Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
Article

Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
Article

Triradiate cartilage

The triradiate cartilage is the Y- shaped epiphyseal plate that occurs at the junction where the ischium, ilium, and pubis meet in the skeletally immature skeleton.   The vertical component of the "Y" is the meeting of the ischium and pubic bone. The anterior arm is the junction of the ilium an...
Article

Trisomies

The trisomies are chromosomal anomalies which usually occur due to non-disjunction. The vast majority of affected fetuses are spontaneously aborted, often very early during gestation. Only three are compatible with extrauterine life (T13, T18, T21), and only one beyond early infancy (T21). In o...
Article

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Subtypes There are three forms of true hermaphroditism: unilateral true hermaphroditism ...
Article

Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly in which a single trunk supplies both the pulmonary and systemic circulation, instead of a separate aorta and a pulmonary trunk. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly. It accounts for up to 2% of congenital cardiac anomalies ...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) or Bourneville disease, is a phakomatosis (neurocutaneous disorder) characterized by the development of multiple benign tumors of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosi...
Article

Tubulinopathy

Tubulinopathies refer to a wide spectrum of cortical malformations that result from defects in genes encoding the tubulin protein that regulates neuronal migration during brain development. Clinical presentation Some series report a high prevalence of seizures during infancy which may the init...
Article

Turtle sign (fetal shoulder dystocia)

Turtle sign is a clinical sign of fetal shoulder dystocia in which the fetal head retracts 3. The head bobbing, emerging and then pulling back could be conceptualised as similar to a turtle pulling its head into and out of its shell. The sign does not necessarily signify true shoulder dystocia 2.
Article

Type I choledochal cyst

Type I choledochal cysts appear as a fusiform or cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary system (common bile duct +/- common hepatic duct). Epidemiology Although uncommon in Western countries (1:100,000 to 1:150,000), they are the most common type of biliary cyst. Their prevalence may be...
Article

Type II collagenopathy

Type II collagenopathies are a group of conditions collectively characterized by abnormalities in synthesis of collagen type II. This usually occurs due to a mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Entities that fall under this group include: achondrogenesis type II platyspondylic lethal skeletal dyspla...
Article

Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever or just typhoid is an infectious disease caused by the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi bacterium, usually spread by the orofecal route. The condition is characterized by severe fever, acute systemic symptoms, with occasionally serious enterocolic complications. Terminology Do n...
Article

Tyrosinemia type 1

Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolic origin. Progressive renal tubular defects and hepatocellular carcinoma are the primary manifestations. Epidemiology More common in Turkey, India and Europe. Clinical presentation Presentation is typically in the first few mon...
Article

Ulegyria

Ulegyria refers to a shrunken and flattened cortex usually due to global hypoxic ischemic injury in term infants, centering on the deepest portion of gyri, usually in the parasagittal region. It is here that perfusion is most tenuous and, therefore, most susceptible to ischemic damage. Clinical...
Article

Ulnar dimelia

Ulnar dimelia or mirror hand syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb characterized by absence of the radial ray (including thumb), duplication of the ulna and duplication of the ulnar halves of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 1. Pathology Embryology The embryology of mi...
Article

Ulnar hemimelia

Ulnar hemimelia is a rare congenital upper limb anomaly characterized by complete or partial absence of the ulna bone. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1/100,000-150,000 live births, with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Associations Ulnar hemimelia may be associated with other skeletal ...
Article

Umbilical arterial catheters

Umbilical arterial catheters (UACs) are used in neonatal care for arterial sampling and need to be carefully assessed on all neonatal films.  Position The catheter should pass through the umbilicus, travel inferiorly through the umbilical artery, then in the anterior division of the internal i...
Article

Umbilical artery

The umbilical artery gives rise to both a nonfunctional remnant of the fetal circulation and an active vessel giving supply to the bladder. In the adult, the obliterated area of the vessel is identifiable as the medial umbilical ligament and the patent segment is the superior vesical artery. Su...
Article

Umbilical cord

The umbilical cord is a fetal organ that connects the placenta to the developing fetus and is a vital passage for nutrients, oxygen and waste products to and from the fetus. Gross anatomy The umbilical cord inserts into the center of the placental bulk and into the fetus at the umbilicus. Vari...
Article

Umbilical-urachal sinus

An umbilical-urachal sinus belongs to the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies and represents a non-communicating dilatation of the urachus at the umbilical end. Clinical presentation Presentation is commoner in children and rare in adult. Radiographic features An umbilical-urachal sinus...
Article

