Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a various benign as well as malignant causes.
other regional infective causes
ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis
The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.
seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies)
non-seminomatous germ cell tumors:
testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only)
Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...
Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter.
Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Vascular invasion in lung cancer is one of the invasive patterns that can occur in lung cancer. Dependent on the publication, this could mean:
intratumoral vascular invasion (IVI)
microscopic vascular invasion (MVI)
lymphovascular invasion (LVI)
Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older than 40 years.
This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the b...
Vertebra plana (pleural: vertebrae planae), also known as the pancake or silver dollar or coin-on-edge vertebra, is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture.
It can occur in a ...
VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumor that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumors is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and...
Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura. It is considered an aggressive sign and one of the most important adverse prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancers 1.
Volcano sign refers to the appearance of classical meningioma that resembels the appearance of volcano (viewed in cross-section MRI, parallel to dural attachment) in which there is triangular hyperostosis at the base of the meningioma (mountain) with the tumor being the cloud around it. The intr...
Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3.
The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic:
I: increased risk of renal cell cancer
P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma)
E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma), endolymphati...
Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
Squamous neoplastic lesions
The WAGR syndrome stands for:
Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk)
Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma.
Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10. Therefore the two entities are not ...
A well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA) of lung is a rare low grade lung tumor. Some consider this as a variant of adenocarcinoma with others considering this under the group of pulmonary blastomas 5.
According to classification by the World Health Organization in 1999, it was remove...
Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system.
The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. The current revision, known as the 4th revised edition, was published in 2016, supersedes the 4th edition publ...
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
The WHO criteria have been developed in the 1980s to standardized reporting of cancers in clinical trial. These criteria Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely replaced the WHO criteria in clinical...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...
Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor.
Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies.
confined to kidney
complete resection possible
The Zurich pituitary score (ZPS) is a quantitative classification of pituitary adenomas based on coronal T1W magnetic resonance imaging with contrast, although the score can also be obtained with computed tomography.
The ZPS is based on the ratio (R) between horizontal tumor diameter over inter...