Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

350 results found
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Curtain sign

The curtain sign (or draped curtain sign) in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends to the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline and is more loosely attached la...
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Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases are uncommon, occurring in ~5% (range 0.7-10%) of internal malignancies. Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a well known cutaneous metastases. Pathology These metastases can come from haematogenous or lymphatic spread, or may result from seeding from a surgical ...
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Cystic adrenal neoplasm

Cystic adrenal neoplasms are uncommon and only account for a minority of cystic adrenal lesions 3. They may be represented several histological types: adrenal adenoma 1 adrenal cortical carcinoma 1,2 adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma 2 phaeochromocytoma 1 Differential diagnosis Consider adr...
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Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumour.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discri...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autosomal dominant polycysti...
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Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are atypical morphological form on pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different form the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with many ...
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Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally recommended scale for clinical routine and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Inclusions FD...
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Dense hilum sign

The dense hilum sign suggests a pathological process at the hilum or in the lung anterior or posterior to the hilum. Malignancy, especially lung cancer, should be suspected. Radiographic features On a well-centred chest posteroanterior (PA) radiograph the density of the hilum is comparable on ...
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Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon exophytic, slow growing, low grade, spindle cell tumour arising in the dermal and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the trunk region with excellent outcome after complete surgical resection. Epidemiology The tumour occurs in patients of...
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Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune inflammatory myositis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection. It has a bimodal age of presentation depending on the variant: juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM): affects children and tends to be more severe adult dermatomyositis (ADM): typically a...
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Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy (DMP) is a condition characterised by the presence of a benign tumour like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes. The condition has also been reported in men. Clinical presentation Diabetic mastopathy manifests clinically as a...
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Differential diagnosis for a focal gas collection in the right upper quadrant

A gas filled focal collection in the right upper upper quadrant on plain film can occur from a number of pathologies. Things to consider are entero biliary fistula : common types include cholecysto-duodenal fistula and cholecysto-colic fistula and. Can occur with  gallstone ileus (majority of ...
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Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
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Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumours of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumour and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imag...
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Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1   Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukaemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastoc...
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Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta thalasse...
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Ductal adenoma of the breast

A ductal adenoma of the breast is a benign glandular tumour of the breast that usually fills and distends the ductal lumen. Epidemiology They may occur in women of all ages, although the majority of patients are 60 years of age or greater 3. Clinical presentation Ductal adenomas usually pres...
Article

Duodenal filling defects

Duodenal filling defects may be caused by a wide variety of duodenal pathology which may be divided by their location and pathological process. Extrinsic gallbladder impression common bile duct impression gas-filled diverticulum Intrinsic Note: please refer to duodenal mucosal nodular fill...
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Dural metastases

Dural or pachymeningeal metastases are a relatively common cause of dural masses, although they are less common than brain metastases and meningiomas. They can occur both within the spine and intracranially - this article is focussed on intracranial dural masses.  Clinical presentation Patient...
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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are benign (WHO Grade I) slow growing glioneuronal tumours arising from either cortical or deep grey matter. The vast majority are centred in cortical grey matter, arise from secondary germinal layers, and are frequently associated with cortical dy...
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Dysplastic liver nodules

Dysplastic liver nodules are focal nodular regions (≥ 1 mm) without definite evidence of malignancy. Epidemiology They have been found in cirrhotic patients with a prevalence of 14% (size >1.0 cm) to 37% (size >0.5 cm) 2. Pathology Dysplasia indicates: nuclear atypia increased fat or glyco...
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ECOG performance status

The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) is one of the largest clinical cancer research organizations in the United States, and conducts clinical trials in all types of adult cancers. The ECOG performance status is a scale used to assess how a patient's disease is progressing, assess how t...
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Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynaecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding and both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around the 6th decade, though 12% of cases present ...
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Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...
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Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
Article

Ependymoma

Ependymomas represent a relatively broad group of glial tumours most often arising from the lining the ventricles of the brain or the central canal of the spinal cord. They account for ~5% of all neuroepithelial neoplasms, ~10% of all paediatric brain tumours and up to 33% of brain tumours occur...
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Facial nerve schwannoma

Facial nerve schwannoma (FNS), also known as facial nerve neuroma/neurilemoma, is a schwannoma that arises from the facial nerve. They are generally uncommon, and when involving the temporal bone, make up less than 1% of all temporal bone tumours. Epidemiology FNS is a rare tumour 2. Clinical...
Article

Fascicular sign

Fascicular sign is a finding on T2-weighted MRI images that suggests a lesion of neurogenic origin. It is characterised by multiple small ring-like structures with peripheral hyperintensity representing the fascicular bundles within the nerves. It is found in various neurogenic tumours, includi...
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Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
Article

Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
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Fibrosarcoma of the breast

Fibrosarcoma of the breast is a type of malignant stromal sarcoma that rarely occurs as a primary tumour within the breast.  Pathology A fibrosarcoma is composed of immature mesenchymal elements surrounded by a collagenous substance. It is a type of breast sarcoma with a predominant “herringbo...
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FIGO staging system

The FIGO staging systems are determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique). In general, there are five stages: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (common in cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancer) stage I: confined to...
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Flare phenomenon (bone scintigraphy)

Flare phenomenon or osteoblastic flare phenomenon refers to interval visualisation of lesions with a sclerotic rim around an initially lytic lesion or sclerosis of lesions previously undetected on radiograph or CT in the setting of follow-up of an oncological patient with other signs of partial ...
Article

Focal fatty sparing of the liver

Focal fatty sparing of the liver is a localised absence of fatty change in a liver otherwise, affects with fatty change (diffuse hepatic steatosis). Recognition of this finding is useful to prevent falsely thinking the region is a mass. Epidemiology To be added Pathology Similar to its inver...
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Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
Article

Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is, in fact, the most common type. Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved ce...
Article

Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
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Gastric cancer (summary)

Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer or gastric carcinoma, refers to a cancer that arises from the mucosal lining of the stomach. It is the commonest gastric malignancy. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on gastric cancer. Summary epidemiology unc...
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Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffu...
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
Article

Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can be tr...
Article

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...
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Haemangioblastoma (central nervous system)

Haemangioblastomas are tumours of vascular origin and occur both sporadically and in patients with von Hippel Lindau (vHL). They are WHO grade I tumours that can occur in the central nervous system or elsewhere in the body, including kidneys, liver, and pancreas. These tumours generally present...
Article

Haemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

The haemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumour cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate th...
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Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to SCCs of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck rather than cutaneous SCCs. SCC is the most common tumour of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and can occur anywhere there is squamous cell mucosa.  Epidemiology, risk factor...
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Hepatic abscess

Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localised collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents.  Epidemiology The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affec...
Article

Hepatic carcinosarcoma

Hepatic carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour that is defined by mixed histological features.  Terminology This tumour has also been referred to as malignant mixed tumour, spindle cell carcinoma, pseudosarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma 1,2.  Pathology Hepatic carcinocarcinoma contain a mixture...
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Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup stag...
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Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly refers to an increase in size or enlargement of the liver.  Pathology Aetiology Hepatomegaly can result from a vast range of pathology including, but not limited to, the following: malignancy/cellular infiltrate multiple metastases lymphoma(s) leukaemia(s) hepatocellular car...
Article

HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
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Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
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This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved in contributing to Radiopaedia.org. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases complete and accurate as possible: see anatomy of a perfect case get involved with an editorial project ...
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Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic haemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or a risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic haeman...
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Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged co...
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Hypervascular metastases

There are several tumours which are noted to cause hypervascular metastases. The list of differential diagnoses includes: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) breast cancer: homogeneously hypervascular liver metastases from breast are considered rare 3 lung cancer neuroendocrine tumours carcinoid tum...
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Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system. TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) T1: limited to 1 subsite AND tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension T2: extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or tumour size betw...
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Hypothalamic lesions

Hypothalamic lesions are numerous representing some entities that are unique to the hypothalamus, as well as many lesions that can be seen elsewhere within the brain. Additionally, due to its proximity to the optic chiasm, third ventricle and pituitary region, many lesions of these locations can...
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Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
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Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumour thrombus. Clinical features Patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal oede...
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Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast also referred as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma which has a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account f...
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Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) represents the radiotherapeutic modality where the intensity of the radiation delivered, could be modulated during the treatment to focus on the tumour tissue and spare the adjacent anatomical structures/tissue(s). Therefore the increased dose of radi...
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
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Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please refer on leptomeningeal metastases (brain) to a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour typ...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Intraosseous meningioma

Intraosseous meningioma, also referred as primary intraosseous meningioma, is a rare subtype of meningioma that accounts for less than 1% of all osseous tumours. They fall under the subgroup of primary extradural meningiomas. Terminology It is important to note that it has been argued by some ...
Article

Intraventricular masses (an approach)

The ventricular system of the brain plays host to a variety of unique tumours, as well as tumours that are more frequently seen elsewhere (e.g. meningiomas). Besides, some intra-axial (parenchymal) masses can be mostly exophytic and thus appear mostly intraventricular. A systematic approach taki...
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Intraventricular meningioma

Intraventricular meningiomas are rare intracranial tumours that represent an uncommon subtype of the more classical extra-axial meningioma and represent between 0.5 and 2% of all meningiomas. Despite its rarity, they represent one of the commonest adult intraventricular neoplasms 4. Epidemiolog...
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Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
Article

Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
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Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
Article

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology JGCT affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in t...
Article

Kimura disease

Kimura disease is a rare benign inflammatory disease that characteristically manifests as enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and salivary glands. Epidemiology Kimura disease typically affects males (80%) between 20 and 40 years of age (80% of cases) 1-2, and is most frequently seen in Asia. S...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. The notion of grading neuroendocrine tumour uptake was introduced by Eric Krenning, who led whole-body efforts into somatostatin receptor imaging 1. Parameters Initial...
Article

Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome

Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome (LEMS) is rare but is still the second most common neuromuscular junction disease after myasthenia gravis. Two-thirds of LEMS present as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to malignancy, most commonly lung cancer but is also associated with breast, ovarian and ...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
Article

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
Article

Leptomeningeal enhancement

Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
Article

Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumour arising from embryonic white fat.  It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3). It most often occurs in the extremities and trunk, although it can be seen in other areas 1. The entity was originally describe...
Article

Lipoblastoma of lung

Lipoblastoma of the lung is a fat derived thoracic tumour. Epidemiology They occur during infancy and early childhood. More than 90% of cases are diagnosed in children less than 3 years of age, with nearly 75% occurring before the age of 12 months Pathology Lipoblastomas are rare soft-tissue...
Article

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen (LCA) is a rare and relatively recently (1991) described vascular tumour of the spleen. Epidemiology Littoral cell angiomas may occur at any age and have no gender predilection. Clinical presentation Typically, patients with littoral cell angioma are found...
Article

Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
Article

Lung cancer

Lung cancer, or frequently, if somewhat incorrectly, known as bronchogenic carcinoma, is the most common cause of cancer in men, and the 6th most frequent cancer in women worldwide. It is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women and accounts for approximately 20% of ...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumour spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentat...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...
Article

Male breast disease

Male breast disease includes a wide spectrum of conditions. Many conditions and entities that affect the female breast may also affect the male breast.  Pathology Malignant male breast cancer lymphoma dermatofibrosarcoma Benign gynaecomastia pseudogynaecomastia - fat deposition within th...

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