Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

477 results found
Article

Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumours arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas.  These tumours typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, ...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumours do have a predilection to metastasise to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumours or direct extension of tumours from neighbouring regions. For a discussion of intrao...
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Orbital pathology

Orbital pathology covers a variety of diverse diseases that affect the orbit. The complicating factor is that the orbit is composed of a large number of different tissues which each have a plethora of pathologies that can affect them.  Classification For simplification, they can be separated i...
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Osteopoikilosis

Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterised by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone islands...
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Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...
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Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...
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Ovarian transposition

Ovarian transposition is a surgical procedure in which the ovaries are displaced from the pelvis before pelvic radiation therapy in order to protect them from radiation injury. It is performed in premenopausal women with a variety of pelvic malignancies (e.g cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and ...
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Paget disease of the breast

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterised by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
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Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise form many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications acute alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%)  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification chronic pancreatitis idiopathic: no underlying ca...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is traditionally done according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system.  In 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published with some major changes; now exocrine and endocrine tumours of th...
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Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Typically seen in middle-aged patients: mean of 55 years; range, 35-75 years and in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Presentation is often non-specific. reported symptoms include 1: ...
Article

Pancreatic mesenchymal neoplasms

Pancreatic mesenchymal neoplasms (or pancreatic nonepithelial neoplasms) are a group of rare pancreatic neoplasms that arise from the structural elements of the pancreas (nerves, fat, lymph), rather than from the exocrine or endocrine cells of the pancreas. Neoplasms from exocrine and endocrine ...
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Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast

Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare ductal breast malignancy. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 1-2% of breast carcinomas 2. They typically present in postmenopausal patients with the mean age at being ~63-67 years. Clinical presentation A papillary carcinoma may manifest ...
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Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis

Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are the second most common benign tumours of the epididymis after adenomatoid tumours and are common in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). Clinical presentation Papillary cystadenomas are usually asymptomatic. Epidemiology They are more co...
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Papillary meningioma

Papillary meningiomas (PM) are a rare subtype of malignant (WHO grade III) meningiomas that tends to occur in young patients and are characterised by an aggressive growth pattern illustrated by atypical imaging features such as brain and bone invasion. These tumours have a strong tendency of rec...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
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Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement (also known as parotidomegaly) has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative, and congenital c...
Article

Patellar tumours

Patellar tumours are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumours, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumours represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. ...
Article

Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A pedunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation tr...
Article

Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

Pepperpot skull

Pepperpot skull is occasionally used in place of salt and pepper skull to describe the typical radiographic appearance of multiple small radiolucent lesions of the skull vault. This is classically seen in hyperparathyroidism 2, and is occasionally used (inaccurately) to describe the raindrop sk...
Article

PERCIST

Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) make use of positron emission tomography (PET) to provide functional information to help determine tumor viability. The criteria consist of four categories: complete metabolic response, partial metabolic response, progress...
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Pericardial mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma refers to a mesothelioma arising primarily from the pericardium.  Epidemiology They are rare and are only thought to account for ~0.7% of all malignant mesotheliomas. There is male to female predominance of approximately 3:1. Clinical presentation The presentation of...
Article

Perineural spread of tumour

Perineural spread of tumour is a form of local invasion in which primary tumours cells spread along the tissues of the nerve sheath.  It is a well-recognised phenomenon in head and neck cancers. Terminology An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and perineura...
Article

Periosteal osteosarcoma

Periosteal osteosarcoma is a form of surface osteosarcoma.  Epidemiology It is the second most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma after parosteal osteosarcoma and accounts for 1.5% of all osteosarcoma cases. It affects a slightly older age group (10-20 years) cf. conventional...
Article

Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumour

Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumour refer to a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumours that arise within the periphery of the lung. They are considered less common than the more centrally-located bronchial carcinoid tumours.  Clinical presentation Many patients tend to be asymptomatic  2. Pre...
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Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand-like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
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Peritoneal mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon primary tumour of the peritoneal lining. It shares epidemiological and pathological features with but is less common than its pleural counterpart, which is described in detail in the general article on mesothelioma. Other subtypes (also discussed separately...
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Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumours (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumour See also permeative process in bone pseudo-permeative pr...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Phaeochromocytoma

Phaeochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% ...
Article

Pharyngeal mucosal space

The pharyngeal (or superficial) mucosal space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. It consists of the mucosa and structures deep to the mucosa of the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. Gross anatomy The pharyngeal mucosal space is the most internal comp...
Article

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma

Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are an uncommon and aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with unique clinical and histopathologic characteristics. Epidemiology Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are usually encountered in young children and infants (mean age of 10-18 months), however, adults cases have be...
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Pineal cyst

