Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

355 results found
Article

Lugano classification: response evaluation criteria for CT and PET/CT

Response Assessment on CT   CT uses for the standing of all types of lymphoma (if CT is performed for tumor size measurement) and it is important, that CT is primary assessment modality for non–FDG-avid lymphoma. Response Assessment on CT: Complete Response Partial Remission/Partial Response...
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Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in: tumours germinoma craniopharyngioma hypothalamic glioma CNS lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (a.k.a. pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (a.k.a. infundibuloma) p...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...
Article

Osteopoikilosis

Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterised by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone islands...
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Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
Article

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumour. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumour of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumours of the colon, rectum, stomach, panc...
Article

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
Article

Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uraemic osteopathy, is the constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults) / rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium ...
Article

Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
Article

Primary urethral cancer

Primary urethral cancer, in most cases a urethral carcinoma, is a rare urological malignancy. It can be divided in female urethral cancer and male urethral cancer. Epidemiology It has an incidence of 4.3 per million for males and 1.5 per million for females. It usually manifests in the fifth d...
Article

Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease is a known complication of carcinoid tumours, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presentation Presentation may be subtl...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
Article

Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
Article

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas of the liver are rare, aggressive, and malignant liver tumours encountered in the paediatric population.  Epidemiology Approximately 90% of cases occur in patients under 15 years of age, most commonly between 6 and 10 years of age, but some cases have been r...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT as well as various radiopharmaceuti...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, overtaken by adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoking...
Article

Radiation-induced heart disease

Radiation-induced heart disease, also known as radiation cardiotoxicity, describes an uncommon constellation of potential cardiac complications of mediastinal radiotherapy. Epidemiology The demographics of patients affected by radiation-induced heart disease are those of the underlying conditi...
Article

Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, can present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can b...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

VIPoma

VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumour that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumours is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia,...
Article

Oligometastases

Oligometastases refers to distant disease that is limited in number and distribution, Niibe et al. defined this as ≤5 metastatic/recurrent lesions with control of the primary lesion 1,2. These metastases can be treated with local measures (surgery, radiation therapy, etc.) with the aim of increa...
Article

Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the lung

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung and is a malignant tumour with glandular differentiation or mucin production. This tumour exhibits various patterns and degrees of differentiation, including lepidic, acinar, papillary, micropapillary, and solid with ...
Article

Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%. Epidem...
Article

CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-malignant co...
Article

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al. in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographi...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinic...
Article

Sinonasal adenocarcinoma

Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are primary tumours of the sinonasal region with glandular differentiation. They are grossly classified as salivary and non-salivary subtypes. However, generally in the literature and IARC/WHO classification, the term Sinonasal adenocarcinoma refers to non-salivary aden...
Article

Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers have been reported as a rare late complication of radiation therapy in both post-operative breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. These occur 5-10 years (or later) after treatment 1-4. There appears to be increased risk of lung cancer in these patients if the...
Article

Choledochal cyst

Choledochal cysts represent congenital cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Diagnosis relies on the exclusion of other conditions (e.g. tumour, gallstone, inflammation) as a cause of biliary duct dilatation. Epidemiology Choledochal cysts are rare, with an incidence of 1:100,000-150,000. Al...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
Article

Malignant pleural disease

Malignant pleural disease usually heralds a poor prognosis, whether it represents a primary pleural malignancy or metastatic involvement.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or have pleuritic pain. If associated with a sizeable pleural effusio...
Article

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, although sharing many of the features of generic colorectal carcinoma (CRC), has some features that make it unique. These are predominantly related to its anatomical location which has implications in both preoperative imaging assessment and surgical technique. Demographics and c...
Article

Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumours (e.g...
Article

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged co...
Article

Multilocular cystic renal tumours

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Haemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

The haemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumour cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate th...
Article

Breast neoplasms

There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad oversimplified categories as a starting point. intra-lobular (epithelial and stromal) inter-lobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular and interlobular refer to the terminal duct lobular ...
Article

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
Article

Thymic carcinoma

Thymic carcinoma is part of the malignant end of thymic epithelial tumours. Epidemiology Patients are typically 50 to 70 years of age at presentation 9. Pathology The incidence of paraneoplastic syndromes is thought to be low. At least 10 different histologic variants have been described 4. ...
Article

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. The diagnosis is mainly pathological as it is difficult to differentiate from other forms of breast cancer on imaging. Epidemiology It accounts for about 4% of all cases. It is seen most often in females in the age group of 5...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal glands

Adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal glands is rare, with few cases reported in the literature since it was first described in 1996 1. Primary adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland is extremely rare; only 9 cases have been reported in the literature 1,2. It can be classified into high- and low-grade ma...
Article

Asbestosis

Asbestosis refers to later development of diffuse interstitial fibrosis secondary to asbestos fibre inhalation and should not be confused with other asbestos related diseases. Epidemiology Asbestosis typically occurs 10-15 years following the commencement of exposure to asbestos and is dose re...
Article

Lung cancer

Lung cancer, or frequently, if somewhat incorrectly, known as bronchogenic carcinoma, is the most common cause of cancer in men, and the 6th most frequent cancer in women worldwide. It is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women and accounts for approximately 20% of ...
Article

Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast also referred as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma which has a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account f...
Article

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over ...
Article

Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively uncommon malignancy. It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumours (~1.5% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies in the United States 14).  Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection where its incidence has been...
Article

Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for ~5% of all NHL. It is a malignant neoplasm of virgin B cells that closely resemble normal mantle zone B cells surrounding germinal centres. Epidemiology They occur in older adults (mean age ~60 years). There is...
Article