Umbilical vein

The umbilical vein is the conduit for blood returning from the placenta to the fetus until it involutes soon after birth. The umbilical vein arises from multiple tributaries within the placenta and enters the umbilical cord, along with the (usually) paired umbilical arteries. Once it enters the...
Article

Umbilical venous catheters

Umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in neonates for vascular access and should be carefully assessed for position on all neonatal films.  Position An umbilical venous catheter generally passes directly superiorly and remains relatively anterior in the abdomen. It passes through...
Article

Umbilicus

The umbilicus is the fibrous remnant of the fetal attachment of the umbilical cord after birth. Gross anatomy All layers of the anterior abdominal wall fuse at the umbilical ring, a small round defect in the linea alba located just inferior to the midpoint between the xiphoid process of the st...
Article

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas of the liver are rare, aggressive, and malignant liver tumors encountered in the pediatric population.  Epidemiology Approximately 90% of cases occur in patients under 15 years of age, most commonly between 6 and 10 years of age, but some cases have been rep...
Article

Unicameral bone cyst

Unicameral bone cysts (UBC), also known as simple bone cysts, are common benign non-neoplastic lucent bony lesions that are seen mainly in childhood and typically remain asymptomatic. They account for the S (simple bone cyst) in FEGNOMASHIC, the commonly used mnemonic for lytic bone lesions.  E...
Article

Unifocalisation procedure

A unifocalisation procedure is a corrective surgical technique used in patients with complete pulmonary artery atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this technique, the collateral vessels supplying blood from the aorta directly to the lungs are brought into continuit...
Article

Upper limb radiography (pediatric)

Upper limb radiography involves plain film imaging of the shoulder, humerus, ulna, radius, metacarpals and carpal bones in pediatric patients. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of...
Article

Urachal cyst

Urachal cysts are one of the manifestations of the spectrum of congenital urachal remnant abnormalities.  Epidemiology An infected urachal cyst can occur at any age. Clinical presentation Urachal cysts usually remain asymptomatic until complicated by infection or bleeding. Pathology Uracha...
Article

Urbach-Wiethe disease

Urbach-Wiethe disease, also known as lipoid proteinosis or hyalinosis cutis et mucosae, is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that primarily affects the skin, upper respiratory tract, and central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology Urbach-Wiethe disease is a very rare condition, with few...
Article

Ureteric jet

Ureteric jets (or ureteral jets) are the visualization of the normal physiological periodic efflux of urine from the distal end of each ureter into the bladder.  Pathology When the urine passing down the ureter reaches the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), it is forced out into the bladder via a ...
Article

Ureterocele

Ureteroceles represent abnormal congenital dilatation of the distal-most portion of the ureter. The dilated portion of the ureter may herniate into the bladder secondary to the abnormal structure of vesicoureteric junction (VUJ). Epidemiology A ureterocele occurs in about 1 in 5000 to 1 in 120...
Article

Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
Article

Urinary tract dilatation classification

The urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification system is a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from eight societies (American College of Radiology (ACR), American Institute of Ultra...
Article

VACTERL association

VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3. Pathology The acronym VACTERL derives from: V: vertebral an...
Article

Vaginal stenosis

Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired. Clinical presentation dyspareunia painful pelvic examination Complications retrograde menstruation Pathology Causes Acquired causes include: iatrogenic scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brach...
Article

Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart diseases, or cardiac valvulopathies, describe any acquired or congenital disease affecting one or more of the four cardiac valves. This is a general index article that classifies cardiac valvulopathies depending on which valve(s) is affected 1. See individual articles for in-dept...
Article

Van der Woude syndrome

Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae/pits with cleft lip and/or palate. It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1 and affected individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries an aut...
Article

Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome

The Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome is characterized by chronic hypothyroidism with high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), delayed bone age, precocious puberty but lacking pubic and axillary hair growth 1.  Epidemiology The acquired form of hypothyroidism is seen in children caused by chr...
Article

Vascular rings and slings

Vascular rings and slings refer to the congenital vascular encirclement of the esophagus and/or trachea by anomalous/aberrant vessels.  Epidemiology Vascular rings are rare, occurring in <1% of patients 1. No gender or ethnic predispositions have been identified 3.  Clinical presentation Man...
Article

VATER

VATER (equivalent to VACTERL) is the non-random constellation of a number of congenital anomalies. V: vertebral anomalies A: anal atresia TE: tracheo-oesophageal fistulas R: radial ray hypoplasia, polydactyly, and renal agenesis Epidemiology The prevalence of at least 3/5 anomalies occur...
Article

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), probably better termed as median prosencephalic arteriovenous fistulas, are uncommon intracranial anomalies that tend to present dramatically during early childhood with features of a left-to-right shunt and high-output cardiac failure. Epidemiolo...
Article

