Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

494 results found
Article

Gallbladder carcinoma

Gallbladder carcinomas are usually asymptomatic until they reach an incurable stage. As such, early incidental detection is important, if the occasional patient is to be successfully treated. The majority (90%) are adenocarcinomas, and the remainder is squamous cell carcinomas.  Epidemiology A...
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
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Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumours 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are all useful for detection of hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with ...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Carney-Stratakis syndrome

Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising of familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma. Terminology It is considered to be distinct from, but perhaps related to, the Carney triad 1. Neither should be confused with the unrelated Carney complex. Histor...
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Peritoneal metastases

Peritoneal metastases are a relatively common location for metastases, particularly from tumours of the abdomen and pelvis, that generally imply a poor prognosis, often with a significant impact on palliation 1. Terminology If peritoneal metastases are of an epithelial origin (as most are) and...
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Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly refers to an increase in size or enlargement of the liver.  Pathology Aetiology Hepatomegaly can result from a vast range of pathology including, but not limited to, the following: malignancy/cellular infiltrate multiple metastases lymphoma(s) leukaemia(s) hepatocellular car...
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Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Adrenal collision tumour

An adrenal collision tumour or collision tumour of the adrenal gland is an uncommon condition where two histologically distinct tumours abut each other or are in close proximity in the same adrenal gland. Pathology Collision tumours have been reported in nearly every organ, for example, collis...
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Choroid plexus malignancy

Choroid plexus malignancies can be classified as primary or secondary neoplasms of the choroid plexus: primary choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) 80% WHO Grade I, and WHO Grade II when atypical choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC)  20% WHO Grade III intraventricular meningioma secondary choroid ...
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Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are relatively rare on imaging, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of a widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases varies between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macroscopic ...
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CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumour marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumours of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with it...
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Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small noninvasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous h...
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) are a rare mesenchymal renal tumour that account for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in the paediatric population 1.  Epidemiology Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is the second most common primary malignant paediatric renal neoplasm after Wilms tumour, ...
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Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise from many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications chronic pancreatitis alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%) 2  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification gallstone pancreatitis (2%) 2 ​...
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Adenocarcinoma of the lung

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung and is a malignant tumour with glandular differentiation or mucin production. This tumour exhibits various patterns and degrees of differentiation, including lepidic, acinar, papillary, micropapillary, and solid with ...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphomas refer to clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is much rarer than secondary pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B-cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of m...
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Breast neoplasms

There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad oversimplified categories as a starting point. intralobular (epithelial and stromal) interlobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular and interlobular refer to the terminal duct lobular un...
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Adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung

Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the lung refers to a relatively new entity for a pre-invasive lesion in the lung. This entity partly replaces the noninvasive end of the previous term bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma in situ is defined as a localised adenocarcinoma of <3 cm that exhibits...
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Ultrasound appearances of liver metastases

Ultrasound appearance of liver metastases can have bewildering variation, and the presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions. Radiographic features Ultrasound Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the liver metastases and the likely prima...
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Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. Thi...
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Dural metastases

Dural or pachymeningeal metastases are a relatively common cause of dural masses, although they are less common than brain metastases and meningiomas. They can occur both within the spine and intracranially - this article is focussed on intracranial dural masses.  Clinical presentation Patient...
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Pineal gland metastasis

Pineal gland metastases are rare and mostly related to primary carcinomas of the lungs, breast, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and bladder 4. They usually occur concomitantly with leptomeningeal metastases.   This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pineal gland. For oth...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
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Pleural metastases

Pleural metastases are one of the vast majority of malignant lesions of the pleura. Clinical presentation The infiltration of the pleura usually manifests as pleural effusion, which is the first manifestation of pleural metastasis. In addition to the symptoms and systemic manifestations of neo...
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Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older than 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the b...
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Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally-recommended scale for routine clinical reporting and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Incl...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumours do have a predilection to metastasise to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumours or direct extension of tumours from neighbouring regions. For a discussion of intrao...
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Brain tumours in infancy

Common brain tumours in infancy (i.e. under one year of age) are quite different from those of brain tumours in adulthood. Most are located in the supratentorial region (~65%) and they carry a poor prognosis. The frequency of these tumours varies according to studies, but the most common brain ...
Article

Papillary carcinoma of the breast

Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare ductal breast malignancy. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 1-2% of breast carcinomas 2. They typically present in postmenopausal patients with the mean age at being ~63-67 years. Clinical presentation A papillary carcinoma may manifest ...
Article

Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
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Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinical s...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
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Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a radiological term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported before treatment, and with...
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Extramedullary haematopoiesis

Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a response to the failure of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This article aims to a general approach on the condition, for a dedicated discussion for a particularly involved organ, please refer to the specific articles on:  extramedullary haematopoiesis in t...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
Article

Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, is defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly-defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several r...
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Pure ground glass nodules

Pure ground glass lung nodules are a subtype of ground glass lung nodules where there is no associated solid component. They have been shown to represent various pathologies such as 1,3 adenocarcinoma in situ of lung minimally-invasive adenocarcinoma of lung invasive adenocarcinoma of lung ...
Article

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinaemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are no...
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Bing-Neel syndrome

Bing-Neel syndrome is an extremely rare neurological complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia where there is malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology The exact incidence is unknown, however in one study of patients with Waldenström macroglobuli...
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Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast also referred to as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma with a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account for...
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Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology Juxtaglomerular cell tumour affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, wi...
Article

Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterised by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predo...
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Ga-68 DOTATATE

