Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

755 results found
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Bunch of grapes sign (disambiguation)

Bunch of grapes sign refers to the ultrasound appearance of multiple cystic spaces or lesions and it has been described in a number of settings: within the uterus as a result of hydropic swelling of trophoblastic villi within a hydatidiform mole in bronchiectasis, where on a chest radiograph, ...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting for 1-...
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CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Mullerian and coelomic epithelial-derived cell types, and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section be...
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CA 15-3

Carcinoma antigen 15-3, usually shortened to CA 15-3 is a tumor marker used in monitoring breast cancer. The test detects levels of MUC-1, a mucin protein in the blood. MUC-1 is thought to be important in the invasiveness and metastasization of cancer cells. Physiology MUC-1 is a normal epithe...
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CA 19-9

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen 19-9) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-maligna...
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CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumor marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumors of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with its ...
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Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
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Calcified mediastinal lymph nodes (differential)

There are numerous causes of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Common causes include: infectious granulomatous diseases tuberculosis histoplasmosis sarcoidosis silicosis treated lymphoma Uncommon causes include: Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) pneumonia metastases thyroid carcinoma: papi...
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Calcifying fibrous tumor

Calcifying fibrous tumors, previously known as calcifying fibrous pseudotumors, are rare, benign fibroblastic tumors of the soft tissues. Epidemiology It can occur at all ages and there is no strong gender predilection 1. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the English literature 1. Cl...
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Calcifying pulmonary metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of calcifying pulmonary metastases is: BOBCAT Mnemonic B: bone (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma) O: ovary B: breast C: colon A: any primary post-chemotherapy T: thyroid
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Cancer

Cancer (malignancy is synonymous) refers to neoplasms with malignant potential, i.e. for local invasion and metastasis. This article is a list of different cancers or relevant tumor classification systems, although noting that not all tumors are cancerous. For a list of cancer staging systems, s...
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Cancer staging list

Cancer staging involves a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis. The AJCC TNM staging schema is the most common, but other systems are used for specific malignancies or body parts. Breast breast cancer staging Chest lung cancer staging malignant pleural mesothelioma s...
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Cannonball metastases (lungs)

Cannonball metastases refer to large, well circumscribed, round pulmonary metastases that appear, well, like cannonballs. The French term "envolée de ballons" which translates to "balloons release" is also used to describe this same appearance. Metastases with such an appearance are classically...
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Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...
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Carcinoid tumor

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumors arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, they...
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Carcinoid tumors of the lung

Carcinoid tumors of the lung are a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, of lower grade than small cell carcinoma of the lung and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.  For a general discussion, please refer to the article on carcinoid tumors. Pathology Classification Car...
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Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix. It is the third most common gynecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with an average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papillomavirus (HPV) 1...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumors with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma esophagus 1: esophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract 2 ...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mo...
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Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
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Carney-Stratakis syndrome

Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising of familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma. Terminology It is considered to be distinct from, but perhaps related to, the Carney triad 1. Neither should be confused with the unrelated Carney complex. Histor...
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Causes of perfusion defects on a VQ scan

There are several causes leading to a perfusion defect on a VQ scan with an acute pulmonary embolus being only one of them: Vascular causes acute pulmonary embolus previous pulmonary embolus (including fat embolism, thromboembolism, air embolism, tumor) vasculitides affecting the pulmonary v...
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CEA

Serum CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumor markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in youn...
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Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumors (e.g....
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/hemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necrosi...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
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Cervical lymph node (staging)

Cervical lymph node staging refers to evaluating regional nodal metastasis from primary cancer of the head and neck. The following article reflects the 8th edition of the TNM staging system published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for staging starting January 1, 2018 1,...
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Chemotherapy induced cholangitis

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis is caused when intra-arterial chemotherapy is introduced to treat liver metastases. This causes strictures of the common hepatic duct and main ducts, but spares distal and proximal (i.e. common bile duct and intrahepatic ducts).  Radiographic features similar t...
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Childhood malignancies

Unfortunately the pediatric population is susceptible to malignancies. The most common entities, in overall order of frequency, are 1-4: leukemia/lymphoma: ~35% * acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 23% Hodgkin disease: 5% acute myelogenous leukemia: 4% central nervous system malignancies: ~20% ...
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Choi response criteria

The solitary use of the size of the tumor during evaluation for response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could provide an addition...
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Cholangiohepatoma

Cholangiohepatoma, also referred to as mixed hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC), refers to synchronous cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the same tumor. It is a rare and aggressive primary hepatic tumor combination. The origin of cholangiohepatoma is closely linked...
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Choledochal cyst

Choledochal cysts represent congenital cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Diagnosis relies on the exclusion of other conditions (e.g. tumor, gallstone, inflammation) as a cause of biliary duct dilatation. Epidemiology Choledochal cysts are rare, with an incidence of 1:100,000-150,000. Alt...
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Choline C-11

