Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,158 results found
Article

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Pilocytic astrocytomas, also known as juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, are low-grade, relatively well-defined astrocytomas that tend to occur in young patients. They are considered WHO grade I tumors in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors and correspondingly have a relatively goo...
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Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
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Pink tetralogy of Fallot

Pink tetralogy of Fallot refers to a tetralogy of Fallot in which the degree of right ventricular outflow obstruction is minimal, resulting no significant right to left shunt, and therefore no cyanosis. Symptoms are mild and presentation may be delayed, even into adulthood. See also tetralogy ...
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Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, also known as pituitary stalk transection syndrome, is a syndrome characterized by an absent or hypoplastic anterior pituitary gland, thin or absent infundibulum, and ectopic posterior pituitary location. Epidemiology Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome...
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Plagiocephaly

Plagiocephaly refers to a type of craniosynostosis in which there is asymmetric premature closure of the coronal and/or lambdoid sutures. It can either involve single or asymmetric multiple sutures. Premature coronal suture closure is associated with the Harlequin eye deformity. History and ety...
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Platyspondyly

Platyspondyly is a radiographic feature and refers to flattened vertebral bodies throughout the axial skeleton. Pathology Associations Platyspondyly can be feature of many conditions which include: severe Gaucher disease 1 metatrophic dysplasia Morquio syndrome osteogenesis imperfecta Ro...
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Pleurisy

Pleurisy (or pleuritis) refers to the disease entity characterized by inflammation of the pleura. It classically presents as pleuritic pain.  Terminology Pleurisy is often used by medical professionals and laypeople both to refer to the inflammation of the pleura and also the symptoms. Strictl...
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Pleuropulmonary blastoma

Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are a rare, variably aggressive, childhood primary intrathoracic malignancy. In up to 25% of cases, the mass can be extrapulmonary with attachment to the parietal pleura.  Epidemiology PPB is encountered in childhood, mostly in the first years of life (90% in th...
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Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
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POLG-related disorders

POLG-related disorders, or polymerase gamma-related disorders, describes a spectrum of genetic mitochondrial disorders with overlapping phenotypes. The four main POLG-related disorders are: Alpers syndrome ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) myoclonic...
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Polydactyly

Polydactyly (less commonly called hyperdactyly) refers to the situation where there are more than the usual number of digits (five) in a hand or foot. It can be broadly classified as: pre-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards the thumb/hallux (radially) post-axial polydactyly: extra digit(...
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Polymicrogyria

Polymicrogyria is one of many malformations of cortical development (see classification system for cortical malformations), and along with grey matter heterotopias, falls under a bewildering group of conditions characterized by abnormalities both in migration of neurons to the cortex and abnorma...
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Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia

Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) is a rare congenital malformation of the brainstem and hindbrain with imaging hallmark of an ectopic dorsal transverse pontine fiber projecting from the tegmentum into the fourth ventricle.  Epidemiology PTCD is a rare congenital malformation with just ov...
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Porencephaly

Porencephaly is a rare congenital disorder that results in cystic degeneration and encephalomalacia and the formation of porencephalic cysts. The term is used variably among radiologists with its broadest definition being a cleft or cystic cavity within the brain 9, and its more narrow definitio...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) greater than 5 mmHg. HVPG is a surrogate for the portosystemic pressure gradient. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as a gradient greater than 10 mmHg and variceal bleeding may occur at a gradient great...
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Positional plagiocephaly

Positional plagiocephaly, also known as deformational plagiocephaly, refers to a calvarial deformation that results from external pressure after birth when an infant is consistently placed in the same position for rest and sleep. It can be marked in very premature infants, whose heads become fla...
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Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000 5. Pathology The majority of cases ar...
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Posterior fontanelle

The posterior fontanelle or occipital fontanelle (or fontanel) is the triangular soft membranous gap at the junction of the lambdoid and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 2-3 months after birth, after which it is known as the lambda. It can be used as an additional sonographic wi...
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Posterior fossa astrocytoma

