Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

568 results found
Article

Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
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Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffuse ...
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
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Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, can present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can b...
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Giant cell tumour of bone

Giant cell tumours of bone, also known as osteoclastomas, are relatively common bone tumours and are usually benign. They typically arise from the metaphysis of long bones, extend into the epiphysis adjacent to the joint surface, and have a narrow zone of transition. Epidemiology Giant cell tu...
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Gynaecologic imaging reporting and data system (GI-RADS)

The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography. Classification Findings are classified into five categories 1: GI-RADS 1 normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Article

Haemangioblastoma (central nervous system)

Haemangioblastomas are tumours of vascular origin and occur both sporadically and in patients with von Hippel Lindau (vHL). They are WHO grade I tumours that can occur in the central nervous system or elsewhere in the body, including kidneys, liver, and pancreas. These tumours generally present...
Article

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as macrophage activation syndrome when occurring in the setting of a rheumatologic disorder, is a non-malignant but often-fatal disorder of immune dysregulation affecting multiple organs. Epidemiology It typically affects infants and young ...
Article

Haemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

The haemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumour cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate th...
Article

Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
Article

Hand-foot syndrome (chemotherapy)

Hand-foot syndrome, also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia or Burgdorf reaction, is a benign, aseptic, self-limiting complication of many chemotherapeutic agents characterised by a widespread erythema, oedema and ulceration of the hands and feet.  Causative drugs Many chemotherapeuti...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT  and MR imaging, howev...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, as opposed to cutaneous SCC. They are the most common tumour of the head and neck region, and can arise from any structure with squamous cell mucosa.  HNSCC is ...
Article

Hepatic carcinosarcoma

Hepatic carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour that is defined by mixed histological features.  Terminology This tumour has also been referred to as malignant mixed tumour, spindle cell carcinoma, pseudosarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma 1,2.  Pathology Hepatic carcinocarcinoma contain a mixture...
Article

Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumours 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are all useful for detection of hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with ...
Article

Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup stag...
Article

Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly refers to an increase in size or enlargement of the liver.  Pathology Aetiology Hepatomegaly can result from a vast range of pathology including, but not limited to, the following: malignancy/cellular infiltrate multiple metastases lymphoma(s) leukaemia(s) hepatocellular car...
Article

Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access device. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumo...
Article

High-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

High-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (HAMN) are rare mucinous tumours of the appendix showing high-grade cytologic atypia, cf. low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN). The distinction between both LAMN and HAMN is done on histological grounds and these tumours look the same on imagi...
Article

Histiocytic sarcoma

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant haematopoietic neoplasm that has been reported in association with other haematological malignancies (particularly B and T cell lymphomas). Pathology It comprises of tumour cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Location It usually occurs ...
Article

HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
Article

How you can help build Radiopaedia.org

Contributing to Radiopaedia.org does not need to be a massive commitment. Even a few minutes here and there can make a real difference. This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases comp...
Article

Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic haemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or a risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic haeman...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome

Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome is an extremely rare condition where a gene mutation results in hyperparathyroidism in association with both benign and malignant tumours, most notably, tumours in the mandible or maxilla 2. Epidemiology Approximately 200 cases have been reported in the ...
Article

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a syndrome characterised by periosteal reaction of the long bones without underlying bone lesion. There are a broad range of manifestations, although typically there is symmetrical involvement of the appendicular skeleton. Accompanying abnormal soft tissue prolif...
Article

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged co...
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Hypervascular metastases

There are several tumours which are noted to cause hypervascular metastases. The list of differential diagnoses includes: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) breast cancer: homogeneously hypervascular liver metastases from breast are considered rare 3 lung cancer neuroendocrine tumours carcinoid tum...
Article

Hypervascular metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember tumours which cause hypervascular metastases is: MR CT PET Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma PET: (pancreatic) neuroendocrine tumour
Article

Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx is relatively uncommon, carries the worst prognosis of any head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a challenge to diagnose and treat.  Hypopharyngeal carcinoma is relatively uncommon representing only 10% of all proximal aerodigestive tra...
Article

Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system. TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) T1: limited to 1 subsite AND tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension T2: extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or tumour size betw...
Article

