Tumors arising primarily from the seminal vesicles are rare. Most frequently, when a mass is seen in the seminal vesicles, it represents a contiguous spread from tumors in adjacent organs, in particular, the prostate.
adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle
the most common pri...
Tumor thrombus is defined as tumor extending into a vessel, typically a vein. It occurs in a wide variety of malignancies. It is vital to distinguish tumor thrombus from "bland" thrombus (free of neoplastic cells) in the setting of neoplasia, as this often impacts staging and treatment approach....
Typhlitis, also called cecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotizing inflammatory condition which typically involves the cecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum.
Typhlitis was first described in children with leukemia and severe neutropaenia...
Ultrasound appearance of liver metastases can have bewildering variation, and the presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions.
Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the liver metastases and the likely prima...
The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer 1.
It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances t...
Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas of the liver are rare, aggressive, and malignant liver tumors encountered in the pediatric population.
Approximately 90% of cases occur in patients under 15 years of age, most commonly between 6 and 10 years of age, but some cases have been rep...
Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a various benign as well as malignant causes.
other regional infective causes
ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis
The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.
seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies)
non-seminomatous germ cell tumors:
testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only)
Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter.
Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older than 40 years.
This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the b...
Vertebra plana (a.k.a. pancake / silver dollar / coin-on-edge vertebra) is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture. Plural is vertebrae planae. It can occur in a variety of settings, incl...
VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumor that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumors is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and...
Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura. It is considered an aggressive sign and one of the most important adverse prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancers 1.
Volcano sign refers to the appearance of classical meningioma that resembels the appearance of volcano (viewed in cross-section MRI, parallel to dural attachment) in which there is triangular hyperostosis at the base of the meningioma (mountain) with the tumor being the cloud around it. The intr...
Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3.
The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic:
I: increased risk of renal cell cancer
P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma)
E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma)
L: liver, r...
The WAGR syndrome stands for:
Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk)
Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma.
Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10. Therefore the two entities are not ...
The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
The WHO criteria have been developed in the 1980s to standardized reporting of cancers in clinical trial. These criteria Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely replaced the WHO criteria in clinical...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...
Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor.
Wilms tumors are the most common paediatic renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasises, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies.
confined to kidney
complete resection possible