Posterior fossa astrocytomas, those arising either from the cerebellum or from the brainstem are most frequently seen in children. Approximately 60% of all pediatric astrocytomas are found in the posterior fossa (20% brainstem, 40% cerebellum). Many types of astrocytoma are found in the posteri...
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Posterior ring apophyseal fracture

Posterior ring apophyseal fracture or separation, also called limbus fracture, occur in the immature skeleton, most commonly in the lumbar spine. They represent bony fractures of the vertebral body rim at the site of attachment of the Sharpey fibers of the intervertebral disc. Terminology Not ...
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Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
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Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of: pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter f...
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Potter syndrome (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the common clinical features of Potter syndrome is: POTTER Mnemonic P: pulmonary hypoplasia O: oligohydramnios T: twisted skin (wrinkly skin) T: twisted face (Potter facies: low set ears, retrognathia, hypertelorism) E: extremity deformities (limb deformitie...
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Pott puffy tumor

Pott puffy tumor refers to a non-neoplastic complication of acute sinusitis. It is characterized by a primarily subgaleal collection, subperiosteal abscess, and osteomyelitis. It is usually related to the frontal sinus but is sometimes secondary to mastoid pathology. Rarer etiologies include tr...
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Pott shunt

A Pott shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the descending thoracic aorta and the left pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstructi...
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Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is the most common cause of obesity caused by a genetic syndrome. Clinical presentation Prader-Willi syndrome is primarily characterized by: neonatal hypotonia sexual infancy: hypogonadism obesity morbid obesity resulting from hyperphagi...
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Preauricular sinus

Preauricular sinuses (also known as preauricular pits or preauricular cysts) are common congenital abnormalities that are typically small blind-ended openings near the ascending limb of the helix. These can be a simple pit or have a sinus tract and/or cystic component. Epidemiology They are mo...
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Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
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Premature closure of a growth plate (differential)

Premature closure of a growth plate subsequently results in a shortened bone, which can occur in a number of situations.  Pathology Common etiologies local hyperemia infection: osteomyelitis juvenile chronic arthritis juvenile rheumatoid arthritis hemophilia arteriovenous malformation t...
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Premature thelarche

Premature thelarche refers to onset of female breast development before age 7–8 years. As with age-appropriate thelarche, premature thelarche may be asymmetric or unilateral.  Premature thelarche may occur as an isolated event or as part of precocious puberty. Isolated premature thelarche gener...
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Prenatal onset infantile cortical hyperostosis

Prenatal onset infantile cortical hyperostosis is a rare variant of infantile cortical hyperostosis, however, it is a more severe and lethal form and newborns die early postnatally. Pathology Both sporadic and autosomal recessive inheritance have been suggested. A missense mutation in the gene...
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia

Primary ciliary dyskinesia, also known as immotile cilia syndrome, is the result of a congenital defect in the ultrastructure of cilia that renders them incapable of normal movement. It is associated with a number of anatomic and functional abnormalities. Epidemiology Primary ciliary dyskinesi...
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Primary lung tumors in children

Pediatric primary lung tumors are rare in children however they must be distinguished from locally aggressive inflammatory conditions and benign disease. 1 Primary lung tumors in the neonates and infants include: pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung fetal lung in...
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Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the CNS

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (or CNS PNET) were considered aggressive neoplasms of the brain, most frequently encountered in the pediatric population. Importantly, the term no longer appears in the current WHO classification of CNS tumors 11-12.  Please refer to embryonal tumors with multil...
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Progressive postnatal pansynostosis

Progressive postnatal pansynostosis (PPP) is a rare form of craniosynostosis characterized by the late fusion of all cranial sutures. Epidemiology This type of craniosynostosis occurs insidiously after birth and presents later in life unlike other types of craniosynostosis which occur during t...
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Propionic acidemia

Propionic acidemia is a rare organic acidemia caused by a deficiency in the enzyme propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase.  Epidemiology Propionic acidemia has an incidence of around 1 in 150,000 in the general population 1.   Clinical presentation Around 80% of children with propionic acidemia wi...
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Protein S deficiency