Pineal cysts are common, usually asymptomatic, and typically found incidentally. Their importance is mainly in the fact that they cannot be distinguished from cystic tumours, especially when large or when atypical features are present. As such, many patients undergo prolonged follow-up for these...
Article

Pineal germinoma

Pineal germinomas are the most common tumour of the pineal region accounting for ~50% of all tumours, and the majority (~80%) of intracranial germ cell tumours.  Epidemiology There is a marked male predominance with a M:F of ~13:1. Most patients are 20 years or younger at the time of diagnosis...
Article

Pineal gland metastasis

Pineal gland metastases are rare and mostly related to primary carcinomas of the lungs, breast, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. They usually occur concomitantly with leptomeningeal metastases.   This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pineal gland. For other intracr...
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Pineal parenchymal tumour with intermediate differentiation

Pineal parenchymal tumours with intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are, as the name suggests, tumours which fall between pineocytoma (well differentiated, WHO grade I) and pineoblastomas (poorly differentiated, WHO grade IV). They are considered WHO grade II or III tumours 2. Although these tu...
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Pituitary carcinoma

Pituitary carcinomas are rare tumours indistinguishable from pituitary adenomas on imaging and defined only by the presence of central nervous system or systemic metastases. Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at less than 0.5% of the pituitary symptomatic tumours 1.  Clinical presentatio...
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Pituitary lymphoma

Pituitary lymphoma is very rare, although lymphomatous (or leukaemic) infiltration of the perisellar dura is not infrequently encountered as part of more widespread CNS disease. This article concerns itself with involvement of the pituitary itself rather than the region more broadly. For a gener...
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Pituitary metastasis

Pituitary metastases are rare, and unless a systemic metastatic disease is already apparent, are often preoperatively misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas.  This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pituitary gland. For other intracranial metastatic locations, please refer t...
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Pituitary microadenoma

Pituitary microadenomas are a minority of all pituitary adenomas, but can pose imaging and management challenges on account of their size and protean clinical presentations.  By definition, a microadenoma is less than 10 mm in size. If the same tumour is greater than 10 mm in size, it is then c...
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Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in a number of entities. Differential diagnosis tumours germinoma craniopharyngioma hypothalamic glioma pituitary lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of t...
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Pleomorphic carcinoma of lung

Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare type of lung tumour. They are classified under sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lungs. Epidemiology These tumours are thought to account for 0.1-0.4% of all lung malignancies. Associations There is a recognised association with smoking. Pathology Hi...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Pleural metastases

Pleural metastases are one of the vast majority of malignant lesions of the pleura. Clinical presentation The infiltration of the pleura usually manifests as pleural effusion, which is the first manifestation of pleural metastasis. In addition to the symptoms and systemic manifestations of neo...
Article

Pleuropulmonary blastoma

Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are a rare, variably aggressive, childhood primary intrathoracic malignancy. In up to 25% of cases, the mass can be extrapulmonary with attachment to the parietal pleura.  Epidemiology PPB is encountered in childhood, mostly in the first years of life (90% in th...
Article

Plexiform neurofibroma

Plexiform neurofibroma is an uncommon variant of neurofibroma, a benign tumour of peripheral nerves (WHO grade I), arising from a proliferation of all neural elements. Plexiform neurofibromas are essentially pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Unlike small sporadic localised neurofi...
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
Article

Primary benign cardiac tumours

Primary benign cardiac tumours are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumours include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary be...
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Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumours and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to on...
Article

Primary breast chondrosarcoma

Primary breast chondrosarcoma is a rare type of sarcoma that originates from the mammary stroma and not from the underlying bone or cartilage of the chest wall. Epidemiology The prevalence of primary breast chondrosarcoma is reported to be 0.5-1%, they represent <5% of all sarcomas 1,14. Clin...
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Primary cutaneous melanoma

Primary cutaneous melanoma is the most common subtype of malignant melanoma, a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes. Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis but do occur elsewhere in the body. Primary cutaneous melanoma is by far the most common type of pri...
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Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
Article

Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma carcinosarcoma extramedullary plasmacytoma fibrosarcoma melanoma rhabdomyosarcoma sin...
Article

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
Article

Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably contr...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to a clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is a much rarer type of pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma o...
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Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma

Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumour and refers to a situation where a synovial sarcoma arises from the lung as a primary site. It together with a pleural synovial sarcoma comes under the broader category of pleuro-pulmonary synovial sarcomas 3. Epidemiology It accoun...
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Primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung

Primary sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung refer to a heterogeneous group of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Epidemiology They are thought to account for 0.2 to 1% of all lung cancers 1. A sarcomatoid histology may be present in 0.1-0.4% of non-small cell lung cancers 3.  Pathology T...
Article

