Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

337 results found
Article

Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for ~5% of all NHL. It is a malignant neoplasm of virgin B cells that closely resemble normal mantle zone B cells surrounding germinal centres. Epidemiology They occur in older adults (mean age ~60 years). There is...
Article

Masaoka staging system of thymoma

The Masaoka staging system is commonly adopted for thymomas 1-3, and is the most important determinant of survival following surgical resection 4: stage I: intact thymic capsule stage II: capsular invasion into adjacent mediastinal fat or pleura stage III: macroscopic invasion into adjacent o...
Article

Maxillary antral carcinoma

Maxillary antral carcinomas are an uncommon head and neck malignancy. They usually present late despite growing large since they remain confined to the maxillary sinus and produce no symptoms. Epidemiology Most commonly affects patients over 45 and has a strong male predilection (M:F = 5:1). M...
Article

Metastases to the thymus

Metastases to the thymus are rare, although they are probably under reported due to lack of symptoms.  Pathology Varied primary tumours have been reported to metastasise to the thymus 1,2: breast cancer lung cancer ovarian cancer colorectal carcinoma gastric cancer prostate cancer testi...
Article

Metastases to the thyroid

Metastases to the thyroid are an uncommon cause of thyroid malignancy.  Epidemiology Metastases to the thyroid represent 1.4-3% of all malignancies 5. In autopsy series, the incidence is ~10% (range 2-24%) 1,5.  Pathology The most common sites of primary malignancy include (note these will v...
Article

Metastases to the vagina

Metastases to the vagina are more common than primary vaginal malignancies, and account for >80% of vaginal tumors. Pathology Metastases usually spread from contiguous sites most commonly, with lymphatic and hematogenous metastases also recognised. Tumors that metastasise to the vagina includ...
Article

MRI protocols

MRI protocols are a combination of various MRI sequences, designed to optimally assess a particular region of the body and/or pathological process. There are some general principles of protocol design for each area. However, the specifics of a protocol are dependent on MRI hardware and software...
Article

MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer

MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer help maintain uniformity of reports and assessment of important imaging staging criteria. Tumour size The tumour should be measured in three orthogonal planes. Tumours with a maximum diameter >4 cm are usually not amenable to primary radical surgery...
Article

Multiple cystic neck lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: necrotic metastatic SCC nodes: older patient, M>F papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases: usually a younger patient, F>M ...
Article

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Article

Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. Average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Risk factors HIV/AIDS 3 Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be ...
Article

Musculoskeletal angiosarcoma

Musculoskeletal angiosarcomas, (along with haemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumours that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having meta...
Article

Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides (MF), also known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is a type of malignant T-cell lymphoma that primarily involves the skin.  Epidemiology In the United States, it is more common in males and African Americans. In Europe, it accounts for ~6% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is rar...
Article

Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythaemia vera essen...
Article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. It is of squamous cell origin, some types of which are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the na...
Article

Neoplasms of the spinal canal

Neoplasms of the spinal canal encompass a range of tumours which arise from or involve the spinal cord, theca and nerves. Pathology These can be divided according to the tissue/structure of origin. Tumours of vertebral bodies are discussed separately: see vertebral body tumours.  Spinal cord ...
Article

Nephroblastomatosis

Nephroblastomatosis refers to diffuse or multifocal involvement of the kidneys with nephrogenic rests (persistent metanephric blastema). Epidemiology Nephrogenic rest are found incidentally in 1% of infants. Pathology Nephrogenic rests are foci of metanephric blastema that persist beyond 36 ...
Article

Neuroblastoma (staging)

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
Article

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE), also referred as marantic endocarditis, refers to fibrin and platelets aggregations on previously undamaged heart valves, in patients without bacteraemia. The condition is seen in patients with advanced stage malignancies, and is related to episodes o...
Article

Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (summary)

Oesophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumour that occurs within the oesophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progress from solid foods to liquids. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on oesophageal c...
Article