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a hemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and may...
Article

Ventriculus terminalis

The ventriculus terminalis (or persistent terminal ventricle, or terminal ventricle of Krause, or 5th ventricle) is an ependymal-lined fusiform dilatation of the terminal central canal of the spinal cord, positioned at the transition from the tip of the conus medullaris to the origin of the filu...
Article

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure is a surgical technique that was initially developed to treat thoracic insufficiency syndrome and then it was used in congenital scoliosis with rib abnormalities, and has since been successfully used to treat early-onset scoliosis wit...
Article

Vesicourachal diverticulum

Vesicourachal diverticulum is one of the congenital urachal remnant abnormalities. Gross anatomy It is the proximal equivalent of a urachal umbilical sinus, representing a result of the failure of the urachus to close at the urinary bladder, forming an out-pouching of variable length from the ...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically encountered in young children. For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric reflux grading. Epidemiology The incidence of urinary tract...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal s...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
Article

Viral bronchiolitis

Viral bronchiolitis (plural: bronchiolitides) refers to a bronchiolitis secondary to viral etiology. Pathology Viral bronchiolitis is due to viral infection of airways which results in inflammation and peribronchial edema. This can then result in occlusion of the small airways leading to hyper...
Article

Vitamin A

Vitamin A are a group of fat-soluble vitamers (the retinoids) required for many physiological functions, mainly vision, reproduction and epithelial maintenance. In the retina, a specific retinoid, 11-cis-retinal, is formed by photoisomerisation within the rods and cones. The retinoids are hemati...
Article

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is a water-soluble vitamin, that is part of the vitamin B complex, and is an important coenzyme for two reactions in the citric acid cycle (Kreb cycle). It therefore is vital for cellular ATP production, particularly in the central nervous system. Terminology Thiamine is ...
Article

Vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B6 deficiency (also known as hypovitaminosis B6) is rare, as the B6 vitamers are present in many commonly-consumed foodstuffs. It is most commonly seen in the context of chronic ethanol excess, although many other risk factors are known. In children, deficiency may manifest as seizures. ...
Article

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme for the formation of the structure protein collagen, particularly creating cross-linking of collagen fibers which greatly increases its tensile strength. It also acts as an antioxidant. Vitamin C is one of the hematinics. H...
Article

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (calciferol) is used to describe a group of five fat-soluble secosteroid vitamins required for the homeostasis of serum calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D exists in two main forms (vitamers) in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).  Vitamin D3 acts by re...
Article

Vitamin D deficiency (overview)

Vitamin D deficiency (also known as hypovitaminosis D) is common, and untreated, may result in serious sequelae. Traditionally its pathological manifestations have been regarded through the lens of skeletal maturity: rickets in children osteomalacia in adults However it has become increasingl...
Article

Vitamin E

Vitamin E (the tocopherols) are a group of fat-soluble vitamins that act as antioxidants. Vitamin E are also hematinics. hypovitaminosis E is rarely seen outside premature infants hypervitaminosis E is extremely rare as the toxicity of vitamin E is low except in chronic (usually >1 year) high ...
Article

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is not a single compound but a family of fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal blood-clotting function and comprises two vitamers that are found naturally: phytomenadione (also known as phylloquinone or K1) and menaquinone (or K2). Menaquinone (K2) is synthesized by normal flora i...
Article

Voiding cystourethrography

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), also known as a micturating cystourethrography (MCU),  is a fluoroscopic study of the lower urinary tract in which contrast is introduced into the bladder via a catheter. The purpose of the examination is to assess the bladder, urethra, postoperative anatomy an...
Article

Waardenburg syndrome

Waardenburg syndrome is a rare congenital pigmentary disorder secondary to an abnormal distribution of neural crest-derived melanocytes during embryogenesis resulting in patchy areas of depigmentation. It is considered in the investigation of congenital sensorineural deafness. Epidemiology Est...
Article

WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome or complex stands for: Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk) aniridia genitourinary anomalies intellectual retardation (disability) Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
Article

Waldenström classification of Perthes disease

The Waldenström classification of Perthes disease refers to x-ray abnormalities and represents four temporal phases of the disease. These stages have been further subdivided in the modified Elizabethtown classification 2. stage I: early asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affect...
Article

Walker-Warburg syndrome

Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), sometimes known as HARDE syndrome, is an extremely rare lethal form of congenital muscular dystrophy. It is primarily characterized by: fetal hydrocephalus: almost always present neuronal migrational anomalies: agyria (cobblestone lissencephaly / lissencephaly ty...
Article