Carbon-11-choline (choline C-11 or 11C-choline) is the most studied isotope carbon-11 PET radiopharmaceutical.  The molecule is used for oncologic Imaging 1-4. Choline is one of the components of phosphatidylcholine, a fundamental element of cell membrane phospholipids 5. Cancer cells tend to ha...
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Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumor. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-g...
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Choroid plexus malignancy

Choroid plexus malignancies can be classified as primary or secondary neoplasms of the choroid plexus: primary choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) 80% WHO Grade I, and WHO Grade II when atypical choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC)  20% WHO Grade III intraventricular meningioma secondary choroid ...
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Chronic myeloid leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the overproduction of granulocytes with fairly normal differentiation. Epidemiology The annual incidence is about 1 per 100,000 1,3. The typical age at presentation is ...
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Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a relatively rare clonal hematologic disorder. In the World Health Organization classification, it is listed as a disorder with features of both myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clinical presentation Can be variable but many ...
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Chylous ascites

Chylous ascites (also known as chyloperitoneum) is defined as the abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of milky lymphatic fluid with a triglyceride level >110 mg/dL 1. Etiologically it is due to a disruption of the lymphatic system, most commonly obstructive due to a mass or traumatic (which ma...
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Circulating tumor cells

Circulating tumor cells (CTC's) refer to cells that have shed into the blood stream or lymphatics from a primary tumor. They are thought constitute "seeds" for the subsequent development of metastases. History and etymology They were first observed in blood in a patient with metastatic cancer ...
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Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME)). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤...
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Clavicle tumors

Clavicle tumors may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramedu...
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Clear cell meningioma

Clear cell meningiomas are a histological variant of meningioma with poorer prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence. They are therefore considered WHO grade 2 tumors, regardless of mitotic index, cellular atypia/anaplasia, or presence of brain invasion.  Epidemiology Clear cell meningiomas h...
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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of renal cell carcinoma.  Epidemiology The average age of onset of sporadic clear cell renal carcinoma is 61 years-old. In cases associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease the average age of onset is 37 years 1. Clinical presentation Pat...
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) are a rare mesenchymal renal tumor that account for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in the pediatric population 1.  Epidemiology Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is the second most common primary malignant pediatric renal neoplasm after Wilms tumor, with...
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Clear cell tumor of the lung

Clear cell tumors of the lung are rare benign pulmonary neoplasms that contain an abundant amount of glycogen. It is often classified under the spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas). Radiographic features Usually seen as a rounded, smooth-walled, and peripheral parenchymal...
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CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their inciden...
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CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognized.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
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Coarsened hepatic echotexture

Coarsened hepatic echotexture is a sonographic descriptor where there uniform smooth hepatic echotexture of the liver is lost. This can occur due to number of reasons which include: conditions that cause hepatic fibrosis 1 cirrhosis hemochromatosis various types of hepatitis 3 particularly ...
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Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
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Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung

Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare (i.e. only accounting for ~0.2% of all lung cancers) variant of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Pathology It is histologically characterized by the presence of abundant mucus in the tumor with neoplastic cells seen floating in large pools o...
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Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
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Colorectal cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Colorectal cancer, also called colorectal carcinoma (CRC), is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently...
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Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epide...
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Complications of thoracic radiation therapy

Complications of thoracic radiation therapy have significantly reduced since conventional radiotherapy has been largely replaced by modern conformational techniques. Even though, given the usually high radiation doses required for most thoracic cancers, some degree of collateral effects will be ...
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Computed tomography texture analysis

Computed tomography texture analysis (or CTTA) is a method to obtain new useful biomarkers that provide objective and quantitative assessment of tumor heterogeneity by analyzing the differences and patterns within the pixel values of an image. CTs can be worked with as a matrix of numbers, corre...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest x-rays in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnosis ca...
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Congenital neuroblastoma

Congenital neuroblastoma is defined as neuroblastoma identified within a month of birth, and is divided into: fetal neuroblastoma neonatal neuroblastoma In most cases they present as stage 1, 2 or 4S (see neuroblastoma staging). Fetal neuroblastoma In 90% of cases fetal neuroblastomas arise...
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Conventional radiation therapy

Conventional (2D) radiation therapy refers to the old techniques of radiation therapy where treatments would be planned by defining a limited number of beams with the boundaries delineated on orthogonal x-rays of the patient. It has been largely replaced by other highly conformal external beam r...
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Cortically-based brain tumors (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumors is: PDOG DOG Pee Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification

The Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification is a lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They came about in 1988 following recommended modifications to the Ann Arbor staging system after a meeting in Cotswold, England. This classification h...
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CT angiogram sign (lungs)

The CT angiogram sign refers to vessels appearing prominent during a contrast enhanced CT as they traverse an airless low attenuation portion of consolidated lung. Although initially thought to be specific for bronchoalveolar carcinoma, it has now been recognized as a generic appearance provided...
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CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient procedure where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed ...
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Curtain sign (vertebral body mass)

