Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

888 results found
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Metastases to the ovary

Metastases to the ovary are relatively common with a documented incidence of 5-30% of all malignant ovarian masses. These may be incorrectly grouped under Krukenberg tumors, which are signet cell containing tumors that form only 30-40% of all ovarian metastases.   Clinical presentation There ...
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Metastases to the thymus

Metastases to the thymus are rare, although they are probably under reported due to lack of symptoms.  Pathology Varied primary tumors have been reported to metastasize to the thymus 1,2: breast cancer lung cancer ovarian cancer colorectal carcinoma gastric cancer prostate cancer testic...
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Metastases to the thyroid

Metastases to the thyroid are an uncommon cause of thyroid malignancy.  Epidemiology Metastases to the thyroid represent 1.4-3% of all malignancies 5. In autopsy series, the incidence is ~10% (range 2-24%) 1,5.  Pathology The most common sites of primary malignancy include (note these will v...
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Metastases to the uterus

Metastases to the uterus is a rare occurrence accounting for less than 10% of all cases of metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital cancers 3. The endometrium is reported to be even less frequently affected by metastases.  Uterine metastases however can occur from a number of si...
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Metastases to the vagina

Metastases to the vagina are more common than primary vaginal malignancies and account for >80% of vaginal tumors. Pathology Metastases usually spread from contiguous sites most commonly, with lymphatic and hematogenous metastases also recognized. Tumors that metastasize to the vagina include...
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Metastatic melanoma

Metastatic melanoma is known for its aggressive nature and for its ability to metastasize to a variety of atypical locations, which is why it demonstrates poor prognostic characteristics. Epidemiology Melanoma accounts for ~5% of all skin cancers, however, it remains the leading cause of death...
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Metastatic pulmonary calcification

Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is a form of pulmonary calcification where there is calcium deposition in normal lung parenchyma. It is most commonly due to chronic renal failure.  Terminology Metastatic pulmonary calcification is an unfortunate term in that "metastatic" suggests a ma...
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Microinvasive carcinoma of the breast

Microinvasive carcinoma is a type of epithelial breast cancer in which microscopic foci of tumor cells infiltrate the breast stroma. Pathology Microinvasive carcinoma is defined histologically as one or more clearly separate foci of tumor cells ≤1 mm in size infiltrating the mammary stroma 1. ...
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Micrometastasis

Micrometastases are defined by the UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors as conglomerations of tumor cells measuring between 0.2 mm and 2 mm in size. Clusters of cells sized less than 0.2 mm in maximal dimension are termed isolated tumor cells (ITCs). Tumor clusters measuring larger than 2...
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Minor salivary gland tumors

Minor salivary gland tumors are a subtype of salivary gland tumors originating from the minor salivary glands, which are found in the lips, tongue, hard palate, and the mucosa of the oropharynx and larynx, among other locations. Epidemiology MSGTs account for ~15% of all salivary gland tumors....
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Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases are seen in a number of malignancies: breast carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 25% are mixed lung carcinoma: typically lytic but 15% are mixed carcinoma of the cervix testicular tumors prostate carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 15% are mixed  gan...
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Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder and refers to the presence of an abnormal monoclonal antibody in the blood but the absence of the overt bone marrow and clinical signs of multiple myeloma. Epidemiology MGUS is the most common pla...
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MRI protocols

MRI protocols are a combination of various MRI sequences, designed to optimally assess a particular region of the body and/or pathological process. There are some general principles of protocol design for each area. However, the specifics of a protocol are dependent on MRI hardware and software...
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MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer

MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer help maintain uniformity of reports and assessment of important imaging staging criteria. Tumor size The tumor should be measured in three orthogonal planes. Tumors with a maximum diameter >4 cm are usually not amenable to primary radical surgery. ...
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MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
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Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix

Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of cervical cancer. It falls under the group of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Radiographic features MRI As a general rule any mucin-producing tumor will produce very high T2 signal 1. An enhancing lesion, irregular margin, ...
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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a type of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is classified under the group of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common of the SGTTLs 9. The tumor is thought to account for ~ 0.1-...
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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a tumor that usually occurs in the salivary glands. It can mimic most other tumors of the glands, and therefore is often considered in the differential.  Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are seen throughout all adult age groups but are most common in middle ag...
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Mucosal melanoma