Wassel classification for radial polydactyly

The Wassel classification system is used to classify pre-axial polydactyly, also called radial polydactyly. The classification system is based on the level of duplication from distal to proximal. I: bifid distal phalanx II: duplicated distal phalanx III: bifid proximal phalanx IV: duplicate...
Article

Waterston shunt

A Waterston shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the ascending aorta and the right pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstruction, ...
Article

Weaver syndrome

Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder. Clinical spectrum increased birth weight: fetal macrosomia early overgrowth macrocephaly accelerated osseous maturation: increased bone age typical facial features broad forehead hypertelorism long philtrum micrognathia large ears h...
Article

Weightbearing foot series (an approach)

Reporting a weightbearing foot series can be a daunting process if you are inexperienced and often results in the films being left for somebody else to report. This article attempts to demystify the whole process by providing a structured approach to their reporting. Technique The weightbearin...
Article

Williams-Campbell syndrome

Williams-Campbell syndrome (WCS) is a rare form of congenital cystic bronchiectasis, in which distal bronchial cartilage is defective. Clinical presentation Williams-Campbell syndrome may present with recurrent pneumonia, wheezing, barrel-chest deformity, and Harrison sulcus 8. Pathology It ...
Article

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS), sometimes called Williams-Beuren syndrome, is characterized by some or all of the following features: craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies) oral abnormalities short stature (50% of cases) mild to moderate intellectual disability  supravalvular aortic stenosis ...
Article

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor. Epidemiology Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and account for 7% of all childhood cancers 12. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Article

Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
Article

Wimberger ring sign

Wimberger ring sign, often simply just called Wimberger ring, refers to a circular calcification surrounding the osteoporotic epiphyseal center of ossification in scurvy, which may result from bleeding. It must not be confused with Wimberger sign, pathognomonic for congenital syphilis. History...
Article

Wimberger sign

The Wimberger sign, also called Wimberger corner sign, refers to localized bilateral metaphyseal destruction of the medial proximal tibias. It is a pathognomonic sign for congenital syphilis. It must not be mixed up with Wimberger ring sign seen in scurvy, which is sometimes also confusingly re...
Article

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare immunodeficiency disease. Epidemiology The incidence currently quoted is approximately 4 per million live male births, although there can be regional variation. Rarely occurs in females. Associations splenic hamartoma infantile cortical hyperostosis ...
Article

Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female, the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone o...
Article

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is an extremely rare chromosomal anomaly characterized by partial deletion of the p arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Clinical presentation There is a large clinical spectrum: CNS agenesis of the corpus callosum hypertelorism coloboma seizures 4 craniofacial c...
Article

Wolman disease

Wolman disease is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in the deposition of fats in multiple organs.  Clinical presentation Patients with Wolman disease typically present during the first two months of life with failure to thrive, diarrhea and vomiting. Abdominal dis...
Article

Wrist series (pediatric)

The wrist series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on departmental protocols, the oblique view may also be included as a standard view.  Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dis...
Article

Wyburn-Mason syndrome

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...
Article

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder and one of the more common leukodystrophies in both children and adults. It is characterized by lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination typically of th...
Article

Yasargil classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...
Article

Yaws

Yaws, also known as framboesia, is a tropical disease produced by the Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. Epidemiology Yaws is a tropical disease. Infections have declined dramatically over the last century, however the disease is still present in several countries in Africa and Asia 1. Y...
Article

Yunis-Varón syndrome

Yunis Varón syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia. It is thought to be autosomal recessive. Radiographic features severe neurologic impairment include small cerebellar vermis and dandy walker malformation cleidocranial dysplasia absent clavicles macrocrania diastasis of sutures micrognath...
Article

Zebra stripe sign (bones)

The zebra stripe sign occurs where children with osteogenesis imperfecta have been treated with cyclical bisphosphonate therapy, e.g. pamidronate. When the drug is delivered in cycles, dense bone is formed while treatment is being given. This results in dense stripes across the metaphyses of bon...
Article

Zika virus infection

Zika virus infection is a zoonosis which is associated with congenital birth defects, with microcephaly the most widely known. Epidemiology Zika was once isolated to Africa and Asia, however, it spread to the Americas in the last decade 1. There were thousands of cases confirmed in the America...
Article

Zuelzer-Wilson syndrome

Zuelzer-Wilson syndrome, also known as total colonic aganglionosis, is a subset of Hirschsprung disease, in which the whole colon is aganglionic. Epidemiology It is uncommon and accounts for 2-13% of cases of Hirschsprung disease 3,7. Compared with Hirschsprung disease which has a marked male ...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.