Oesophageal carcinoma

Oesophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumour increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the oesophagus. Epidemiology Oesophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% ...
Article

Oesophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an oesophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
Article

Oligometastases

Oligometastases refers to distant disease that is limited in number and distribution, Niibe et al defined this as ≤5 metastatic/recurrent lesions with control of the primary lesion 1,2. These metastases can be treated with local measures (surgery, radiation therapy, etc) with the aim of increasi...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Ommaya reservoir

Ommaya reservoir, also known as Ommaya shunt, is a device consisting of an intraventricular catheter connected to a reservoir (port) implanted beneath the scalp. It is used for intrathecal administration of medication such as chemotherapy (mainly in the treatment of meningeal lymphomas, but also...
Article

Optic nerve enlargement

Enlargement of the optic nerves is uncommon and has a surprisingly broad differential: optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma orbital pseudotumour optic neuritis sarcoidosis leukemia orbital lymphoma metastases perioptic haemorrhage Erdheim-Chester disease juvenile xanthogranuloma ...
Article

Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumours arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas.  These tumours typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, ...
Article

Orbital pathology

Orbital pathology covers a variety of diverse diseases that affect the orbit. The complicating factor is that the orbit is composed of a large number of different tissues which each have a plethora of pathologies that can affect them.  Classification For simplification, they can be separated i...
Article

Osteopoikilosis

Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterised by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone islands...
Article

Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...
Article

Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...
Article

Ovarian transposition

Ovarian transposition is a surgical procedure in which the ovaries are displaced from the pelvis before pelvic radiation therapy in order to protect them from radiation injury. It is performed in premenopausal women with a variety of pelvic malignancies (e.g cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and ...
Article

Paget disease of the breast

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterised by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
Article

Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise form many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications acute alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%)  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification chronic pancreatitis idiopathic: no underlying ca...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
Article

Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
Article

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
Article

Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative and congenital causes. Differential diagnosis ...
Article

Patellar tumours

Patellar tumours are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumours, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumours represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. ...
Article

Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A predunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation t...
Article

Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

Perineural spread of tumour

Perineural spread of tumour is a form of local invasion in which primary tumours cells spread along the tissues of the nerve sheath.  It is a well-recognised phenomenon in head and neck cancers. An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and Perineural spread (PNS...
Article

Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
Article

Peritoneal mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon primary tumour of the peritoneal lining. It shares epidemiological and pathological features with but is less common than its pleural counterpart, which is described in detail in the general article on mesothelioma. Other sub-types (also discussed separatel...
Article

Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumours (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumour See also permeative process in bone pseudo-permeative pr...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). F-18 is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-life of approx...
Article

Pharyngeal mucosal space

The pharyngeal (or superficial) mucosal space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. It consists of the mucosa and structures deep to the mucosa of the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. Gross anatomy The pharyngeal mucosal space is the most internal comp...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
Article

Pineal cyst

Pineal cysts are common, usually asymptomatic, and typically found incidentally. Their importance is mainly in the fact that they cannot be distinguished from cystic tumours, especially when large or when atypical features are present. As such, many patients undergo prolonged follow-up for these...
Article

Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in: tumours germinoma hypothalamic glioma CNS lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (a.k.a. pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (a.k.a. infundibuloma) pituitary metastases...
Article

Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
Article

Primary benign cardiac tumours

Primary benign cardiac tumours are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumours include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary be...
Article

Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumours and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to on...
Article

Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma carcinosarcoma extramedullary plasmacytoma fibrosarcoma melanoma rhabdomyosarcoma sin...
Article

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
Article

Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to a clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is a much rarer type of pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma o...
Article

Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of s...
Article

Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
Article

Prostate cancer (staging)

Prostate cancer staging can be thought of in terms of physical location or grading histologically. The TNM classification is used to determine spread, and the Gleason score is used to determine the histological type. Another staging system is the Jewett-Whitmore staging system. Additionally, th...
Article

