetus. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show a heterogeneous mass at the placental margin. Hyperechoic foci consistent ...
Article

Placental thickness

Placental thickness tends to gradually increase with gestational age in a linear fashion. Sonographically, this can be seen to be approximately 1 mm per week and the thickness of the placenta can be used to approximate gestational age: approximate gestational age (in weeks) = placental thicknes...
Article

Placental trophotropism

Placental trophotropism refers to a phenomenon where there is a dynamic migration of the placenta at its insertion through gestation. The placenta tends to grow in areas of good blood supply and nutrition and atrophies in areas with poor blood supply and poor nutrition. It may play a role in the...
Article

Placental tumours

There are many tumours that can involve the placenta. These can be of  very different pathology and can include  placental chorioangioma (considered the most common primary tumour of the placenta 1) placental chorioangiomatosis placental teratoma placental metastases placental site trophob...
Article

Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...
Article

Placenta membranacea

Placenta membranacea, also known as a placenta diffusa, is an extremely uncommon variation in placental morphology in which the placenta develops as a thin membranous structure occupying the entire periphery of the chorion. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~1:20,000-40,000 pregnancies 1...
Article

Placenta percreta

Placenta percreta is a term given to the most severe but least common form of the spectrum of abnormal placental villous adherence, where there is a transmural extension of placental tissue across the myometrium with a serosal breach. It carries severe maternal as well as fetal risks. Epidemiol...
Article

Placenta praevia

Placenta praevia refers to an abnormally low lying placenta such that it lies close to, or covers the internal cervical os. It is a common cause of antepartum haemorrhage. Placenta praevia is potentially life-threatening condition for both mother and infant. As such, antenatal diagnosis is esse...
Article

Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with a number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anaemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilica...
Article

Platyspondyly

Platyspondyly is a radiographic feature and refers to flattened vertebral bodies throughout the axial skeleton. Pathology Associations Platyspondyly can be feature of many conditions which include: severe Gaucher disease 1 metatrophic dysplasia Morquio syndrome osteogenesis imperfecta Ro...
Article

Polydactyly

Polydactyly (less commonly called hyperdactyly) refers to the situation where there are more than the usual number of digits (five) in a hand or foot. It can be broadly classified as: pre-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards the thumb/hallux (radially) post-axial polydactyly: extra digit(...
Article

Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) >25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centres, particularly in ...
Article

Polysyndactyly

Polysyndactyly refers to the combined presence of polydactyly as well as syndactyly involving either the hands or feet. Polysyndactyly can be associated with a number of syndromes which includes: acrocephalopolysyndactylies (GCPS) type I: Noack syndrome type II: Carpenter syndrome (typically...
Article

Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000. Pathology Classification Post-axial...
Article

Post dates fetus

Post dates fetus is when there is prolonged gestation when the fetus remains in-utero beyond 2 weeks beyond expected date of delivery (>42 weeks gestation). Epidemiology The reported frequency is at approximately 3-12% of pregnancies. Pathology Associations maternal obesity Complications ...
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Postpartum angiopathy

Although described as a separate condition, postpartum angiopathy is a subset of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). It is also known as postpartum angiitis and puerperal vasospasm. Please refer to the main article for a broad discussion on these reversible cerebral vasoconstri...
Article

Post partum haemorrhage

Post partum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to uterine bleeding after delivery and remains one of the major worldwide causes of maternal mortality. Pathology Classification A post partum haemorrhage can be board classified as primary or secondary. Primary post partum haemorrhage  This is the most ...
Article

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of: pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter f...
Article

Preconception and prenatal diagnostic techniques act

Preconception and prenatal diagnostic techniques (prohibition of sex selection) act (PCPNDT) is a statute enacted to stop the female foeticide that has resulted in declining female sex ratio in India. As per census 2011, adult sex ratio in India is 943 females per 1000 males and child sex ratio...
Article

Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy involving new-onset hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) and involvement of one or more other organ systems. Epidemiology Pre-eclampsia affects up to 8% of pregnancies 1. Risk factors diabetes mellitus 2 chronic hypertension ...
Article

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a protein found in the maternal circulation and is produced by the placenta. The PAPP-A gene has been assigned to human chromosome 9q33.1 and contains 22 exons 5. PAPP-A values tend to rise exponentially during pregnancy and the reference range d...
Article

Pregnancy of uncertain viability

Pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) is a term given to an intrauterine pregnancy in a situation where there are not enough criteria (usually on ultrasound grounds) to confidently categorise an intrauterine pregnancy as either viable or a failed pregnancy.  Radiographic features Ultrasound ...
Article

Pregnancy of unknown location

The term pregnancy of unknown location is assigned when neither an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) or an ectopic pregnancy is identified on transvaginal ultrasound in the context of a positive pregnancy test. Clinical presentation pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding positive pregnancy test Pathology ...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.