Neonatal neuroblastoma

Neonatal neuroblastoma is a type of congenital neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour arising from the sympathetic nervous system. In the majority of cases (45%), the tumour is localised in the adrenal gland.  Epidemiology Neonatal neuroblastoma accounts for less than 5% of all cases and carries ...
Article

Bilateral testicular lesions

Bilateral testicular lesions have a relatively limited differential diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Neoplastic  lymphoblastic leukemia (acute or chronic) lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) primary testicular lymphoma is rare but the testes are often the site of lymphoma/leukemia recurrence due to ...
Article

Vertebra plana

Vertebra plana (a.k.a. pancake / silver dollar / coin-on-edge vertebra) is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture. Plural is vertebrae planae. It can occur in a variety of settings, incl...
Article

Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
Article

Computed tomography texture analysis

Computed tomography texture analysis (or CTTA) is a new useful biomarker that provides an objective and quantitative assessment of tumour heterogeneity by analysing the differences in the pixel values of an image. Parameters assessed  Gray-level frequency distribution: pixel intensity histogra...
Article

Radiomics

Radiomics is a new emerging field of oncological medicine in which medical images are converted into multidimensional data by data-characterisation algorithms. The data is assessed for improved decision support. Radiomics has the potential to uncover disease characteristics that fail to be recog...
Article

Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evidence of ex...
Article

Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffu...
Article

Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy (DMP) is a condition characterised by the presence of a benign tumour like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes. The condition has also been reported in men. Clinical presentation Diabetic mastopathy manifests clinically as a...
Article

Architectural distortion in mammography

Architectural distortion is a mammographic descriptive term in breast imaging. It may be visualised as tethering or indentation of breast tissue. Pathology Architectural distortion per se is not a mass. It is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there is focal disruption of the normal...
Article

Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of new bone adjacent to the cortex. It can be seen in: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteosarcoma chondrosarcoma fibrous dysplasia non-ossifying fibroma osteoblast...
Article

Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise form many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications acute alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%)  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification chronic pancreatitis idiopathic: no underlying ca...
Article

Optic nerve enlargement

Enlargement of the optic nerves is uncommon and has a surprisingly broad differential: optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma orbital pseudotumour optic neuritis sarcoidosis leukemia orbital lymphoma metastases perioptic haemorrhage Erdheim-Chester disease juvenile xanthogranuloma ...
Article

Hypervascular metastases

There are several tumours which are noted to cause hypervascular metastases. The list of differential diagnoses includes: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) breast cancer: homogeneously hypervascular liver metastases from breast are considered rare 3 lung cancer neuroendocrine tumours carcinoid tum...
Article

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases are uncommon, occurring in ~5% (range 0.7-10%) of internal malignancies. Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a well known cutaneous metastases. Pathology These metastases can come from haematogenous or lymphatic spread, or may result from seeding from a surgical ...
Article

Asymmetrical density in mammography

Asymmetrical mammographic density is a mammographic morphological descriptor. It is given when there is increased density in one of the breasts, on either one or both standard mammographic views but without evidence of a discrete mass. An asymmetrical density can be further characterised as: ma...
Article

Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
Article

Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thryoid,esophagus) distant metastsis ( such as melanoma)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: commonest primary tracheal malignancy 2 ~50 % a...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A pedunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation tr...
Article

Clear cell meningioma

Clear cell meningiomas are a histological variant of meningioma with poorer prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence. They are therefore considered WHO grade 2 tumours, regardless of mitotic index, cellular atypia/anaplasia, or presence of brain invasion.  Epidemiology Clear cell meningiomas ...
Article

Dense hilum sign

The dense hilum sign suggests a pathological process at the hilum or in the lung anterior or posterior to the hilum. Malignancy, especially lung cancer, should be suspected. Radiographic features On a well-centred chest posteroanterior (PA) radiograph the density of the hilum is comparable on ...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma (genitourinary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract are uncommon tumours occurring in pelvic organs.  It is a disease nearly exclusive to the paediatric population.  For a general discussion of this type of tumour, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology The peak incidence of ...
Article

Scleroderma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma are demonstrated histologically in 90% of patients with scleroderma. It is a leading cause of mortality and at autopsy. The lung is reportedly involved in close to 100% of cases. However, only 25% of patients will present with respiratory symptoms or demon...
Article

Small bowel carcinoid tumour

The small bowel carcinoid tumours are the most common gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours. Within the small bowel, the most common site is at the terminal ileum. Epidemiology Small bowel carcinoid tumours account for ~40% of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Small b...
Article

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumours. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of prese...
Article

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalised airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukaemia infection pri...
Article

Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement is by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. The differential includes:  macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin is...
Article

Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Hypothalamic lesions

Hypothalamic lesions are numerous representing some entities that are unique to the hypothalamus, as well as many lesions that can be seen elsewhere within the brain. Additionally, due to its proximity to the optic chiasm, third ventricle and pituitary region, many lesions of these locations can...
Article

Curtain sign

The curtain sign (or draped curtain sign) in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends to the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline and is more loosely attached la...
Article

CT angiogram sign (lungs)

The CT angiogram sign refers to vessels appearing prominent during a contrast enhanced CT as they traverse an airless low attenuation portion of consolidated lung. Although initially thought to be specific for bronchoalveolar carcinoma, it has now been recognised as a generic appearance provided...
Article

Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are...
Article

Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abd...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (summary)

Oesophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumour that occurs within the oesophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progress from solid foods to liquids. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on oesophageal c...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...

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