Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,249 results found
Article

Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumor, which can occur in both the pediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumors are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in t...
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Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
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Chromosomal anomalies

There are a large number of recognized chromosomal anomalies (many with eponyms). When there is a change in the absolute number of chromosomes these are subgrouped as aneuploidic anomalies. They can cause a variable degree of disability with outcomes ranging from no effect (in some balanced tra...
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Chronic hereditary lymphedema

Chronic hereditary lymphedema (also known as Milroy disease) is a condition characterized by lower limb lymphedema. Patients typically present with pedal edema at or before birth or soon after. Occasionally, it develops later in life. Pathology Genetics Mutations in the FLT4 gene are thought ...
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Chronic hip subluxation

Chronic hip subluxation most common occurs in pediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g. cerebral palsy). It is considered a form of developmental hip dysplasia.  Epidemiology Chronic hip subluxation occurs in ~45% of cerebral palsy patients who are not walking by 5 years of age 3. ...
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Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory bone disorder seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion once underlying infection and neoplasia have been ruled out. However, there are some cases in which lesion location and m...
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Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
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Ciliopathies

Ciliopathies refer to diseases due to malfunctioning cilia (singular: cilium). Cilia are organelles that are external extensions of the cell membrane. Cilia fall into two main types: primary (or immotile) cilia and motile cilia.  Clinical presentation Primary cilia are found in virtually every...
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Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which is ...
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Classification system for malformations of cortical development

The classification system for malformations of cortical development organizes myriad conditions into one of three major underlying groups according to the main underlying mechanism: group I: abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis group II: abnormal neuronal migration group III: abnormal cor...
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Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al. in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two...
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Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
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Claustrum sign

The claustrum sign refers to the bilateral claustral involvement seen in febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). This sign is described in T2 and FLAIR sequences, seen as hyperintensity of both claustra during the acute phase and posterior hypointensity during the chronic phase if ...
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) are a rare mesenchymal renal tumor that account for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in the pediatric population 1.  Epidemiology Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is the second most common primary malignant pediatric renal neoplasm after Wilms tumor, with...
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Cleft palate

Cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. It can occur in two main etiologically different forms: in association with a cleft lip: cleft lip +/- palate (much commoner) on its own: isolated cleft palate (rarer)
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Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...
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Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...
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CLOVES syndrome

CLOVES syndrome is an acronym denoting a rare condition consisting of: Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth Vascular malformations Epidermal nevi Skeletal/Scoliosis/Spinal anomalies Terminology Although first described as CLOVE the term "CLOVES" syndrome, with the "S" emphasizing the skeletal ...
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COACH syndrome

The acronym COACH describes a syndrome associated with: C - cerebellar vermis defect (Joubert syndrome) O - oligophrenia A - ataxia C - coloboma H - hepatic fibrosis Epidemiology There only as little as 11 cases having been reported in the English medical literature. Associations The as...
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Coalition

A coalition is a joining of two bones that are normally discrete 1. It is usually a congenital abnormality. The bridge between the bones is initially fibrous, then gradually becomes cartilaginous, finally ossifying. Symptoms tend to arise as the coalition forms a synostosis, which is usually fro...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. Epidemiology Coarctations account for between 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. They are more frequent in males, M:F ratio of ~2-3:1. Associations As with many congenital abnormalities, coarctation of the aorta is ...
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Cobb's collar

Cobb's collar (also known as a Moormann's ring or congenital narrowing of the bulbar uerthra) is a membranous stricture of the bulbar urethra just downstream of the external urethral sphincter. It is sometimes referred to as a type III posterior urethral valve, and does not maintain a connection...
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Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked genetic syndrome affecting multiple body parts. Epidemiology The condition tends to affect males much more due to its X-linked inheritance. The estimated incidence is at around 1:40,000-50,000. Clinical presentation It is characterized by a numb...
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Coffin-Siris syndrome

Coffin-Siris syndrome, first described in 1970, is a rare genetic abnormality. Coffin-Siris syndrome should not be confused with Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Epidemiology It occurs more frequently in females (with a M:F of ~4:1). Clinical presentation One of the most typical features is absence o...
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COL4A1 brain small-vessel disease

COL4A1 brain small-vessel disease is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder that primarily causes cerebral small vessel disease. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the condition is likely under-diagnosed. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is vari...
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COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognized, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
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Coloboma

