Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

884 results found
Article

Small cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Small cell carcinomas of the bladder are rare bladder cancers with a poor prognosis. Its appearance overlaps other bladder cancers, in particular, urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma. Epidemiology A very rare tumor, it has been estimated at <0.0001% of bladder cancers. It is thought to have...
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Small cell lung cancer

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), also known as oat cell lung cancer, is a subtype of bronchogenic carcinoma separated from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as it has a unique presentation, imaging appearances, treatment, and prognosis. SCLCs are neuroendocrine tumors of the lung that rapidly gro...
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Small cell lung cancer (staging - superseded)

Previously, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was not staged in the same manner as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but since 2013 both are staged using the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) lung cancer staging system (currently in its 8th edition, published in 2016)....
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Soap bubble appearance (differential diagnosis)

Soap bubble appearance describes: A multi-loculated bubbly appearance. In bone refers to : an expansile lytic lesion with internal trabeculations and preserved cortex, usually of benign nature  May be used to describe more aggressive lesions The differential includes: bone aneurysmal bone...
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Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonics My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue diseases T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T:...
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Soft tissue chondroma

Soft tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas are benign soft tissue tumors of hyaline or myxoid cartilage originating in extraosseous and extrasynovial locations commonly found in the hands and feet. Epidemiology Soft tissue chondromas are rare. They are most commonly seen in middle-aged...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and pediatric population are listed below. A...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement are by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin is wi...
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Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of mature new bone adjacent to the cortex. It denotes a longstanding pathological process. Pathology It has been associated with: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteos...
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Solid-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung with mucin production

Solid-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung with mucin production is a histological subtype of non-mucinous invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. Terminology In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory S...
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Solitary bone plasmacytoma

Solitary bone plasmacytomas is an uncommon plasma cell tumor which is localized to bone. They may involve any bone, but they have a predisposition for the red marrow-containing axial skeleton: spinal disease is observed in ~50% (range 34-72%) of cases the thoracic vertebrae are most commonly i...
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Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, is defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly-defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several r...
Article

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion

The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis solitary either because no others are present or no others have been imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteobl...
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Sonographic features of malignant lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy is quite common, and it can be very difficult to differentiate malignant lymphadenopathy from reactive nodal enlargement. Several gray scale and color Doppler features favor malignancy in a lymph node. Gray scale parameters that favor malignancy size: larger - more likely mali...
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SpaceOAR

SpaceOAR is a technique in which a physical space is created between the prostate gland and rectum for electron beam radiotherapy targeted to the prostate gland in cases of prostate cancer.  OAR stands for "organ at risk", and in cases of prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment the rectum is the...
Article

Spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma

Spermatic cord leiomyosarcomas are uncommon malignant paratesticular masses. Epidemiology Accounts for ~10% of spermatic cord sarcomas. The average of a patient at presentation is 58 years old (although has been seen as young as 15 years old). Clinical features Patients may have left inguina...
Article

Spermatic cord liposarcoma

Spermatic cord liposarcomas are the most common malignant tumor of the spermatic cord. Most present as painless, slow-growing masses and can be mistaken for inguinal hernias. They are usually well-differentiated and spread by local extension.  Epidemiology In a large population-based registry,...
Article

Spinal astrocytoma

Spinal astrocytomas are the second most common spinal cord tumor, representing 40% of intramedullary tumors 3. They account for 60% of pediatric intramedullary tumors, making them the most common spinal cord tumor in children 6. This article specifically relates to spinal astrocytomas. For a di...
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Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
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Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumors of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina. They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochromoc...
Article

Spindle cell carcinoma of lung

Spindle cell carcinomas of the lung correspond to a very rare type of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) classified under sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lungs.  Terminology Although, in the past, some authors also used the term synonymously with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung, since the ...
Article

Spitz nevus

Spitz nevus is a rare benign melanocytic lesion, that shares significant clinicohistological commonality with melanoma and maybe difficult to differentiate 2.  History and etymology This lesion was described by an American pathologist, Sophie Spitz (1910-1956), who worked at Memorial Sloan-Ket...
Article

Splenic lymphoma

Splenic lymphoma, also termed as lymphomatous involvement of the spleen, represents the most common malignancy to involve the spleen. They are commonly secondary, rarely being primary (referred as primary splenic lymphoma).   This article focuses on the location-specific primary and secondary l...
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Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are relatively rare on imaging, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of a widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases varies between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macroscopic ...
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7. Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standard deviations abov...
Article