Hypothalamic lesions

Hypothalamic lesions are numerous representing some entities that are unique to the hypothalamus, as well as many lesions that can be seen elsewhere within the brain. Additionally, due to its proximity to the optic chiasm, third ventricle and pituitary region, many lesions of these locations can...
Article

Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
Article

Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal adenom...
Article

Indocyanine green lymphangiography

Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphangiography is an emerging imaging technique used to visualise lymphatic channels and map their course as they drain to sentinel lymph nodes.  History Indocyanine green is a fluorescent dye discovered by researchers at Kodak working on near-infrared photography in ...
Article

Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung

Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung, also known as primary bronchopulmonary fibrosarcoma, is a very rare spindle-cell tumour. Epidemiology More than 80% of cases are reported to occur within the 1st year of life. There is a slight predominance in male infants 1,2. Clinical presentation Patien...
Article

Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumour thrombus. Clinical features Patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal oede...
Article

Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast, also referred to as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma with a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account fo...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the spleen

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the spleen are rare spindle cells tumours of indeterminate clinical behaviour. Please refer to the article on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours for a broad discussion on the subject.  Radiographic features Ultrasound They usually present as a well de...
Article

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) represents the radiotherapeutic modality where the intensity of the radiation delivered, could be modulated during the treatment to focus on the tumour tissue and spare the adjacent anatomical structures/tissue(s). Therefore the increased dose of radi...
Article

Intracranial metastatic melanoma

Intracranial metastatic melanoma is the third most common brain metastasis.  For a broad discussion about the primary tumour or brain metastasis in general, please refer to the articles: malignant melanoma cerebral metastases Epidemiology A population-based study of 169,444 cancer patients ...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6, and thus are sometimes colloquially referred to as the "grandfather lesion". Main duct ty...
Article

Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour type...
Article

Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Intraosseous meningioma

Intraosseous meningioma, also referred to as primary intraosseous meningioma, is a rare subtype of meningioma that accounts for less than 1% of all osseous tumours. They are the most common type of primary extradural meningiomas 6. Terminology It is important to note that it has been argued by...
Article

Intraventricular masses (an approach)

The ventricular system of the brain plays host to a variety of unique tumours, as well as tumours that are more frequently seen elsewhere (e.g. meningiomas). Besides, some intra-axial (parenchymal) masses can be mostly exophytic and thus appear mostly intraventricular. A systematic approach taki...
Article

Intraventricular meningioma

Intraventricular meningiomas are rare intracranial tumours that represent an uncommon subtype of the more classical extra-axial meningioma and represent between 0.5 and 2% of all meningiomas. Despite its rarity, they represent one of the commonest adult intraventricular neoplasms 4. Epidemiolog...
Article

Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions

Intraventricular neoplasms are rare and arise from periventricular structures such as the walls of the ventricular system, the septum pellucidum and the choroid plexus. Many tumour types arise from, or can bulge into the ventricular system, although there are certain lesions that are relatively ...
Article

Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma is a subset of ductal carcinoma. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. It is the most frequently seen breast malignancy.  Epidemiology  Peak age of presentation is about 50 to 60 years. Clinical present...
Article

Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast

Infiltrating or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) "not otherwise specified" (NOS). Epidemiology They represent 5-10% of all breast cancer. The mean age at presentation may be higher than...
Article

Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
Article

Investigation of haemoptysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists. Haemoptysis is the coughing up of frank blood or blood-stained mucus/pus from the lungs and it is an important indicator of pathology. Careful assessment of history, clinical examination and investigations will help elicit...
Article

Iodine-131

Iodine-131​ (131I or I-131) is a radioisotope of iodine, which is used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid lesions. It is one of the oldest radiotracers used in nuclear medicine, in use for over 50 years. It is predominately used in thyroid ablation therapy, for patients post-thyroidectomy...
Article

Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Article

Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
Article

Juxtacortical chondroma

Juxtacortical chondromas, also known as periosteal chondromas, are rare benign chondral tumours that arise from the periosteum of tubular bones. They are thought to account for ~2% of benign bone tumours. Epidemiology They tend to present around the 2nd to 4th decades. There is a recognised ma...
Article

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology Juxtaglomerular cell tumour affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, wi...
Article