68Ga-DOTATATE​​ is a PET radiotracer that is useful for evaluating primary and metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours.  It is a form of somatostatin-receptor (SSTR) functional imaging and most often combined with cross-sectional imaging in the form of PET/CT. Terminology 68Ga-DO...
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BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
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Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. Pathology It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary: primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evi...
Article

CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Mullerian and coelomic epithelial-derived cell types, and is the best known tumour marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section b...
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Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
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Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
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Tumour markers

Tumour markers are a group of molecules in serum that are elevated in various malignancies and are often used to monitor treatment response as well as alert for potential progressive disease when in remission. Commonly used markers include: AFP (alpha fetoprotein) beta-hCG CA 19-9 CA 27-29 ...
Article

Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumour

Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumour refer to a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumours that arise within the periphery of the lung. They are considered less common than the more centrally-located bronchial carcinoid tumours.  Clinical presentation Many patients tend to be asymptomatic  2. Pre...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is concerned ...
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Brain metastases

Brain metastases are estimated to account for approximately 25-50% of intracranial tumours in hospitalised patients. Due to great variation in imaging appearances, these metastases present a common diagnostic challenge which can importantly affect the management approach for individual patients....
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called caecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotising inflammatory condition which typically involves the caecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukaemia and severe neutropae...
Article

Phaeochromocytoma

Phaeochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% ...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumour spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentat...
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Malignant transformation

Malignant transformation is the term given to the process whereby either normal, metaplastic, or benign neoplastic tissue, becomes a cancer. The process usually occurs in a series of steps and the affected tissue gradually accumulates the genetic mutations that express a malignant phenotype. The...
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Skeletal muscle metastases

Skeletal muscle metastases are uncommon compared to other sites and are generally seen in the context of widespread metastatic disease.  Epidemiology Post-mortem rates of skeletal metastases vary between 0.03% and 17% 1.  Clinical presentation Most commonly asymptomatic 2,3.  Pathology Com...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
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Cannonball metastases (lungs)

Cannonball metastases refer to large, well circumscribed, round pulmonary metastases that appear, well, like cannonballs. The French term "envolée de ballons" which translates to "balloons release" is also used to describe this same appearance. Metastases with such an appearance are classically...
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Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal adenom...
Article

Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
Article

Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved cells without nucleoli (cen...
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6, and thus are sometimes colloquially referred to as the "grandfather lesion". Main duct ty...
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Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abd...
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Exophytic (definition)

Exophytic is a descriptive term used by radiologists/pathologists to describe solid organ lesions arising from the outer surface of the organ of origin. Literally exophytic only refers to those lesions arising from the outer surface, however radiologists and pathologists use the term to include...
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Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumour. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-...
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Smoking related lung disease

Smoking related lung diseases are the respiratory manifestations of disease that is related to smoking. Smoking affects the lungs in numerous ways, and can be classified under the following headings: smoking related interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILD) respiratory bronchiolitis respiratory br...
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Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is abnormal proliferation of the endometrial glands and stroma, defined as diffuse smooth thickening >10 mm 13. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplas...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

PERCIST

Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) make use of positron emission tomography (PET) to provide functional information to help determine tumour viability. The criteria consist of four categories: complete metabolic response (CMR), partial metabolic response (P...
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Tumours of the male urethra

Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Article

Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting for 1-...
Article

MALT lymphoma

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predomina...
Article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. It is of squamous cell origin, some types of which are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the na...
Article

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterised by enlargement of the extraocular muscles' bellies (frequently: inferior rectus > medial rectus  > superior rectus) sparing...
Article

Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Article

Sonographic features of malignant lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy is quite common, and it can be very difficult to differentiate malignant lymphadenopathy from reactive nodal enlargement. Several gray scale and colour Doppler features favour malignancy in a lymph node. Gray scale parameters that favour malignancy size: larger-more likely mal...
Article

Radiation-induced heart disease

Radiation-induced heart disease, also known as radiation cardiotoxicity, describes an uncommon constellation of potential cardiac complications of mediastinal radiotherapy. Epidemiology The demographics of patients affected by radiation-induced heart disease are those of the underlying conditi...
Article

Raindrop skull

The appearance of multiple, well-defined lytic lesions (punched out lesions) of various size scattered throughout the skull constitutes the raindrop skull appearance of multiple myeloma. This term is applied as an analogy to rain hitting a surface and splashing, where it leaves a random pattern ...
Article

2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016), it is still the most widely used classification system although a new revision is due to come up i...
Article

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumours are rare and differ from most other dentition related lesions in that they more frequently occur in the maxilla. Epidemiology They are also seen more frequently in females, most frequently in the second decade of life. Radiographic features They present as an ...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the acute phase. Please refer to the article on r...
Article

RANO criteria for glioblastoma

Response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria (RANO), published in 2010 1, are used to assess response to first-line treatment of glioblastoma (as well as lower grade astrocytoma 3) and have largely superseded the older Macdonald criteria (which only dealt with glioblastoma multiforme) 2. For ...
Article

Protoplasmic astrocytoma

Protoplasmic astrocytoma is a rare variant of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas with histological and imaging features which overlap with other entities.  Until recently they were classified as a subtype of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma, however, in the latest (2016) update to WHO classification o...
Article

Thymic hyperplasia

Thymic hyperplasia is a disorder whereby there is hyperplasia of the thymus gland.  Pathology Thymus hyperplasia can be subdivided into two forms:  true thymic hyperplasia lymphoid hyperplasia Both true thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia manifest as diffuse symmetric enlargement of...

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