Mucosal melanomas are non-cutaneous malignant melanomas arising from mucosal epithelium. This article is an overview; for specific locations in the body, see their respective articles: sinonasal mucosal melanoma. Epidemiology Mucosal melanomas are rare, comprising about 1% of all melanomas 1....
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Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (staging)

Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of mucosal melanoma involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, and, less commonly, pharynx and larynx. The system is distinct from staging of carcinomas of those sites and of cutaneous melanoma. The following ar...
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Multiple cystic neck lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: metastatic squamous cell carcinoma: older patient, M>F metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma: usually a younger patient, ...
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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a monoclonal gammopathy and is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to the monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminolog...
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Multiple myeloma (extraosseous manifestations)

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticuloendothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most comm...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
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Musculoskeletal angiosarcoma

Musculoskeletal angiosarcomas, (along with hemangiopericytomas and hemangioendotheliomas) are tumors that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metasta...
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Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a type of malignant cutaneous primary T-cell lymphoma.  Epidemiology In the United States, it is more common in males and African Americans. In Europe, it accounts for ~6% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is rare in Asian countries. Clinical presentation It is usual...
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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematological stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. It carries a risk of transformation to acute leukemia. Epidemiology Its overall incidence is thought to be around 3.3 per 100,000. The...
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Myeloid sarcoma

Myeloid sarcomas, also called granulocytic sarcomas, chloromas, or extramedullary myeloid tumors, are rare extramedullary masses comprised of myeloid precursor cells. These tumors represent a unique presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), whether in isolation to, preceding, or simultaneous...
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Myeloproliferative neoplasm

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a diverse group of conditions that are characterized by an excess of terminally differentiated myeloid cells (red cells, white cells, and/or platelets) in the peripheral blood. Pathology Classification The classic four types of myeloproliferative neoplasms are...
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Myo-inositol peak

Myo-inositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myo-inositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and phosphatidylinos...
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Myolipoma of soft tissue

Myolipoma of soft tissue is a benign soft tissue tumor mainly consisting of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells and mature adipose tissue. Terminology Myolipoma of soft tissue is also known under the name ‘extrauterine lipoleiomyoma’. Epidemiology Myolipomas are rare, they are more commo...
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Myxofibrosarcoma

Myxofibrosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor. It is classified as a type of a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor. Terminology Previously known as a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma 7. Epidemiology Typically presents in older patients (6th decade) 3. There may be male pre...
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Myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma

Myxoid pleomorphic liposarcomas are extremely rare aggressive malignant neoplasms arising from adipocytic tissues characterized by a mixture of pleomorphic and myxoid features and the absence of genetic fusions and amplifications seen of well-differentiated liposarcoma and other lines of differe...
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Myxoid soft tissue tumors

Myxoid soft tissue tumors are diversified group tumors of mesenchymal origin with a mucoid or myxoid extracellular matrix, which can be benign or malignant 1-3. Epidemiology Incidence depends entirely on the specific tumor with intramuscular myxoma being the most common 2,3 from the benign les...
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. They are of squamous cell origin. Some types are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the nasophar...
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Neck imaging reporting and data system (NI-RADS)

NI-RADS (Neck Imaging and Reporting and Data System) is a lexicon and risk classification proposed by the American College of Radiology for reporting surveillance imaging of treated head and neck cancer. The terminology and categories may be applied to any head and neck malignancy (e.g. squamous...
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Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma

Necrobiotic xanthogranulomas are a rare form of cutaneous non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Epidemiology The condition occurs mostly in older adults 2. Clinical presentation Patients demonstrate cutaneous papules that develop into large, firm plaques, papules and nodules, which are often ye...
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Neonatal neuroblastoma

Neonatal neuroblastoma is a type of congenital neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumor arising from the sympathetic nervous system. In the majority of cases (45%), the tumor is localized in the adrenal gland.  Epidemiology Neonatal neuroblastoma accounts for less than 5% of all cases and carries a f...
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Neoplasms of the appendix

There are a number of neoplasms that can involve the vermiform appendix, some of which are peculiar to this site. Epidemiology Tumors involving the appendix have been found in only about 1% of all appendectomy specimens 9. Epithelial neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumors represent the vast major...
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Neoplasms of the spinal canal

Neoplasms of the spinal canal encompass a range of tumors which arise from or involve the spinal cord, theca, and spinal nerves. Pathology These can be divided according to the tissue/structure of origin within the spinal canal. Tumors of vertebral bodies are discussed separately: see vertebra...
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Neoplastic pericardial disease