Split bolus technique

The split bolus technique is a CT imaging investigation used in patients with hematuria aiming to put together, in a single image acquisition, both the nephrographic and renal excretory phases and thus reducing the radiation dose of the study. It is a CT protocol adopted for some institutions fo...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx is the most common primary malignant tumor that affects the laryngeal framework. Typically it is categorized by the laryngeal subsite affected, which affects presentation, treatment and prognosis.  Epidemiology Males are more affected than females, and usu...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, second only to adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoki...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (staging)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin stage II: invasion of penile shaft stage I...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~3-8% 1,2 of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional/urothelial cell carcinomas) but nevertheless, SCC is the most common type of non-transitional cell carcinoma involving the bladder 2. SCC of the bladder is observed...
Article

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), is a technique used to treat certain cancers as an alternative to surgical resection. It can be used to treat early lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Article

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was developed based on patient immobilization techniques, such as headframes. 'Stereotactic' refers to the high precision of the treatment system which allows smaller margins and higher doses per treatment 1.  SRS involves a smaller number of treatments (typically...
Article

Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...
Article

Stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential

Stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a rare stromal tumor of the prostate with a broad spectrum of histologic pattern and variable clinical behavior. Terminology Stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential has been also known as atypical stromal hyperplasia, cystic epit...
Article

Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst or sunray appearance describes two separate findings in the bone: a periosteal reaction and a trabeculation pattern. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  Sunburst periosteal reaction reflects aggressive periostitis. The sunburst appearance occurs...
Article

Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruc...
Article

Superscan

Superscan is intense symmetric activity in the bones with diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc99m diphosphonate bone scan. Pathology This appearance can result from a range of etiological factors: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell c...
Article

Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predom...
Article

Sympathetic chain schwannoma

Sympathetic chain schwannomas or schwannomas of the cervical sympathetic chain (SCSC) are rare benign nerve sheath tumors. These longitudinally oriented tumors in the perivertebral space rely on anatomical mass effect to differentiate from the main differential masses of vagal schwannoma or spin...
Article

Synchronous breast cancer

Synchronous breast cancers are two (or more) primary breast cancers that occur in either breast at the same time.  Epidemiology Up to 10% of all breast cancers may be synchronous (particularly found with the use of breast MRI). The occurrence of bilaterality is greatest with invasive lobular c...
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Synchronous (pathology)

The term synchronous is used in oncology to refer to two (or more) independent primary malignancies, when the second (or third, etc.) malignancy arose within six months of the diagnosis of the first malignancy 1,2. These may be in the same, or in different, organs. See also metachronous multi...
Article

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma (SPLC) is a term given to the occurrence of two or more primary lung carcinomas within different portions of the lung in the same time period. They are thought to the carry the same pathophysiological mechanism as metachronous lung carcinoma (i.e. two or more ...
Article

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH or SIAD) (also known as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome) was initially described in patients with lung cancer who developed hyponatremia associated with continued urinary sodium loss. The result is often dilutional hyponatremia in whi...
Article

Synovial sarcoma

Synovial sarcomas are relatively common intermediate-to-high grade malignant soft tissue tumors, often with an initial indolent course, affecting young patients, and most commonly involving the soft tissue surrounding the knees. Epidemiology Synovial sarcomas typically present in adolescents a...
Article

Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

The oncological agent tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic changes on the endometrium resulting in abnormal growth with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy en...
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Tamoxifen-induced reversible hepatic steatosis

Tamoxifen is an important anti-estrogen agent used for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and it may induce reversible hepatic steatosis. This is usually transient and may occasionally be associated with hepatic dysfunction. It only rarely leads to cirrhosis 1. Epidemiolog...
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T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual hematological malignancy. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There may ...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with Tc-99m constitutes a co-ordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of Tc-99m by co-ordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive te...
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Technique of masking

Masking is very important when viewing mammograms, especially with high-density breasts. It helps the adaptation of the eye to the luminance of the mammograms on the viewbox.                     The technique of masking allows the comparative study of small areas of both breasts and is a featur...
Article

Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of partial epilepsy, with often characteristic imaging and clinical findings. It is divided into two broad groups: medial epilepsy most common involves the mesial temporal lobe structures most frequently due to mesial temporal sclerosis l...
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Terminal ileitis (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a terminal ileitis is quite extensive, and includes: inflammatory bowel disease Crohn disease (most common) backwash ileitis due to ulcerative colitis infectious colitis Yersinia spp.  Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Salmonella spp. ​Sa...
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Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumor. ...
Article

