Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), are an uncommon tumor overall but are considered as one of the most common types of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms.
For a broad discussion of this type of a tumor, which commonly involves ...
Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue are a group of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors characterized by small round cell morphology. They comprise the following tumors 1:
round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions
Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a variety of benign, as well as malignant, causes.
other regional infective causes
ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis
The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.
seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies)
non-seminomatous germ cell tumors:
testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only)
Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...
Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter.
Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Urothelial carcinomas or transitional cell carcinomas of the prostate are malignant neoplasms that can occur as primary cancers of the prostate gland.
Prostatic urothelial carcinomas account for less than 2-4% of all prostate cancers 1 and are usually seen in middle-aged men 2.
Urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (UCSD) is a variation of urothelial cell carcinoma which is associated with advanced tumor stage. When occurring in relation to bladder cancer, around 60-70% of the cases occur in those with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) 1.
The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers all histological subtypes and is as follows
FIGO staging system
stage 0: carcinoma in situ
stage I: tumor confined to vagina
stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls
stage III: extension to pelvic side w...
Vascular invasion in lung cancer is one of the invasive patterns that can occur in lung cancer. Dependent on the publication, this could mean:
intratumoral vascular invasion (IVI)
microscopic vascular invasion (MVI)
lymphovascular invasion (LVI)
Vertebral body pathological fracture occurs as a result of infiltration of the vertebral body by a neoplastic process (primary or secondary). Vertebral bodies are one of the most common sites of pathological fractures.
As with other types of vertebral fractures, they pre...
Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by hematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a spinal bone lesion in a patient older than 40 years.
This article will focus only on the metastasis involving...
Vertebra plana (plural: vertebrae planae), also known as the pancake, silver dollar or coin-on-edge vertebra, is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture.
It can occur in a var...
The Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric bladder MRI in the evaluation of suspected bladder cancer. A systematic approach to bladder lesion based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was proposed by the European Association of Urology...
VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumors is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, an...
Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura, and in some cases may result in a cancer crossing a fissure to invade an adjacent lobe of the lung. It is considered an aggressive sign and o...
Volcano sign refers to the appearance of classical meningioma that resembels the appearance of volcano (viewed in cross-section MRI, parallel to dural attachment) in which there is triangular hyperostosis at the base of the meningioma (mountain) with the tumor being the cloud around it. The intr...
The volume doubling time (VDT) is an important volumetric parameter primarily used in lung cancer screening and follow-up by chest CT. Volume doubling time is defined as the time required for a growing nodule to double its volume. A longer VDT suggests a more benign course, whilst a short VDT is...
Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3.
The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic:
I: increased risk of renal cell cancer
P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma)
E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma), endolymphati...
Staging of vulval cancer can be done with either the AJCC or FIGO systems, although both are similar.
stage I:tumor confined to the vulva
IA lesions ≤2 cm in size, confined to the vulva or perineum and with stromal invasion ≤1.0 mm*, no nodal metastasis
IB: lesions N2 cm in si...
Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
Squamous neoplastic lesions
The WAGR syndrome or complex stands for:
Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk)
intellectual retardation (disability)
Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), is a type of B-cell lymphoma.
Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10. Therefore the two entities are not synony...
Watchful waiting, also known as watch and wait, describes a palliative management option with the main goal to maintain/improve quality of life, to control complications as well as minimize adverse treatment-related effects.
Watchful waiting is usually considered in elderly patients with...
A clinical presentation of weight loss is extremely common and often a source of marked anxiety for the patient. The commonest cause of unintentional weight loss (UWI) is gastrointestinal tract disease, and not malignancy.
The published literature lacks a consistent definition of w...
Certain well-defined breast cancers tend to lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include:
certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculatio...
A well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA) of lung is a rare low grade lung tumor. Some consider this as a variant of adenocarcinoma with others considering this under the group of pulmonary blastomas 5.
According to classification by the World Health Organization in 1999, it was remove...
Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS) or atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT) are locally aggressive adipocytic soft tissue neoplasms and are the most common form of liposarcomas.
Atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDLPS) are also termed ‘atypical lipom...
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate also known as low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate or carcinoid tumors of the prostate are low-grade neuroendocrine tumors arising from the prostate that may metastasize.
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tum...
Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system.
The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors, last published in 2017, is a subset of the WHO classification of head and neck tumors (4th edition), which lays out a histological classification system for neoplasms and other tumors related to the odontogenic apparatus.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of prostate tumors is a commonly used classification system for prostate tumors. The current version was published in 2016 as part of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs 1,2 and replaces the previous c...
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of bone tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 5th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2020 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 5th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2020 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organizatiοn (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. The current revision, known as the 4th revised edition, was published in 2016 and supersedes the 4th edition p...
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
The WHO criteria were developed in the 1980s under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to standardize reporting of cancers in clinical trials. Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...
Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor.
Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and account for 7% of all childhood cancers 12. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies.
confined to kidney
complete resection possible
Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioisotope; derived from the decay of 90Sr.
Yttrium-90 decays due to the emission of β- particles, with a half-life of 2.67 days. It can be used for metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy, for example: non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphomas radioimmunotherapy (radiopharmaceutical...
The Zurich pituitary score (ZPS) is a quantitative classification of pituitary adenomas based on coronal T1W magnetic resonance imaging with contrast, although the score can also be obtained with computed tomography.
The ZPS is based on the ratio (R) between horizontal tumor diameter over inter...