Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

866 results found
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Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS)

The Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric bladder MRI in the evaluation of suspected bladder cancer. A systematic approach to bladder lesion based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was proposed by the European Association of Urology...
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VIPoma

VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumors is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, an...
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Visceral pleural invasion

Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura. It is considered an aggressive sign and one of the most important adverse prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancers 1. Pathology Gr...
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Volcano sign (meningioma)

Volcano sign refers to the appearance of classical meningioma that resembels the appearance of volcano (viewed in cross-section MRI, parallel to dural attachment) in which there is triangular hyperostosis at the base of the meningioma (mountain) with the tumor being the cloud around it. The intr...
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Volume doubling time

The volume doubling time (VDT) is an important volumetric parameter primarily used in lung cancer screening and follow-up by chest CT. Volume doubling time is defined as the time required for a growing nodule to double its volume. A longer VDT suggests a more benign course, whilst a short VDT is...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: hemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: pheochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma), endolymphati...
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Vulval neoplasms

Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Pathology Squamous neoplastic lesions  Premalignant  classic vulvar...
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WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome or complex stands for: Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk) aniridia genitourinary anomalies intellectual retardation (disability) Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
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Waldenström macroglobulinemia

Waldenström macroglobulinemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are not ...
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Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting describes a palliative management option with the main goal to maintain/improve quality of life, to control of complications as well as to minimize adverse treatment-related effects. Usage Watchful waiting is usually considered in elderly patients with tumors or otherwise limi...
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Weight loss

A clinical presentation of weight loss is extremely common and often a source of marked anxiety for the patient. The commonest cause of unintentional weight loss (UWI) is gastrointestinal tract disease, and not malignancy. Terminology The published literature lacks a consistent definition of w...
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Well-defined breast cancers (differential)

Certain well-defined breast cancers tend to lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include: certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculatio...
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Well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of lung

A well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA) of lung is a rare low grade lung tumor. Some consider this as a variant of adenocarcinoma with others considering this under the group of pulmonary blastomas 5.  According to classification by the World Health Organization in 1999, it was remove...
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Well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumor

Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS) or atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT) are locally aggressive adipocytic soft tissue neoplasms and are the most common form of liposarcomas. Terminology Atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDLPS) are also termed ‘atypical lipom...
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Whitmore-Jewett staging system

Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system. A: subclinic...
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WHO classification of anal margin tumors

The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is: intraepithelial tumors Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma) Paget disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma) invasive tumors squamous cell carcinoma adenocarcinoma basal cell carcinoma  verrucous carcinom...
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WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors

The WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors, last published in 2017, is a subset of the WHO classification of head and neck tumors (4th edition), that lays out a histological classification system for neoplasms and other tumors related to the odontogenic apparatus. Class...
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WHO classification of prostate tumors

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of prostate tumors is a commonly used classification system for prostate tumors. The current version was published in 2016 as part of the  WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs 1,2 and replaces the previous c...
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WHO classification of tumors of bone

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of bone tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2013 and is reflected in the article below 1. Classification Chondrog...
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WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2013 and is reflected in the article below 1. Classification A...
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WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. The current revision, known as the 4th revised edition, was published in 2016 and supersedes the 4th edition p...
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WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors

The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology: type a medullary thymoma spindle cell thymoma type ab: mixed thymoma type b1: lymphocyte rich predominantly cortical...
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WHO criteria in tumor response

The WHO criteria were developed in the 1980s under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to standardize reporting of cancers in clinical trials.​ Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely...
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WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...
Article

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor. Epidemiology Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 7% of all childhood cancers 12. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pe...
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Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
Article

Yttrium-90

Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioisotope; derived from the decay of 90Sr. Yttrium-90 decays due to the emission of β- particles, with a half-life of 2.67 days. It can be used for metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy, for example: non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphomas radioimmunotherapy (radiopharmaceutical...
Article

Zurich pituitary score

The Zurich pituitary score (ZPS) is a quantitative classification of pituitary adenomas based on coronal T1W magnetic resonance imaging with contrast, although the score can also be obtained with computed tomography. The ZPS is based on the ratio (R) between horizontal tumor diameter over inter...

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