Neoplastic pericardial disease, involvement, pericarditis or malignant pericardial disease refers to a pericardial infiltration by malignant cells usually associated with a variably sized pericardial effusion and is a form of non-infectious pericarditis. It needs to be differentiated from other ...
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Nephroblastomatosis

Nephroblastomatosis refers to diffuse or multifocal involvement of the kidneys with nephrogenic rests (persistent metanephric blastema). Epidemiology Nephrogenic rests are found incidentally in 1% of infants. Pathology Nephrogenic rests are foci of metanephric blastema that persist beyond 36...
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Neuroblastic tumors

Neuroblastic tumors arise from primitive cells of the sympathetic system and include the following entities: neuroblastoma ganglioneuroblastoma ganglioneuroma These entities represent a spectrum of disease from undifferentiated and aggressive (neuroblastoma) to the well differentiated and la...
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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumors of neuroblastic origin. Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. They represent the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancy and are the third commonest childhood tumor after leukemia and b...
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Neuroblastoma (image-defined risk factors)

Image-defined risk factors are imaging features seen at the time of neuroblastoma diagnosis that confer a poorer prognosis. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) suggested an update (2009) to the neuroblastoma staging with a list of features that, if present, upstages a patient with ...
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Neuroblastoma (staging)

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
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Neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a wide spectrum of disease. They consist of a large heterogeneous group of malignancies that are derived from embryonic neural crest tissue found in various organ such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, and gastrointestina...
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Neuromuscular choristoma

Neuromuscular choristomas (NMC), also known as benign triton tumors, nerve rhabdomyomas and neuromuscular or ectomesenchymal hamartomas are benign expansile peripheral nerve sheath tumors featuring a tight interconnection of skeletal muscle and nerve fibers within the endoneurial sheath. They al...
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Neutron therapy

Neutron therapy is a form of particle therapy using neutrons as the energy-carrying particle. The therapy has shown promise for some malignancies but there have also been problems with accurate dose distributions and late complications. Some of these problems historically were thought to be - at...
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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE), also referred as marantic endocarditis, refers to fibrin and platelets aggregations on previously undamaged heart valves, in patients without bacteremia. The condition is seen in patients with advanced stage malignancies and is related to episodes of ...
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Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) are one of the main groups of germ cell tumors (the other being seminoma). Although they are made up of distinct histological entities, in general, they have similar radiographic appearances. They can, however, be found widely in the body, with variable...
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Non-small cell lung cancer

Non-small cell lung cancer represents a heterogeneous group of lung cancers that do not have "small cells" on histology. They are thus separated, as small cell carcinoma of the lung has distinctive management implications. The major histological types include: adenocarcinoma of lung squamous c...
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Nucleic acids

The nucleic acids are the collective term for the two main macromolecular nucleotide polymers: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleotides, the constituent units of nucleic acids, are made up of simpler molecules called nucleosides and inorganic phosphate (H3PO4). Each nucl...
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Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
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Esophageal cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Esophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumor that occurs within the esophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progress from solid foods to liquids. Reference article...
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Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the esophagus. Epidemiology Esophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% of a...
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Esophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an esophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
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Oligometastases

Oligometastases, or oligometastatic disease, refers to distant disease that is limited in number and distribution. Niibe et al. defined this as ≤5 metastatic/recurrent lesions with control of the primary lesion 1,2. Also, the definition states a maximum of three different metastatic sites 3.  T...
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Oligoprogression

Oligoprogression is an emerging concept in oncology, denoting a state where after an initially successfully systemic therapy of disseminated metastases, a single/few lesions display further progression.  Terminology A key difference between the related concepts of oligometastasis and oligoprog...
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Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
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Ommaya reservoir

Ommaya reservoir, also known as Ommaya shunt, is a device consisting of an intraventricular catheter connected to a reservoir (port) implanted beneath the scalp. It is used for intrathecal administration of medication such as chemotherapy (mainly in the treatment of meningeal lymphomas, but also...
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Optic nerve enlargement

Enlargement of the optic nerves is uncommon and has a surprisingly broad differential. Etiology nepolastic optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma leukemia orbital lymphoma metastases juvenile xanthogranuloma medulloepithelioma involvement by retinoblastoma cyst of optic nerve sheat...
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Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumors arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas.  These tumors typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, iso...
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Oral cavity carcinoma (staging)