The curtain sign, also known as the draped curtain sign, in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends posteriorly towards the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline...
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Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases are not uncommon, occurring in ~5% (range 0.7-10.4%) of internal malignancies, and representing 2% of skin cancers. The Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a well known cutaneous metastasis. Pathology These metastases can come from haematogenous or lymphatic spre...
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Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck (staging)

Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer involving the scalp, external ear, neck, or face including external lips. The system applies to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and numerous other skin carcinomas, notably excluding eyelid carcino...
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CyberKnife

CyberKnife® is a stereotactic radiotherapy system which uses a compact linear accelerator mounted on a robotic arm, coupled with a digital x-ray image guidance system.  The robotic arm allows movement with many degrees of freedom compared to typical linear accelerators which only rotate around t...
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Cystic adrenal neoplasm

Cystic adrenal neoplasms are uncommon and only account for a minority of cystic adrenal lesions 3. They may be represented several histological types: adrenal adenoma 1 adrenal cortical carcinoma 1,2 adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma 2 pheochromocytoma 1 teratoma (pediatric population) 4 Di...
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Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumor.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discrim...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
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Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic nephroma

Cystic nephromas, previously known as multilocular cystic nephromas, are rare benign renal neoplasms classically occurring in adult females in the 4th and 5th decades. As of the 2016 WHO classification, they are considered distinct from pediatric cystic nephromas which have associated DICER1 gen...
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Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are atypical morphological form on pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different from the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with many ...
Article

Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5PS) is an internationally-recommended scale for routine clinical reporting and clinical trials using FDG PET-CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Incl...
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Deep inguinal lymph nodes

The deep inguinal lymph nodes (often shortened to the deep inguinal nodes) form a subgroup of the inguinal lymph node group, and are located within the femoral sheath, medial to the femoral vein. They receive afferent lymphatic drainage from the deep lymphatics of the distal lower extremity and ...
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Dense hilum sign

The dense hilum sign suggests a pathological process at the hilum or in the lung anterior or posterior to the hilum. Malignancy, especially lung cancer, should be suspected. Radiographic features On a well-centered chest posteroanterior (PA) radiograph the density of the hilum is comparable on...
Article

Denver shunt

A Denver shunt, or peritoneovenous shunt, is a device used to shunt ascites to the superior vena cava in patients with refractory ascites. The proximal end is located in the peritoneal cavity and the distal end in the superior vena cava, with a subcutaneous course in the anterior chest wall. It...
Article

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a low-grade malignant tumor arising from dermal and subcutaneous tissues and is the most common cutaneous sarcoma (although overall still quite rare). It is most commonly found at the trunk and proximal extremities 6. Its behavior is notable for a high ...
Article

Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune inflammatory myositis, which like its closely-related condition polymyositis, carries an increased risk of malignancy. Epidemiology There is a recognized female predilection. It has a bimodal age of presentation depending on the variant: juvenile dermatomyosit...
Article

Desmoid tumor

Desmoid tumors are benign, non-inflammatory fibroblastic tumors with a tendency for local invasion and recurrence but without metastasis. Terminology The terms desmoid tumor and aggressive fibromatosis are occasionally used synonymously by some authors 9. This article will focus on the abdomin...
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Desmoplasia

Desmoplasia (also known as a desmoplastic reaction) is the term used by pathologists to refer to the growth of fibrous tissue around disease, usually cancer. However in dermatopathology, desmoplasia may also be seen with benign, as well as malignant, conditions. Terminology Pathologists prefer...
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Desmoplastic fibroma

Desmoplastic fibromas are extremely rare bone tumors that do not metastasize but may be locally aggressive. They are considered to be a bony counterpart of soft tissue desmoid tumors and are histologically identical.  Clinical presentation Incidence is ~0.3%. The most common areas of involveme...
Article

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors are a rare and highly aggressive primary peritoneal malignancy. Epidemiology They are usually seen in young adolescents and has male predominance with a mean survival of 2-3 years. Clinical presentation It usually presents with a palpable abdominal mass a...
Article

Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterized by the presence of a benign tumor like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non-...
Article

DICER1 syndrome

DICER1 syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder predisposing individual to the development of multiple tumor types. DICER1 is considered a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the endoribonuclease protein Dicer. The first association with pleuropulmonary blastoma was discovered in 2009. Ass...
Article

Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
Article

Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumors of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumor and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imagin...
Article

Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1 Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastocyto...
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Diffuse brainstem gliomas

Diffuse brainstem gliomas, also known as diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (DIBG), is a term used to describe infiltrating astrocytomas, no longer recognized as a distinct entity in the 2016 update to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. It encompassed a variety of tumors, ranging from WHO gra...
Article

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an extremely rare pulmonary disorder at the benign end of the neuroendocrine cells proliferation spectrum. It is mainly seen in non-smoker middle-age females with a history of chronic cough or asthma. On imaging, it is cha...
Article

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Associations Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is sometimes associated with immunodeficiency, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pathology Classification In 2016 WHO classification of lymp...
Article

Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta-thalasse...

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