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572 results found

Vertebra plana

Vertebra plana (a.k.a. pancake / silver dollar / coin-on-edge vertebra) is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture. Plural is vertebrae planae. It can occur in a variety of settings, incl...


VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumour that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumours is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia,...

Visceral pleural invasion

Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumour extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura. It is considered an aggressive sign and one of the most important adverse prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancers 1. Pathology G...

Volcano sign (meningioma)

Volcano sign refers to the appearance of classical meningioma that resembels the appearance of volcano (viewed in cross-section MRI, parallel to dural attachment) in which there is triangular hyperostosis at the base of the meningioma (mountain) with the tumour being the cloud around it. The int...

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: haemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: phaeochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal haemangioblastoma) L: liver,...

WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome stands for: Wilms tumours (greatly increased risk) aniridia genital anomalies mental retardation Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene. 

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinaemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are no...

WHO classification of anal margin tumours

The WHO classification of anal margin tumours or perianal skin tumours is: intraepithelial tumours Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma) Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma) invasive tumours squamous cell carcinoma adenocarcinoma basal cell carcinoma  verrucous ca...

WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumours

The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumours is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumours, and classifies them according to histology: type a medullary thymoma spindle cell thymoma type ab: mixed thymoma type b1: lymphocyte rich predominantly cortic...

WHO criteria in tumour response

The WHO criteria have been developed in the 1980s to standardised reporting of cancers in clinical trial.​ These criteria Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely replaced the WHO criteria in clinical...

WHO histological classification of tumours of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumours of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumours squamous tumours and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 805...

Wilms tumour

Wilms tumour, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant paediatric renal tumour. Epidemiology Wilms tumours are the most common paediatic renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with...

Wilms tumour (staging)

Wilms' tumour staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumour. Where there is invasion or metastasises, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumour, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II loc...

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