Coloboma is a collective term encompassing any focal discontinuity in the structure of the eye, and should not be confused with staphylomas, which are due to choroidal thinning.  Pathology Embryologically, colobomas are due to the failure of closure of the choroidal fissure. The most common si...
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Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Terminology Various names are used for this type of study including shapes study, colon motility test, Sitz marker study and Transit-PelletsmethodTM, and variations thereof.  Indications In constipation, it ca...
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Colpocephaly

Colpocephaly is a descriptive term for a disproportionate prominence of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles. It can result from a wide range of congenital insults. Clinical presentation Patients may present with motor abnormalities, cognitive deficit, visual abnormalities, and seizur...
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Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
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Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/or ep...
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Computed tomography scanogram for leg length discrepancy assessment

Computed tomography scanogram for leg length discrepancy assessment is performed in patients (children in most of the cases) with suspected inequality in leg length (anisomelia).  Technique obtained images are typically anteroposterior (AP) scout views of the bilateral femurs and tibias femor...
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Condyle-C1 interval (CCI)

The condyle-C1 interval (CCI) is the measurement of the interval between condyle and C1 at four equidistant points on the joint surface in sagittal and coronal reconstructions of computed tomography. The CCI is reported to have a high lateral symmetry in children 1. Used with a cut-off of 4 mm,...
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (also known as adrenogenital syndrome) is a form of adrenal hyperplasia related to a variety of autosomal recessive disorders in adrenal steroidogenesis; characterized by low cortisol, low aldosterone, and androgen excess.  Clinical presentation virilizatio...
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Congenital aortic stenosis

Congenital aortic stenosis broadly refers to a congenital narrowing of the aortic lumen. Although the term can mean narrowing at any point, it often relates to a narrowing of the aortic valve. As a broad group, there can be some overlap with ascending aortic coarctation depending on the definiti...
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Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Epidemiology In a large study in the U...
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Congenital cataract

Congenital cataracts are a major cause of blindness with early detection the most important factor in reducing impact on future vision.  Epidemiology Incidence is ~3 per 100,000 in the United Kingdom 1. Although the incidence tends to be higher in areas with increased rates of congenital infec...
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Congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis

Congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis is a manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis and refers to development of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the fetus through maternal transmission. Please refer on congenital toxoplasmosis to a broad discussion on epidemiology and pathology.  Radiographic features ...
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Congenital cervical teratoma

Congenital cervical teratoma refers to a teratoma arising in the cervical region. They are thought to account for ~3% of teratomas in childhood/infancy 3. Epidemiology The estimated occurrence in neonates is ~1:20,000-40,000 live births 8. Clinical presentation Most tumors are diagnosed at b...
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Congenital cholesteatoma

Congenital cholesteatomas are identical to epidermoid cysts, differing only in name and location.  Pathology They are intraosseous inclusions of ectoderm and are therefore comprised of keratin debris and cholesterol. Characteristically, they are located at the petrous apex. In contrast, middle...
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Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) (also known as Beals syndrome) is a rare connective tissue disorder that bears phenotypic similarities to Marfan syndrome, but is genetically distinct. Affected individuals have arachnodactyly, muscle contractures and ear anomalies, but without any oc...
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Congenital cystic bronchiectasis

Congenital cystic bronchiectasis is a rare entity, and as the name suggests is characterized by cystic bronchiectasis found in infancy 1. The term appears to have fallen out of favor, due to variable use in older literature. In most instances of congenital cystic bronchiectasis has what is now r...
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Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

Congenital cytomegalovirus infections result from intrauterine fetal infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV). Epidemiology Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of intrauterine infection and the most common cause of congenital infective and brain damage, occurring in 0.2-2.4% of live births. An...
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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Congenital diaphragmatic herniation (CDH) accounts for a small proportion of all diaphragmatic herniae. However, it is one of the most common non-cardiac fetal intrathoracic anomalies. Epidemiology Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are seen in 1 of every 2000-4000 live births. 84% are left-side...
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Congenital facial nerve aplasia

Congenital facial nerve aplasia is a rare condition where the patient presents with signs of facial nerve paralysis. Clinical presentation Patients present with unilateral or bilateral facial weakness characterized by facial asymmetry, incomplete closure of eyelid, deviation of angle of mouth ...
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Congenital facial palsy

A congenital facial palsy is an uncommon cause of neonatal asymmetric crying facies, which are more frequently due to absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle, often associated with other congenital anomalies.  Epidemiology Congenital facial palsy is reported with an incidence...
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Congenital goiter

Congenital goiter is a rare cause of neck swelling in neonates and is demonstrated as diffuse/nodular thyroid gland enlargement. Epidemiology It is a common endocrine disease in newborns and affects approximately 1:2000-4000 live births. Clinical presentation There may be a difficult vaginal...
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Congenital granular cell myoblastoma