Testicular embryonal cell carcinoma

Testicular embryonal cell carcinoma is a type of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor.  Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around 25-30 years. Pathology It may occur as part of a mixed germ cell tumor (more common and may be present as a component in around 80% of mixed germ cell tumors) or very ra...
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Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is concerned ...
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Testicular seminoma

Testicular seminomas are the most common testicular tumors and account for ~45% of all primary testicular tumors. This article concerns itself only with testicular seminomas; however, seminomas can arise outside of the testicle; most often within the anterior mediastinum - see article on anterio...
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Testicular teratoma

Testicular teratoma, unlike ovarian teratoma, is often aggressive in its biological behavior, and often exists as part of testicular mixed germ cell tumors.   Epidemiology Pure testicular teratomas account for only 4-9% of all testicular tumors. A similar number are seen in the context of test...
Article

Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. For the purpose of prognostication, the stations may be grouped into 7 zones.  The IASLC definitions leave some a...
Article

Thorotrast

Thorotrast is a suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and used as a contrast agent until the 1950s. Its principal use was for cerebral angiography: 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients treated received it for this purpose. Umbrathor was another thori...
Article

Thymic carcinoma

Thymic carcinoma is part of the malignant end of thymic epithelial tumors. Epidemiology Patients are typically 50 to 70 years of age at presentation 9. Pathology The incidence of paraneoplastic syndromes is thought to be low. At least 10 different histologic variants have been described 4. T...
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Thymic hyperplasia

Thymic hyperplasia is a disorder whereby there is hyperplasia of the thymus gland.  Pathology Thymus hyperplasia can be subdivided into two forms:  true thymic hyperplasia lymphoid thymic hyperplasia Both true thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia manifest as diffuse symmetric enlarge...
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Thyroid lymphoma

Thyroid lymphoma is rare, accounting for a minority of both thyroid malignancies and lymphoma in general.  The thyroid may be affected primarily or secondary to lymphoma elsewhere. This article is concerned with primary thyroid lymphoma.  Epidemiology Thyroid lymphoma accounts for <5% of thyr...
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Thyroid malignancies

Thyroid malignancies are most commonly primary thyroid cancers but can rarely be metastatic deposits. Pathology Classification Thyroid malignancies can be categorized into the following key subtypes: primary thyroid cancers ​papillary thyroid carcinoma: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular thyr...
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Thyroid scan (I-123)

Thyroid scan (thyroid scintigraphy) is a nuclear medicine examination used to evaluate thyroid tissue.  Clinical indications functional status of a thyroid nodule thyrotoxicosis: differential diagnosis thyroid cancer whole body scan for distant metastases estimation of local residual thyro...
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TNM staging system

The TNM staging system (officially known as the TNM classification system of malignant tumors) is a cancer staging system overseen and published by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) publishes the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual which is b...
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is 1 per 1,000,000 person years with an average age of onset ...
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Total pelvic exenteration

Total pelvic exenteration refers to extensive surgical resection of pelvic structures to treat locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies. It is performed to obtain optimal excision of tumor radical margins which can be difficult in pelvis given proximity and often local invasion of adjac...
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TP53 (gene)

The TP53 gene, located on chromosome 17, is a tumor suppressor gene, responsible for the production of the p53 protein, a transcription regulatory protein which works in concert with a number of other proteins, together forming the p53 pathway 1,2. Inherited mutations in this gene result in the...
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Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thyroid, esophagus and larynx) distant metastasis (e.g. melanoma, breast, renal, and colon cancer)  primary neoplasms squamous cell carcinoma: commone...
Article

Trachelectomy

Trachelectomy, also known as a cervicectomy, refers to surgical resection of the uterine cervix. It may be considered as a fertility-sparing treatment for low-stage cervical cancer. Although radical hysterectomy is routine for treatment of endometrial and more advanced cervical cancer, uterine-...
Article

Tram-track sign (orbit)

Tram-track sign refers to the parallel thickening and enhancement around the optic nerve, and is most frequently seen in the setting of optic nerve meningioma. It may, however, also be seen in 1: orbital pseudotumor perioptic neuritis orbital sarcoidosis orbital leukemia orbital lymphoma o...
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Transcoelomic spread