Kimura disease

Kimura disease is a rare benign inflammatory disease that characteristically manifests as enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and salivary glands. Epidemiology Kimura disease typically affects males (80%) between 20 and 40 years of age (80% of cases) 1-2, and is most frequently seen in Asia. S...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals....
Article

Labelled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labelled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal MR head: T2 axial MR head:...
Article

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare neuromuscular junction disorder of paraneoplastic or primary autoimmune etiology. Epidemiology LEMS is the second most common neuromuscular junction disease after myasthenia gravis.  Two-thirds of LEMS present as a paraneoplastic syndrome sec...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Large-cell lung cancer

Large-cell lung cancer is one of the histological types of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung. Epidemiology It is thought to account for approximately 10% of bronchogenic carcinoma 1. Clinical presentation Patients present with dyspnea, chronic cough and haemoptysis. Pathology Microsco...
Article

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is classified as a subtype of large cell carcinoma of the lung. It is also classified as a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour. Epidemiology The incidence peaks around the sixth decade 6. There is an increased male predilection 7. Pathology ...
Article

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
Article

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
Article

Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) of the lung, formerly known as non-mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung characterised histologically when the lepidic component comprises the majority of the lesion. Terminology The category of 'lepid p...
Article

Leptomeningeal enhancement

Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
Article

Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can originate from primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. This artic...
Article

Leukaemia (CNS manifestations)

Leukaemia CNS manifestations can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are haematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of haematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturation 1. ...
Article

Lhermitte-Duclos disease

Lhermitte-Duclos disease, also known as dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma, is a rare tumour of the cerebellum. It is probably hamartomatous, although the exact pathogenesis remains unknown 2,6. Even though it may not be neoplastic, it is considered a WHO grade I tumour in the current WHO class...
Article

Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumour

Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumours (LSMFT), also known as polymorphic fibro-osseous lesions of bone, are rare benign fibro-osseous lesions that have a predilection for the intertrochanteric region of the femur. Clinical presentation It is slightly more common in males with mean age of 30-40 ye...
Article

LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen (LCA) is a rare and relatively recently (1991) described vascular tumour of the spleen. Epidemiology Littoral cell angiomas may occur at any age and have no gender predilection. Clinical presentation Typically, patients with littoral cell angioma are found...
Article

Liver tumours

Liver tumours, like tumours of any organ, can be classified as primary or secondary. Metastases Liver metastases are by far the most common hepatic malignancy, with many of the most common primaries readily seeding to the liver. This is especially the case with gastrointestinal tract tumours, ...
Article

Lobular breast carcinoma

Lobular breast carcinoma is a subtype of breast cancer can range from lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive lobular carcinoma. Pathology Multicentricity and bilaterality tend to be quite common with lobular breast carcinomas.
Article

Lobular carcinoma in situ

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) represents the next step up from atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) along the malignant spectrum of lobular breast carcinoma. Epidemiology LCIS occurs predominantly in premenopausal women with a mean age of 45 years old, approximately 10-15 years younger than t...
Article

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN), previously known as appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas, are rare mucinous tumours of the appendix showing low-grade cytologic atypia, c.f. high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Terminology  Considerable controversy still exists on mucinous n...
Article

Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
Article

Lugano classification

The Lugano staging system is a lymphoma staging classification system resulting from recommend changes to the Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification following meetings in 2011. The goal was to simplify and standardise the response assessment enabling better understanding and communication ...
Article

Lugano classification (lesion measurement guidelines)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the lesion measurement guidelines for the system: Eligible lesions lymph nodes: the longest diameter in axial plane should be >1....
Article

Lugano classification (response to treatment on CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Ann Arbor staging with Cotswolds modifications. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to ...
Article

Lugano classification (response to treatment on PET/CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on PET/CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to treatm...
Article

Lung cancer

Lung cancer, or frequently if somewhat incorrectly known as bronchogenic carcinoma is a broad term referring to the main histological subtypes of primary lung malignancies that are mainly linked with inhaled carcinogens, with cigarette smoke being a key culprit.  This article will broadly discu...
Article

Lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type

Lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type are also known as salivary gland–type tumours of the lung (SGTTLs) or bronchial gland neoplasms.  The usual consignation to the group of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be unfortunate because the clinical behavior of SGTTLs can be quite differen...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumour spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentat...
Article

Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumours) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, repres...

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