Pseudo Meigs syndrome

Pseudo Meigs syndrome refers to a clinical syndrome of pleural effusion, ascites associated with an ovarian tumour that is not a fibroma or a fibroma-like tumour. Pathology Entities that have been reported to result in pseudo Meigs syndrome include Krukenberg tumours colon carcinoma metastas...
Article

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumour. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumour of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumours of the colon, rectum, stomach, panc...
Article

Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumours that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumours of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.00...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evidence of ex...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Pulmonary opacification

Pulmonary opacification represents the result of a decrease in the ratio of gas to soft tissue (blood, lung parenchyma and stroma) in the lung. When reviewing an area of increased attenuation (opacification) on a chest radiograph or CT it is vital to determine where the opacification is. The pat...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers have been reported as a rare late complication of radiation therapy in both post-operative breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. These occur 5-10 years (or later) after treatment 1-4. There appears to be increased risk of lung cancer in these patients if the...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the acute phase. Please refer to the article on r...
Article

Raindrop skull

The appearance of multiple, well-defined lytic lesions (punched out lesions) of various size scattered throughout the skull constitutes the raindrop skull appearance of multiple myeloma. This term is applied as an analogy to rain hitting a surface and splashing, where it leaves a random pattern ...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

RECIST 1.1: comparison with RECIST 1.0

For both RECIST 1.0 and 1.1, the requirement for measurable disease at baseline depends on the endpoints of the clinical trial. Fundamental concept common to both versions of RECIST: measurable lesions are those you CAN measure (determined at baseline). From these, select the target lesions as ...
Article

Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.  TNM staging See: TNM staging system for a general description. Pr...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: ltumour confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: l...
Article

Renal leiomyoma

Renal leiomyomas are benign tumours of the kidney originating from smooth muscle cells of the renal capsule, pelvis, calyces or blood vessels. There is a 4-5.5% prevalence based on autopsy findings1. Clinical presentation Renal leiomyomas are usually incidental findings. In symptomatic cases,...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytoma is a relatively benign renal tumour. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uraemic osteopathy, is the constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults) / rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium ...
Article

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours or RECIST refers to a set of published rules used to assess tumour burden in order to provide an objective assessment of response to therapy. They were initially introduced in 2000 and have undergone subsequent revision in 2009 (RECIST 1.1).  The cr...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcomas (biliary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract are rare tumours, usually identified in children, with a very poor prognosis. They are usually grouped under botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. For a general discussion of this type of tumour, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology Rhabd...
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
Article

Salivary gland tumours

Salivary gland tumours are variable in location, origin, and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumours is proportional to the gland size; i.e. the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasms, the submandibular gland 50:50, and the sublingual glands a...
Article

Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis

Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis has been reported as an uncommon complication in patients treated with immunotherapy agents such as monoclonal antibodies. It was first reported in TNF inhibitors used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and has also been reported in various immunotherapy...
Article

Scleroderma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma are demonstrated histologically in 90% of patients with scleroderma. It is a leading cause of mortality and at autopsy. The lung is reportedly involved in close to 100% of cases. However, only 25% of patients will present with respiratory symptoms or demon...
Article

Second branchial cleft cyst

Second branchial cleft cysts are a cystic dilatation of the remnant of the 2nd branchial apparatus, and along with 2nd branchial fistulae and sinuses accounts for 95% of all branchial cleft anomalies. Clinical presentation Although a congenital abnormality, they tend to present in early adulth...
Article

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
Article

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
Article

Sinonasal adenocarcinoma

Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are an uncommon form of head and neck cancer with squamous cell carcinomas more common.  Epidemiology Content pending.  Clinical presentation Content pending.  Pathology Content pending.  Grading Content pending.  Radiographic features Content pending.  CT C...
Article

Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinic...
Article

Sinonasal mucosal melanoma

Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a very rare and unique subtype of malignant melanoma. Epidemiology SNMMs account for ~1% of malignant melanomas and <4% of head and neck cancers 1,2. They affect older patients (60-90 years old) 2. There is a higher incidence in Japan 5.  Clinical presenta...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.