Transcoelomic spread describes the spread of a malignancy into body cavities that occurs via penetrating the surface of the peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, or subarachnoid spaces. For example, ovarian tumors can spread transperitoneally to the surface of the liver.
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Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder staging uses the TNM system which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumor staging system. It is very similar to the staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: non-invasive papill...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (renal pelvis)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the renal pelvis, also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the renal pelvis, is uncommon compared to renal cell carcinoma and can be challenging to identify on routine imaging when small.  This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas ...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumor, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  
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Transitional cell carcinoma (ureter)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ureter, also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the ureter, are uncommon compared to similar tumors elsewhere along the urinary tract but are nonetheless the most common primary tumor of the ureter. This article concerns itself with transitional c...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (urinary tract)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary tract and may be found along its entire length, from the renal pelvis to the bladder.  As imaging findings and treatment vary according to where along the urinary...
Article

Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap

Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
Article

Trichoptysis

Trichoptysis (rare plural: trichoptyses) is an extremely rare symptom, whereby patients cough up hair. It is highly specific for rupture of a mediastinal teratoma into the tracheobronchial tree, however it is not pathognomonic as several articles claim (see below) 1,2. Nevertheless it remains a ...
Article

Triple receptor negative breast cancer

Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by a relative absence of immunohistochemical staining for the following hormone receptors/protein: estrogen receptor (OR) progesterone receptor (PR) human epidermal...
Article

Trousseau syndrome

Trousseau syndrome (not to be confused with Trousseau sign) represents the association between migratory thrombophlebitis and malignancy, particularly mucin-producing tumors; hence one of its other names: cancer-associated thromboembolism 1. History and etymology  Armand Trousseau (1801-1867),...
Article

Tuberculosis (intracranial manifestations)

Tuberculosis of the central nervous system can result from either hematogenous spread from distant systemic infection (e.g. pulmonary tuberculosis) or direct extension from local infection (e.g. tuberculous otomastoiditis). Intracranial manifestations of tuberculosis are protean and can affect ...
Article

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula and king's evil, continues to be seen in endemic areas and in the industrialised world particularly among the immunocompromised. Epidemiology Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tubercu...
Article

Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma

Tubulocystic renal cell carcinomas are a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with predominantly cystic appearance. Terminology Tubulocystic RCC was first identified as a distinct histopathologic entity in 2005, and subsequently acknowledged as an independent disease category in the 2016...
Article

Tumor ablation

Tumor ablation, or image-guided tumor ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and nonthermal) treatments to cause local tumor destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (MWA)...
Article

Tumor lysis syndrome

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is situlation representing a constellation of laboratory and clinical derangements inclusive of   hyperuricemia hyperphosphatemia hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia It is considered an oncological emergency can occur following treatment of malignancies with high cellul...
Article

Tumor markers

Tumor markers are a group of molecules in serum that are elevated in various malignancies and are often used to monitor treatment response as well as alert for potential progressive disease when in remission. Commonly used markers include: AFP (alpha fetoprotein) beta-hCG CA 15-3 CA 19-9 C...
Article

Tumor pseudoprogression

Tumor pseudoprogression, also known just as pseudoprogression, corresponds to an increase of lesion size related to treatment, which simulates progressive disease. The term is largely used in brain tumors imaging follow-up, especially for high grade gliomas (e.g. glioblastoma), and is observed a...
Article

Tumor pseudoresponse

Tumor pseudoresponse, also known just as pseudoresponse, refers to the phenomenon of tumors appearing to respond to a specific treatment on imaging criteria, when the lesion actually remains stable or has even progressed. The term is largely used in brain tumors imaging follow-up, especially fo...
Article

Tumors of muscular origin

There are a number of tumors of muscular origin, which overall are relatively uncommon, representing ~2% of benign soft tissue tumors and ~10% of malignant soft tissue tumors 1.  Pathology The tumors can be divided according to the type of muscle fiber: Skeletal muscle origin benign rhabdom...
Article

Tumors of the male urethra

Tumors of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5%...
Article

Tumors of the seminal vesicles

Tumors of the seminal vesicles usually represent contiguous invasion of the seminal vesicles from malignancies in adjacent organs, most commonly the prostate. Tumors originating de novo within the seminal vesicles themselves are much rarer. Epithelial tumors adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesic...
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Tumor spread through air spaces

Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) is a relatively recently recognized pattern of invasion in lung adenocarcinoma. According to the 2015 WHO classification, STAS is defined as “micropapillary clusters, solid nests, or single cells spreading within air spaces beyond the edge of the main tumor...

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