Protein S deficiency is a hypercoagulable state associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (up to 5% of patients with deep venous thrombosis may carry this deficiency). Epidemiology Protein S deficiency may be expected in ≈1 of every 500 people 3. Clinical presentation The spectrum ...
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Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterized by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
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Proximal focal femoral deficiency

Proximal femoral focal deficiency is a congenital partial absence of the proximal end of the femur with shortening of the entire lower limb. The diagnosis and classification have been based mainly on plain radiograph findings. This method does not permit definite classification during the first ...
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Proximal radio-ulnar synostosis

Proximal radio-ulnar synostosis is an upper limb skeletal malformation characterized by bony fusion at the proximal aspect of the radius and ulna. Of the radio-ulnar synostoses, the proximal third is considered the most common site.  Pathology It is often congenital but can rarely result follo...
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Prune belly syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as Eagle Barrett syndrome 3 or triad syndrome, is a rare anomaly comprising a specific constellation of features. It consists of three major findings: gross pelvi-calyceal and ureteric dilatation with renal dysplasia 7 anterior abdominal wall underdevelopment (...
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PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum PSA level (ng/mL) divided by the volume of the prostate gland (mL)1. Prostate volume is calculated from TRUS measurements2,3.  Alternatively, PSAD may be calculated using MRI measurements3 of prostate volumes or le...
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Pseudocyst

A pseudocyst is an abnormal fluid-filled cavity which is not lined by epithelium.  It is this fact that distinguishes it pathologically from a cyst, which is lined by epithelium. Examples of pseudocysts include: adrenal pseudocyst auricular pseudocyst meconium pseudocyst pancreatic pseudocy...
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Pseudocysts of the germinal matrix

Pseudocysts of the germinal matrix can be present at birth in both pre-term and full-term infants and may be due to a variety of pathologic disorders, frequently occur following hemorrhage, but they are also found incidentally in otherwise normal infants. They are defined as pseudocysts because...
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Pseudo-Jefferson fracture

A pseudo-Jefferson fracture, or pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, refers to the normal overhanging of the lateral edges of the lateral masses of C1 over the lateral edges of the body of C2 seen in children. Most often, children will display this physiologically until about 7 years of age, t...
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Pseudokidney (intussusception)

The pseudokidney of intussusception is an ultrasound finding in some cases of intestinal intussusception. It refers to the longitudinal ultrasound appearance of the intussuscepted segment of bowel which mimics a kidney. The fat-containing mesentery which is dragged into the intussusception, con...
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Pseudosinus tract

A pseudosinus tract is a normal fibrous cord extending from the coccyx to an overlying sacral dimple. These have no associated mass and contain no fluid (if CSF drainage is occurring via the sacral dimple, then a true dorsal dermal sinus should be considered). Diagnosis Ultrasound Hypoechoic ...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
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Pseudo-TORCH syndrome

Pseudo-TORCH syndrome is a term used to denote cases that clinically resemble congenital infection (see congenital TORCH infections) but where no organisms or serological, microbiological or immunological evidence of infection can be identified 1. It is now believed that pseudo-TORCH syndrome is...
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Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.  Epidemiology Pull...
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Pulmonary aplasia

Pulmonary aplasia is a rare congenital pathology in which there is unilateral or bilateral absence of lung tissue. It is distinguished from pulmonary agenesis, although similar, the main difference being that there is a short-blind ending bronchus in aplasia 3. It is usually unilateral, as bila...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is a congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Pathology Th...
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Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a subtype of pulmonary atresia that presents as cyanotic congenital heart disease.  Pathology PA-IVS is the combination of obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from pulmonary valve atresia without a ventricular septal defe...
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Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) refers to deficient or incomplete development of parts of the lung. It can develop as a result of a number of other in utero anomalies. Epidemiology The true prevalence is not well known (1.4% of all births according to Knox et al. 13), but in cases of premature ruptu...
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of gas within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics usually due to positive pressure ventilation. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants with respiratory distress syndro...
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Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis

Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease associated with alveolar growth abnormalities.  Clinical presentation Patients may present in the neonatal period with disproportionate respiratory distress (neonatal respiratory distress). Pathology It i...
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Pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) refers to a rare, fatal congenital abnormality of the lungs characterized by grossly dilated lymphatic channels in the sub pleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial areas 3. It is divided into two main types 1: cardiac-associated lymphangiectasia (seco...
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Pulmonary plethora

Pulmonary plethora is a term used to describe the appearances of increased pulmonary perfusion on chest radiographs. It is commonly used in pediatric radiology.  Pathology Usually a left-to-right shunt of 2:1 is required for pulmonary plethora to occur 2,3. Increased pulmonary perfusion occurs...
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Pulmonary sequestration

Pulmonary sequestration, also called accessory lung, refers to the aberrant formation of segmental lung tissue that has no connection with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries. It is a bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM). There are two types: intralobar sequestration (ILS) extral...
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Pulmonary sequestration (extralobar)

Extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration, the other type being intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS). Epidemiology It is usually encountered in infants, most being diagnosed before six months. It is more common in male (M:F 4:1). Pathology Extraloba...
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Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration)...
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Pulmonary valve stenosis

Pulmonary valve stenosis, or pulmonic valve stenosis, is a valvulopathy that describes the narrowing of the opening of the pulmonary valve between the pulmonary trunk and the right ventricle. Epidemiology Pulmonary stenosis is nearly always (95%) congenital, and therefore primarily affects the...
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Pyknodysostosis

Pyknodysostosis, (alternatively spelled pycnodysostosis) also known as osteopetrosis acro-osteolytica or Toulouse-Lautrec syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia, characterized by osteosclerosis and short stature. Clinical presentation Patients present in early childhood with: ...
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Pyloric stenosis

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) refers to the idiopathic thickening of gastric py­loric musculature which then results in progressive gastric outlet obstruction. Epidemiology Pyloric stenosis is relatively common, with an incidence of approximately 2-5 per 1,000 births, and has a male pred...
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Pyrexia

Pyrexia (or fever) is a clinical sign, indicated by an abnormally elevated core body temperature, which is defined by several medical societies as ≥38.3°C (≥101°F). The temperature elevation may be persistent or episodic. The commonest cause of fever is infection, in one study of hospital inpati...
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Pyrexia of unknown origin

A pyrexia of unknown origin, commonly shortened to PUO and also known as a fever of unknown origin (FUO), was originally defined in 1961 as the condition in which the core body temperature is >38.3oC for a period of three weeks or more, with no diagnosis reached after one week of inpatient inves...
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) is due to periorbital ecchymosis and is specific for base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are several rare causes described, including metastatic neuroblastoma, Kaposi ...
Article

Rachipagus

Rachipagus twins are an extremely rare type of conjoined twins. They are joined in the dorsal aspect and face away from each other. Fusion of the occiput with varying segments of the vertebral column may occur, resulting in the sharing of the spinal cords. The fusion terminates above the sacrum...
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Rachitic rosary

Rachitic rosary refers to expansion of the anterior rib ends at the costochondral junctions and is most frequently seen in rickets as nodularity at the costochondral junctions. Differential diagnosis Other causes of this appearance include:  scurvy the costochondral junction is more angular ...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial ray anomaly

Radial ray anomalies comprise of a large spectrum of upper limb anomalies which range from partial (radial hypoplasia) to a complete (radial aplasia) deficiency of the radius with or without accompanying deficiency of the thumb bones. Pathology Associations They can be associated with a numbe...
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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, is a common oncologic treatment modality utilizing ionizing radiation to control or eliminate malignant cells. Radiotherapy plays a role in primary curative treatment (eg. head and neck cancer), adjuvant therapy (e.g. reducing recurrence rate after local breas...
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Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the pediatric setting. The rule A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the ra...
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Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist

The Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist by WW Greulich and SI Pyle is a classic radiological text that was first published in 1950. Its second edition was released in 1959. Although an old text, which has been reprinted multiple times over the intervening years, many...
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Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex. It consists of: persistence of the left superior vena cava coronary sinus ostial atresia atrial septal defect It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement of the tricuspid an...
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Raine syndrome