A congenital granular cell myoblastoma (also known as congenital epulis) is a very rare benign tumor which classically presents in the fetal-neonatal population. Epidemiology It occurs almost exclusively in females when it presents in the fetal-neonatal population although no such predilection...
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Congenital hemangioma

Congenital hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of childhood that are present at birth. They are mostly indistinguishable from infantile hemangioma on imaging but have distinct histological and clinical features. While the majority are cutaneous or subcutaneous in nature, they can occur extra...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest x-rays in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnosis ca...
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Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome or sequence (CHAOS) refers to a rare, often lethal, congenital laryngotracheal condition and is primarily characterized by obstruction to the fetal upper airway. Pathology CHAOS can be of three possible types 2: complete laryngeal atresia without an...
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Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT), previously known as cretinism, can be of thyroidal or central (hypothalamic/pituitary) origin and can have a widely diverse molecular etiology. Clinical presentation Most children are asymptomatic at birth and are diagnosed after screening. In untreated congeni...
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Congenital infections (mnemonic)

The group of the most common congenital infections are referred to by the mnemonic TORCH or STORCH. They usually cause mild maternal morbidity but are related to serious fetal consequences 4. In cases where no serological, microbiological or immunological evidence of infection can be identified...
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Congenital insensitivity to pain

Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) refers to a group of rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) characterized by an inability to feel pain 1. Terminology Although not clearly defined in the literature, congenital insensitivity to pain is not one specific diagnosis but de...
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Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputation is the absence of a fetal limb or part of a limb that usually occurs due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology They are slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than ...
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Congenital lobar overinflation

Congenital lobar overinflation (CLO), previously called congenital lobar emphysema, is a congenital lung abnormality that results in progressive overinflation of one or more lobes of a neonate's lung.  On imaging, it classically presents on chest radiographs as a hyperlucent lung segment with o...
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Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, also known as levo- or L-loop transposition (L-TGA), is a rare cardiovascular anomaly with inversion of the ventricles and great arteries. Epidemiology This anomaly comprises less than 1% of all congenital heart diseases 1,2,7.  Clin...
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Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It is more frequently seen in males. The enlarged calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calculus forma...
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Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter encompasses causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It includes: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing primary megaureter althoug...
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Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is a wid...
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Congenital neuroblastoma

Congenital neuroblastoma is defined as neuroblastoma identified within a month of birth, and is divided into: fetal neuroblastoma neonatal neuroblastoma In most cases they present as stage 1, 2 or 4S (see neuroblastoma staging). Fetal neuroblastoma In 90% of cases, fetal neuroblastomas aris...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...
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Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is a rare condition, which typically presents as an isolated anatomical variant.  Clinical presentation Usually presents as a midclavicular swelling in the neonate or young child 1.  Pathology Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is more commo...
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Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia describes abnormal bowing that can progress to a segment of bone loss simulating the appearance of a joint. The condition is usually apparent shortly after birth and is rarely diagnosed after the age of two. Pathology The etiology is unclear, however, ar...
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Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) are multicystic masses of segmental lung tissue with abnormal bronchial proliferation. CPAMs are considered part of the spectrum of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Terminology Until recently they were described as congenital cystic adeno...
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Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia refers to congenital dilatation of the lymphatic system. It typically presents in infancy. It may be isolated to lung or may be part of a generalized lymphangiectasia. 
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Congenital pulmonary stenosis

Congenital pulmonary stenosis (CPS) refers to congenital narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract, pulmonary valve, or pulmonary artery. See pulmonary valve stenosis for a general discussion about this valvulopathy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 2000 births. Pathology ...
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Congenital radial head dislocation

Congenital radial head dislocation is the most common congenital elbow abnormality. It can occur in isolation, or more commonly may be associated with other conditions or syndromes. Epidemiology Overall, congenital radial head dislocation is rare 2. Clinical presentation Congenital radial he...
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Congenital renal anomalies

Congenital renal anomalies comprise of vast spectrum of pathologies and include: renal agenesis renal dysgenesis congenital renal hypoplasia congenital megacalyectasis congenital cystic renal disease infantile polycystic renal disease: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD):...
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Congenital spinal meningocele

Congenital spinal meningoceles are developmental anomalies of meningothelial elements displaced into the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Please refer to the meningocele article for a broad overview of all types of this condition.  Pathology It is a defect of the neural tube, an embryonic struc...
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Congenital talipes equinovarus