Primary urethral cancer

Primary urethral cancer, in most cases a urethral carcinoma, is a rare urological malignancy. It can be divided in female urethral cancer and male urethral cancer. Epidemiology It has an incidence of 4.3 per million for males and 1.5 per million for females. It usually manifests in the fifth d...
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Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of s...
Article

Primary urethral malignant melanoma

Melanoma of the urethra is a very rare tumour of the male urethra, and often presents as an invasive prostatic mass. As such it is usually referred to as primary prostatic malignant melanoma. Related articles malignant melanoma primary cutaneous melanoma primary non-cutaneous melanoma prima...
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Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
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Prostate cancer (staging)

Prostate cancer staging can be thought of in terms of physical location or grading histologically. The TNM classification is used to determine spread, and the Gleason score is used to determine the histological type. Another staging system is the Jewett-Whitmore staging system. Additionally, th...
Article

Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADS v2 6, ...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore...
Article

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that has become an increasingly prominent imaging biomarker 1. PSMA has emerged as a useful target in PET imaging of prostate cancer, especially in the evaluation of sm...
Article

Prostatic carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the most common malignant tumour in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. Epidemiology It is primarily a disease of the el...
Article

Protoplasmic astrocytoma

Protoplasmic astrocytoma is a rare variant of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas with histological and imaging features which overlap with other entities.  Until recently they were classified as a subtype of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma, however, in the latest (2016) update to WHO classification o...
Article

PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum PSA level divided by the volume of the prostate gland.  PSA density has been used as a prognostication tool in helping decide between a watch-and-wait or an invasive approach when managing prostate carcinoma. The c...
Article

Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported prior to treatment, and with other mali...
Article

Pseudo Meigs syndrome

Pseudo Meigs syndrome refers to a clinical syndrome of pleural effusion, ascites associated with an ovarian tumour that is not a fibroma or a fibroma-like tumour. Pathology Entities that have been reported to result in pseudo Meigs syndrome include Krukenberg tumours colon carcinoma metastas...
Article

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumour. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumour of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumours of the colon, rectum, stomach, panc...
Article

Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumours that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumours of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.00...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. Pathology It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evi...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Pulmonary opacification

Pulmonary opacification represents the result of a decrease in the ratio of gas to soft tissue (blood, lung parenchyma and stroma) in the lung. When reviewing an area of increased attenuation (opacification) on a chest radiograph or CT it is vital to determine where the opacification is. The pat...
Article

Pure ground glass nodules

Pure ground glass lung nodules are a subtype of ground glass lung nodules where there is no associated solid component. They have been shown to represent various pathologies such as 1,3 adenocarcinoma in situ of lung minimally-invasive adenocarcinoma of lung invasive adenocarcinoma of lung ...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy encompasses a complex and broad range of effects on the intra- and extracranial vessels resulting from injury from radiation exposure. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms are broad and depend on the underlying vasculopathy. Radiation-induced telangie...
Article

Radiation-induced glioma

Radiation-induced gliomas are a rare complication of cranial irradiation, occurring in less than 3% of cases 15 years post treatment. Glioblastomas correspond to three-quarters of all radiation induced gliomas.  The risk of developing a secondary CNS cancer following radiation exposure has been...
Article

Radiation-induced heart disease

Radiation-induced heart disease, also known as radiation cardiotoxicity, describes an uncommon constellation of potential cardiac complications of mediastinal radiotherapy. Epidemiology The demographics of patients affected by radiation-induced heart disease are those of the underlying conditi...
Article

Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers have been reported as a rare late complication of radiation therapy in both post-operative breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. These occur 5-10 years (or later) after treatment 1-4. There appears to be increased risk of lung cancer in these patients if the...
Article

Radiation-induced neuritis

Radiation-induced neuritis is a complication of radiotherapy that may present with visible changes on MRI. It is likely to be most relevant in the head and neck region. There is only scarce radiology literature on the subject; radiation-induced optic neuritis is best documented. Radiographic fe...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the acute phase. Please refer to the article on r...
Article

Radiation-induced sarcoma

Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) can originate in either the irradiated bone or soft tissues after a period of latency. They are usually high-grade tumours with a poor prognosis when compared with primary sarcomas. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma and osteosarcoma are the two most common histologic...
Article

Radiation-induced thyroid cancer

Radiation-induced thyroid cancer is an important aetiology of thyroid cancer.  Epidemiology Information about radiation induced thyroid malignancies comes from several long-term cohort studies along with some case controlled studies and their subsequent meta-analyses. Although these studies va...
Article

Radiomics

Radiomics is a new emerging field in which medical images are converted into multidimensional data by data-characterisation algorithms. The data is assessed for improved decision support. Radiomics has the potential to uncover disease characteristics that fail to be recognised by the naked human...

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