Oral cavity carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the oral cavity. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial and minor salivary gland cancers are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by th...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumors do have a predilection to metastasize to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumors or direct extension of tumors from neighboring regions. For a discussion of intraocula...
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Orbital pathology

Orbital pathology covers a variety of diverse diseases that affect the orbit. The complicating factor is that the orbit is composed of a large number of different tissues which each have a plethora of pathologies that can affect them.  Classification For simplification, they can be separated i...
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Organs at risk

The organs at risk (OARs) are the healthy tissues / organs placed near the clinical target volume (CTV) whose irradiation could cause damage that would make changes to the radiotherapy treatment plan. The heart, for example, in radiotherapy with LINAC of the left breast cancer, is an organ at ri...
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Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is the most common type of head and neck cancer in the Western world 1. Typically it will be further categorized based on the specific anatomical location involved within the oropharynx, as this may affect prognosis and modality of treatment.  Epide...
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Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcomas are malignant bone-forming tumors. They are the second most common primary bone tumor after multiple myeloma, accounting for ~20% of all primary bone tumors. They can be classified into primary and secondary forms, as well as histologic types, of which conventional osteosarcoma is ...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesio...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, which informs the appropriate m...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US) forms the ultrasound component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accura...
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Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumor limited to the ovaries stage Ia:  ​tumor limited to one ovary capsule ...
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Ovarian collision tumor

Ovarian collision tumors are an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumors in an ovary with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian ter...
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Ovarian embryonal carcinoma

Ovarian embryonal carcinomas are rare and malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Epidemiology It is found predominantly in children and adolescents (average age 14 years). Clinical presentation Precocious puberty or menstrual irregularity occurs in 60% 2. The tumor can secrete beta-hCG and...
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Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT), also known as ovarian androblastomas, are a subtype of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor. Epidemiology They are rare and only account for ~0.5% of all ovarian tumors. While they can present at any age, they typically present <30 years old, with a mean ag...
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Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumors of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumors. As ovarian thecomas secrete estrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumors. Epidemiology They typically present in older...
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Ovarian transposition

Ovarian transposition is a surgical procedure in which the ovaries are displaced from the pelvis before pelvic radiation therapy in order to protect them from radiation injury. It is performed in premenopausal women with a variety of pelvic malignancies (e.g cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and ...
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p16

p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker indicating expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, which is upregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the uterine cervix, p16 positivity supports the diagnosis of a high-grade squamous intraepithelia...
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Paclitaxel lung toxicity

Paclitaxel lung toxicity is a from of drug induced lung disease that can precipitate following the use of paclitaxel which is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in the treatment of breast, ovarian, and non– small cell lung cancers. Several forms have been described  hypersensitivity reacti...
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Pediatric renal tumors and masses

Pediatric renal tumors and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumor: common in older children 1-8 years old nephroblastomatosis: ...
Article

Paget disease (breast)

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterized by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
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Pancoast tumor

Pancoast tumor, also known as superior sulcus tumor, refers to a relatively uncommon situation where a primary lung cancer arises in the lung apex and invades the surrounding soft tissues. Classically a Pancoast syndrome results, but in actuality this is only seen in one quarter of cases.  Term...
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Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise from many etiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications chronic pancreatitis alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%) 2  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification gallstone pancreatitis (2%) 2 ​m...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common bile d...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is traditionally done according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system. In 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published with some major changes; now exocrine and endocrine tumors of the ...
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-spe...
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Pancreatic mesenchymal neoplasms

Pancreatic mesenchymal neoplasms (or pancreatic nonepithelial neoplasms) are a group of rare pancreatic neoplasms that arise from the structural elements of the pancreas (nerves, fat, lymph), rather than from the exocrine or endocrine cells of the pancreas. Neoplasms from exocrine and endocrine ...
Article

Pancreatic metastases

Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and are only found in a minority (3-12%) of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy. They account for only 2-5% of all pancreatic malignancies. Epidemiology Demographics will match those of the primary tumor, but in general, will be in elderly ...
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Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
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Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare pediatric tumors of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean age ...
Article

Panproctocolectomy

Panproctocolectomy is a surgery to remove the entire colon, rectum and anal canal. It is most frequently performed for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome but may also be conducted for colorectal cancer and some other malignancies. The ileostomy co...
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast

Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare ductal breast malignancy. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 1-2% of breast carcinomas 2. They typically present in postmenopausal patients with the mean age at being ~63-67 years. Clinical presentation A papillary carcinoma may manifest ...

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