Congenital talipes equinovarus is considered the most common anomaly affecting the feet diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. Terminology While some use talipes equinovarus and clubfoot synonymously, in certain publications, the term clubfoot is considered a more general descriptive term that des...
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Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
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Congenital hallux valgus

Congenital hallux valgus is a very rare finding wherein a fetus or newborn shows lateral deviation of the first toe(s). When found on prenatal imaging, bilateral congenital/foetal hallux valgus is highly suggestive of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 1,2.
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Conjoined twins

Conjoined twin pregnancy is a rare occurrence resulting from the failure of a zygote to separate completely after 13 days 11. This results in the twins being physically joined. Epidemiology The prevalence of conjoined twins ranges from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000. They are more common in parts of So...
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Connective tissue disease

The connective tissue diseases or disorders (CTDs), also known as collagen vascular diseases, form a large heterogeneous group of conditions that are linked by a disease process that primarily involves the connective soft tissues of the body and often the vasculature too, due to shared structura...
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Conotruncal cardiac anomalies

Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause of symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero. Epidemiology They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2. Clinical presentation ...
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Convolutional markings

Convolutional markings are normal impressions of the gyri on the inner table of the skull. They appear during times when the brain is growing rapidly, typically between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age 4.  They are seen predominantly posteriorly. If they are pronounced and over the more anterio...
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Copper beaten skull

Copper beaten skull, also known as beaten silver skull or beaten brass skull, refers to the prominence of convolutional markings (gyral impressions on the inner table of the skull) seen throughout the skull vault. Clinical presentation The appearance of a copper beaten skull is associated with...
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Corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus)

The corkscrew sign describes the spiral appearance of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum seen in midgut volvulus 1. In patients with malrotation and volvulus, the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum do not cross the midline and instead pass in an inferior direction. These loops twist on ...
Article

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is an extremely rare clinically heterogeneous developmental disorder of unknown etiology. Although the described clinical symptomatology is very broad, the majority of cases include growth impairment, learning disability and dysmorphic facies. Epidemiology The...
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Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral clefts refer to the presence of radiolucent vertical defects on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) t...
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Cortical desmoid

Cortical desmoids, also known as cortical avulsive injuries, Bufkin lesion or distal cortical femoral defects/irregularities, are a benign self-limiting entity that are common incidental findings. This is a classic "do not touch" lesion, and should not be confused with an aggressive cortical/per...
Article

Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterized by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden nevus when it is considered a type of ...
Article

Coxa valga

Coxa valga describes a deformity of the hip where there is an increased angle between the femoral neck and femoral shaft.  Pathology Coxa valga is often associated with shallow acetabular angles and femoral head subluxation.  Etiology bilateral neuromuscular disorders, e.g. cerebral palsy ...
Article

Coxa vara

Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the femoral neck-shaft angle is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees. Pathology It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechanism in congenital cases is a failure of medial growth of the physeal plate 3.   Classification On...
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Cozen fracture

Cozen fracture or phenomenon is the valgus angulation deformity of the tibia following a proximal tibial metaphyseal fracture in children. Epidemiology This typically occurs as a late deformity in children aged 3-6 years. Pathology Etiology Proposed causes include: non-recognized or under ...
Article

Craniopagus

Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins that are fused at any part of the skull, except the face, foramen magnum, skull base and the vertebral column. The fused structures are most often the cranium, meninges, and dural venous sinuses. Brains tend to be separate; however, they may be connected by...
Article

Craniorachischisis

Craniorachischisis, also known as craniorachischisis totalis, is a rare birth defect and the most severe of the neural tube defects. It refers to the presence of both anencephaly and spina bifida. Epidemiology In one study the prevalence of craniorachischisis was 0.51 per 10,000 live births in...
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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance with an overall incidence of 1 in 2000-2500. 8% of cases are syndromic or famil...
Article

Cremaster muscle

The cremaster muscle is the thin fascial muscle of the spermatic cord made of skeletal muscle. It is also referred to as cremaster fascia or simply the cremaster. Its action is to retract the testes, important in thermoregulation and spermatogenesis.  Gross anatomy It is derived from the inter...
Article

Crescent in a doughnut sign (intestinal intussusception)

The crescent in a doughnut sign refers to the transverse ultrasound appearance of intestinal intussusception, and is a variation of the target sign (which is also known as the doughnut sign) The doughnut is formed by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands ...
Article

Crista galli

The crista galli is a thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa. It separates the olfactory bulbs, which lie either side of it in the olfactory fossae of the cribriform plate. It serves as an anteri...

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