Raine syndrome, also known as lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, is a very rare genetic disorder. Infants with this syndrome present with numerous characteristic craniofacial features as well as cerebral calcifications.  Many individuals with this disorder are stillborn or die as neonates 4. ...
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Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis, also known as chronic focal encephalitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. It is not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1....
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RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Rectosigmoid ratio

The rectosigmoid ratio is a measurement of the diameter of the rectum divided by that of the sigmoid colon during contrast enema. It is of particular use in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. Normal children have a rectum that is larger than the sigmoid (i.e. rectosigmoid ratio >1). In fact...
Article

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, also known as squamous cell papillomatosis, refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving respiratory epithelium, most commonly in the larynx (laryngeal papillomatosis) and less commonly the trachea and bronchial tree (tracheobronch...
Article

Renal agenesis

Renal agenesis refers to a congenital absence of one or both kidneys. If bilateral (traditionally known as the classic Potter syndrome) the condition is fatal, whereas if unilateral, patients can have a normal life expectancy.  Epidemiology Unilateral renal agenesis affects approximately 1 in ...
Article

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD), also known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 5 (MODY5), refers to the combination of renal cortical cysts and diabetes mellitus in patients with mutations in the HNF1B gene. When renal cysts are associated with these mutations without disturb...
Article

Renal replacement therapy

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) (also called renal dialysis or just dialysis) is used to supplement renal function in patients with either end-stage chronic kidney disease or medically-refractory acute renal impairment. Theory Haemodialysis refers to the diffusion of solutes in solution across...
Article

Renal tumors

Renal tumors (for the purposes of this article taken to broadly mean neoplastic lesions) should be distinguished from renal pseudotumors. Whilst renal tumors can be broadly divided into primary and secondary (metastatic), benign and malignant, or adult and pediatric tumors, they are more formal...
Article

Replogle tube

A Replogle tube is a medical device used in the treatment of babies with esophageal atresia. The tube is double-lumen and is inserted through the nostril and into the blind-ending esophageal pouch where it is then used to drain the pooled saliva. This prevents the secretions overflowing into the...
Article

Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a relatively common condition resulting from insufficient production of surfactant that occurs in preterm neonates.  On imaging, the condition generally presents as bilateral and relatively symmetric diffuse ground glass lungs with low volumes and a bell-s...
Article

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastomas are the most common intraocular neoplasm found in childhood and with modern treatment modalities, are, in most cases, curable. On imaging, they are generally characterized by a heterogeneous retinal mass with calcifications, necrotic components and increased vascularization on D...
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Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (formerly referred to as retrolental fibroplasia) is an ocular condition seen in the infant population. It often occurs bilaterally, although usually with significant asymmetry 1.  Epidemiology There is often a history of premature delivery, low birth weight, a...
Article

Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney

Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of early childhood, closely related to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the brain (see rhabdoid tumors) Epidemiology Rhabdoid tumors occur exclusively in children, with 60% occurring before the age of 1 year of ag...
Article

Rhabdoid tumors

Rhabdoid tumors are rare and extremely aggressive tumors of early childhood. They occur in a number of locations:  kidney: see malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, most common intracranial: see atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) soft tissues, including: breast 3 skin orbit liver ...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor with skeletal muscle cell morphology. It is one of the tumors of muscular origin.  This article focuses on a general discussion of rhabdomyosarcomas. For location specific details, please refer to: rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract rhabdomyosarcomas ...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma (genitourinary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract are uncommon tumors occurring in pelvic organs.  It is a disease nearly exclusive to the pediatric population.  For a general discussion of this type of tumor, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology The peak incidence of tum...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma (orbit)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the orbit account for approximately 10-20% of all rhabdomyosarcomas and are usually found in children.  Epidemiology As with other locations, rhabdomyosarcomas in the orbit are overrepresented in males, and in Caucasians. They typically occur in children below the age of 1...

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