Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

338 results found
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
Article

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterised by enlargement of the extraocular muscles' bellies (frequently: inferior rectus > medial rectus  > superior rectus) sparing...
Article

Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumours arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas.  These tumours typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, ...
Article

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex, and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical presentation Clinically it refers to the presence of a painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to surrounding cavernou...
Article

Small bowel carcinoid

The small bowel is the most common site of carcinoid tumours, accounting for 42% of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours 1. Within the small bowel, the most common site is at the terminal ileum 2. Clinical Features Small bowel carcinoid are slow growing and may present with vague symptoms 1,3: ...
Article

Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup stag...
Article

Cannonball metastases (lungs)

Cannonball metastases refer to large, well circumscribed, round pulmonary metastases that appear, well, like cannonballs. The French term "envolée de ballons" which translates to "balloons release" is also used to describe this same appearance. Metastases with such an appearance are classically...
Article

Adenosquamous carcinoma (cervix)

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of cervical carcinoma. Pathology It has components of both cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis An adenosquamous histology appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome...
Article

Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Article

How you can help build Radiopaedia.org

This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved in contributing to Radiopaedia.org. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases complete and accurate as possible: see anatomy of a perfect case get involved with an editorial project ...
Article

Bright rim sign in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours

The bright rim sign has been described in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs) and is seen, as the name so aptly describes, as a rim of high signal around the DNET on FLAIR sequences.
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
Article

Cervical lymph node (staging)

Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. TNM nodal staging Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Article

Bat wing opacities (lungs)

Bat's wing or butterfly pulmonary opacities refer to a pattern of bilateral perihilar shadowing. It is classically described on a frontal chest radiograph but can also refer to appearances on chest CT 3-4. Differential diagnosis Bat's wing pulmonary opacities can be caused by: pulmonary oedem...
Article

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon exophytic, slow growing, low grade, spindle cell tumour arising in the dermal and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the trunk region with excellent outcome after complete surgical resection. Epidemiology The tumour occurs in patients of...
Article

Cortically-based brain tumours (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is: PDOG Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
Article

Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
Article

Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumour spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentat...
Article

Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumours of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumour and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imag...
Article

Solitary bone plasmacytoma

Solitary bone plasmacytomas (SBP) may involve any bone, but they have a predisposition for the red marrow-containing axial skeleton: spinal disease is observed in ~50% (range 34-72%) of cases the thoracic vertebrae are most commonly involved, followed by lumbar, sacral, and cervical vertebrae ...
Article

Synonyms

Synonyms, located below references when in edit mode, are used in a number of scenarios.  To view a YouTube screencast tutorial please click here.  What is a synonym? A synonym is essentially a 'redirect' to an article. This enables links created to article A to pass to article B, provided ar...
Article

Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
Article

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematological malignancy. It was previously termed as blastic natural-killer lymphoma or agranular CD4+ natural killer cell leukemia. Epidemiology It only represent a wel small propotion (around 0.44%) of all haematological malign...
Article

Facial nerve schwannoma

Facial nerve schwannoma (FNS), also known as facial nerve neuroma/neurilemoma, is a schwannoma that arises from the facial nerve. They are generally uncommon, and when involving the temporal bone, make up less than 1% of all temporal bone tumours. Epidemiology FNS is a rare tumour 2. Clinical...
Article

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours or RECIST refers to a set of published rules used to assess tumour burden in order to provide an objective assessment of response to therapy. They were initially introduced in 2000 and have undergone subsequent revision in 2009 (RECIST 1.1).  The cr...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement is by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. The differential includes :  macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin i...
Article

CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
Article

Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastomas are locally aggressive benign tumours that arise from the mandible, or, less commonly, from the maxilla. Usually present as a slowly but continuously growing hard painless lesion near the angle of the mandible in the 3rd to 5th decades of life, which can be severely disfiguring if...
Article

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), also sometimes more vaguely referred to as "adult polycystic kidney disease", is as the name would suggest, a hereditary form of adult cystic renal disease.  Epidemiology Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is one of the most commo...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
Article

Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...
Article

Adrenal haemangioma

Adrenal haemangiomas are rare benign tumours that are usually incidentally identified (one example of an adrenal incidentaloma). Its significance mainly relates to the difficulty in differentiation from other malignant lesions.  Epidemiology Although these can be found at any age, they are mos...
Article

Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison's disease patients only occasionally have calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abdo...
Article

Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
Article

Perineural spread of tumour

Perineural spread of tumour is a form of local invasion in which primary tumours cells spread along the tissues of the nerve sheath.  It is a well-recognised phenomenon in head and neck cancers. An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and Perineural spread (PNS...
Article

Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
Article

Salivary gland tumours

Salivary gland tumours are variable in location, origin, and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumours is proportional to the gland size; i.e. the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasms, the submandibular gland 50:50, and the sublingual glands a...
Article

Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1   Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukaemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastoc...
Article

Intraventricular meningioma

Intraventricular meningiomas are rare intracranial tumours that represent an uncommon subtype of the more classical extra-axial meningioma and represent between 0.5 and 2% of all meningiomas. Despite its rarity, they represent one of the commonest adult intraventricular neoplasms 4. Epidemiolog...
Article

Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is eight years, and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is l...
Article

Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the bony s...
Article

Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thryoid,esophagus) distant metastsis ( such as melanoma)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: commonest primary tracheal malignancy 2 ~50 % a...
Article

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Tamoxifen associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...
Article

Adult cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases  from head and neck tumours lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes...
Article

Ependymoma

Ependymomas represent a relatively broad group of glial tumours most often arising from the lining the ventricles of the brain or the central canal of the spinal cord. They account for ~5% of all neuroepithelial neoplasms, ~10% of all paediatric brain tumours and up to 33% of brain tumours occur...
Article

Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can be tr...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, overtaken by adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoking...
Article

Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune inflammatory myositis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection. It has a bimodal age of presentation depending on the variant: juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM): affects children and tends to be more severe adult dermatomyositis (ADM): typically a...
Article

Spinal astrocytoma

Spinal astrocytomas are the second most common spinal cord tumour overall, representing 40% of intramedullary tumours 3. They account for 60% of paediatric intramedullary tumours, making them the most common spinal cord tumour in children 6. This article specifically relates to spinal astrocyto...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal glands

Adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal glands is rare, with few cases reported in the literature since it was first described in 1996 1. Primary adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland is extremely rare; only 9 cases have been reported in the literature 1,2. It can be classified into high- and low-grade ma...
Article

Leptomeningeal enhancement

Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called caecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotising inflammatory condition which typically involves the caecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukaemia and severe neutropae...
Article

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...
Article

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumours. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of prese...
Article

Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumour.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discri...
Article

Haemangioblastoma (central nervous system)

Haemangioblastomas are tumours of vascular origin and occur both sporadically and in patients with von Hippel Lindau (vHL). They are WHO grade I tumours that can occur in the central nervous system or elsewhere in the body, including kidneys, liver, and pancreas. These tumours generally present...
Article

Raindrop skull

The appearance of multiple, well-defined lytic lesions (punched out lesions) of various size scattered throughout the skull constitutes the raindrop skull appearance of multiple myeloma. This term is applied as an analogy to rain hitting a surface and splashing, where it leaves a random pattern ...
Article

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are benign (WHO Grade I) slow growing glioneuronal tumours arising from either cortical or deep grey matter. The vast majority are centred in cortical grey matter, arise from secondary germinal layers, and are frequently associated with cortical dy...
Article

Cholangiohepatoma

Cholangiohepatoma refers to a synchronous cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a rare and aggressive primary hepatic tumour. The origin of cholangiohepatoma is closely linked to the origin of cholangiocarcinoma rather than hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiology The inci...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
Article

Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumours of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma has an estimated incidence of ~0.09-0.16% and occur...
Article

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumour. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumour of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumours of the colon, rectum, stomach, panc...
Article

Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in: tumours germinoma hypothalamic glioma CNS lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (a.k.a. pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (a.k.a. infundibuloma) pituitary metastases...
Article

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
Article

HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
Article

Tuberculosis (intracranial manifestations)

Tuberculosis of the central nervous system can result from either haematogenous spread from distant systemic infection (e.g. pulmonary tuberculosis) or direct extension from local infection (e.g. tuberculous otomastoiditis). Intracranial manifestations of tuberculosis are protean and can affect...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the duodenum

Duodenal adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the duodenum. Epidemiology Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the duodenum. It represents 0.3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and accounts for  50-70% of small bowel adenocarcinomas occurring ei...
Article

Scleroderma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma are demonstrated histologically in 90% of patients with scleroderma. It is a leading cause of mortality and at autopsy. The lung is reportedly involved in close to 100% of cases. However, only 25% of patients will present with respiratory symptoms or demon...
Article

Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively uncommon malignancy. It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumours (~1.5% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies in the United States 14).  Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection where its incidence has been...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to SCCs of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck rather than cutaneous SCCs. SCC is the most common tumour of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and can occur anywhere there is squamous cell mucosa.  Epidemiology, risk factor...
Article

Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic / colloid nodule / nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroi...
Article

MRI protocols

MRI protocols are a combination of various MRI sequences, designed to optimally assess a particular region of the body and/or pathological process. There are some general principles of protocol design for each area. However, the specifics of a protocol are dependent on MRI hardware and software...
Article

Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic haemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or a risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic haeman...
Article

Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%. Epidem...
Article

Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mor...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Intraventricular masses (an approach)

The ventricular system of the brain plays host to a variety of unique tumours, as well as tumours that are more frequently seen elsewhere (e.g. meningiomas). Besides, some intra-axial (parenchymal) masses can be mostly exophytic and thus appear mostly intraventricular. A systematic approach taki...
Article

Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest radiographs in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnos...
Article

Flare phenomenon (bone scintigraphy)

Flare phenomenon or osteoblastic flare phenomenon refers to interval visualisation of lesions with a sclerotic rim around an initially lytic lesion or sclerosis of lesions previously undetected on radiograph or CT in the setting of follow-up of an oncological patient with other signs of partial ...
Article

Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
Article

Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta thalasse...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.