Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,249 results found
Article

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is a disorder of ectodermal dysplasia with wide variability in its manifestations. It is thought to have an autosomal recessive inheritance. Clinical presentation There is wide variability in the clinical presentation, but common features are: low birth weight hypo...
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Joubert syndrome

Joubert anomaly, also known as vermian aplasia or molar tooth midbrain-hindbrain malformation, is an autosomal recessive disorder where there is a variable degree of cerebellar vermal agenesis.  Terminology When associated with anomalies of the kidneys, liver and/or eyes then the term Joubert ...
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J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
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Juberg-Hayward syndrome

Juberg-Hayward syndrome (JHS), also known as the oro-cranio-digital syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the association of the following:  growth retardation microcephaly cleft lip and palate minor vertebral and rib anomalies 4 horseshoe kidneys 4 thumb anomal...
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Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (ovary)

Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (JGCT) are a less common subtype of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary (~5% of cases). They are classified as ovarian sex cord / stromal tumors. Epidemiology It typically occurs in premenarchal girls and young women. The mean age of presentation is 13...
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Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome outlined by painful, abnormal, often deforming deposits of hyalinized fibrous material in the extracellular matrix of the skin, subcutaneous soft tissues and gums. It is listed under fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors in t...
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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common chronic arthritic disease of childhood and corresponds to a group of different subtypes. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~13 per 100,000 per annum 3. By definition, symptoms must start ...
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Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (staging)

Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging and relies on the identification of local tumor extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.  The stag...
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Juvenile osteoporosis

Juvenile osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis occurring in children. Pathology Etiology It can arise from a number of causes 1-4: primary conditions osteogenesis imperfecta Bruck syndrome osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Marfan syndrome homocystinuria secondary...
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Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome, also referred as familial juvenile polyposis, is one of the polyposis syndromes and consists of hundreds of juvenile polyps. Epidemiology Presentation in the second decade is most common 2. Clinical presentation Rectal bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussuscept...
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Juvenile recurrent parotitis

Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is a form of recurrent inflammatory parotitis occurring in childhood. Epidemiology JRP is considered the second most common cause of parotitis in childhood and commonly begins between 3 and 6 years of age.  Clinical presentation Multiple episodes of parotid...
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Kabuki syndrome

Kabuki syndrome (Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare polydysplasia that is thought to be more common in Japan. Epidemiology Estimated incidence of 1:32,000 in Japan. Sporadically seen elsewhere in the world. The reason for the disparity in incidence is controversial. Clinical presentation cha...
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Kallmann syndrome

Kallmann syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with anosmia or hyposmia. When anosmia is absent, a similar syndrome is referred to as normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  Epidemiology It is a rare disorder with an estimate...
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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare, locally invasive vascular tumor that often presents in infancy, most commonly as an enlarging cutaneous mass 1,2.  Epidemiology Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare disease of childhood. The exact incidence and prevalence has not been accurately ...
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Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis

Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) is a rare lymphatic anomaly associated with a poor prognosis. Disease hallmarks include multifocal, intra- and extra-thoracic lymphatic malformations, thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. Epidemiology The exact prevalence and incidence of kaposiform...
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Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome (also known as Kartagener-Afzelius syndrome) is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterized by abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyski...
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Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumor is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vascular t...
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Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
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Kasai portoenterostomy

Kasai portoenterostomy is the surgery that comprises exposing the porta hepatis by radical excision of all bile duct tissue up to the liver capsule and attaching a Roux-en-Y loop of jejunum to the uncovered liver capsule above the bifurcation of the portal vein creating a portoenterostomy 1. In...
Article

Kashin-Beck disease

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a rare chronic condition, comprising an osteochondropathy with a concurrent necrosis of the joints. Epidemiology The disease has traditionally been endemic to areas of Tibet, China, North Korea, and Siberian Russia, and is usually diagnosed in pre-teenage children....
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
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Kearns-Sayre syndrome

Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), also known as oculocraniosomatic disorder, is a rare multisystem mitochondrial disorder.  Clinical presentation The patient often presents with progressive external ophthalmoplegia 1. Neurologic symptoms develop in childhood or adolescence, usually before 20 years ...
Article

Kernicterus

Kernicterus, also known as chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, describes the chronic, toxic, permanent sequelae of high levels of unconjugated bilirubin on the central nervous system of infants. It is part of the spectrum of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction, which also includes acute bilir...
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Keyhole sign (posterior urethral valves)

The keyhole sign is an ultrasonographic sign seen in boys with posterior urethral valves. It refers to the appearance of the proximal urethra (which is dilated) and an associated thick-walled distended bladder which on ultrasound may resemble a keyhole.
Article

Kirner deformity

A Kirner deformity, also known as dystelephalangy, is characterized by a curvature of the distal phalanx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at bir...
Article

Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a sex chromosomal anomaly, which in most cases is characterized by 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.15-0.2% of live births. Clinical presentation the testes are normal prior to puberty and small in post pubertal te...
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Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognized female predilection 1. Klippel-Feil syndrome has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,...
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Kniest dysplasia

Kniest dysplasia is rare type of short limbed skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Genetics It is thought to carry an autosomal dominant inheritance. Kniest dysplasia is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene, which encodes for type II collagen (therefore clas...
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Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5. Epidemiology It typically presents in the pediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there is ...
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Krabbe disease

Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting in damage to cells involved in myelin turnover. It thus affects both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system (manifesting as a leukodystrophy).  Epidemi...
Article

Kump's bump

Kump's bump, also known as the Kump hump, is a superior convexity of the growth plate located in the anteromedial quadrant of the distal tibia physis, which is the first site of physeal fusion. Closure usually occurs at about 12-13 years of age. The Kump's bump should not to be mistaken for a fr...
Article

Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor is a condition characterized by bilateral edema caused by protein deficiency. Epidemiology The largest population at risk for the condition are children who have begun weaning from breast milk or formula towards diets without sufficient protein. Therefore, kwashiorkor often affects...
Article

Kyphomelic dysplasias

Kyphomelic dysplasias (also known as "pseudocampomelia") is thought to be a heterogeneous class of "bent bone" skeletal dysplasias. Entities included in a differential for the class are: congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal dysplasia, McKusick type) ...
Article

Kyphosis

Kyphosis (plural: kyphoses), much less commonly kyphus, is a term used to describe the sagittal curvature of the thoracic spine. Pathology An increased kyphotic angle is seen in the following conditions: Scheuermann disease spondyloarthropathies osteoporosis vertebral body fracture compre...
Article

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare organic aciduria but has characteristic MRI findings especially in the early stages 1. This can allow for early diagnosis, often prior to biochemical investigations. Epidemiology As it is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, consanguineous marriag...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
Article

Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna, also known as the sinus of Guérin, is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology A...
Article

Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned cecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can inc...
Article

Langenskiold classification of Blount disease

The Langenskiold Classification of Blount disease uses age and severity of deformity as grading parameters. Classification Six stage radiographic classification of infantile tibia vara, which is based on changes observed as the child matured: stage I: 2-3 years irregularity of metaphyseal os...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystem disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it is more descriptive of its...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS manifestations)

The central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Involvement of the CNS is related but distinct from involvement of the skull base or craniofacial structures, which are discussed separately in the article skeletal manifestations of L...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Laryngomalacia

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of noisy breathing in infants where it results in stridor. It is the result of a congenital abnormality of the cartilage in the larynx that results in the dynamic partial supraglottic collapse of the larynx during breathing.  Clinical presentation Most c...
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Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral center-edge angle

The lateral center-edge angle is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It has since been shown superior to the extrusion index in measuring femoral head undercoverage.  Usage It has primarily been described in assessing for acetabular dysplasia, but can al...
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Lateral epicondyle fracture (elbow)

Lateral epicondyle fractures of the elbow are rare epicondylar fractures. They are much rarer than medial epicondyle fractures and represent avulsion of the lateral epicondyle. They are usually seen in the setting of other injuries 1-3.  Terminology These fractures are avulsion fractions of th...
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Lateral finger (pediatric)

The lateral finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest. The patient position can vary depending on which finger is being imaged.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing f...
Article

Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Lateral humeral line

The lateral humeral line is used to confirm the alignment of the pediatric radiocapitellar joint in the coronal plane 1. This is particularly important in injuries such as a Monteggia fracture-dislocation or in a radial neck fracture. Measurement The lateral humeral line is drawn on a pediatri...
Article

Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning or plumbism is a multisystem condition due to the way in which lead interferes with the function of virtually every organ system. Plumbism most severely manifests due to its devastating effects on the CNS, but it also has important deleterious consequences on the skeletal, renal, ...
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Leaky lung syndrome

Leaky lung syndrome refers to a form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pathology Pulmonary edema due to increased capillary permeability.   Radiographic features Leaky lung syndrome is considered a mild form of a part of the spectrum of acute lung injury with ARDS at the other end of the s...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
Article

Leg bowing in children

Leg bowing in children is common and often developmental. Differential diagnosis The differential includes: developmental bowing exaggeration of normal age-related angulation changes at the knee neonates and infants normally have varus angulation that gradually corrects within 6 months of w...
Article

Legius syndrome

Legius syndrome is characterized by multiple café-au-lait spots, with or without freckles and macrocephaly. Epidemiology More than 200 cases were reported between 2007 and 2013 1,3. Although rare, it is estimated that up to 2% of patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis-1...
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Leigh syndrome

Leigh syndrome, also known as subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (SNEM), is a mitochondrial disorder with progressive neurodegeneration that invariably leads to death, usually in childhood. Epidemiology Leigh syndrome is encountered in approximately 1 in 40,000 births, although some popu...
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Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a form of refractory childhood-onset epilepsy and is often accompanied by developmental delay and psychological/ behavioral problems. An electroencephalogram (EEG) often shows a slow spike and wave pattern. Epidemiology It often appears between the 2nd and 6th years ...
Article

Lenticulostriate vasculopathy

Lenticulostriate vasculopathy also known as thalamostriate vasculopathy or mineralizing vasculopathy 1, refers to the ultrasound appearance of hyperechogenic linear or branching tubular streaks in the thalami or basal ganglia of neonates. Epidemiology Lenticulostriate vasculopathy has been rep...
Article

Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Epidemiology Affects 1 per 380,000 individuals, which are nearly all male given the X-linked inheritance 1. Clinical presentation hyperuricemia-...
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Lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome

Lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome is, as the name suggests, characterized by the association of omphalocele and cleft palate.  Prevalence is assumed to be <1 per 1,000,000. It has been postulated that this syndrome is likely to be an autosomal recessive condition 1. History and etymolog...
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Leukodystrophies

The leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that primarily affect the white matter of the central nervous system. They are particularly encountered in childhood as many are genetically determined and represent abnormalities in white matter metabolism. A number of leukodystrophies...
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Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by slowly-progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact prevalen...
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Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts

Leukoencephalopathy with calcification and cysts, also known as Labrune syndrome, is a rare condition that consists of a triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcification and edematous cysts. Epidemiology Leukoencephalopathy with calcification and cysts is an extremely rare condition, with ...
Article

Levene index

The Levene index is the distance between the falx and the lateral wall of the anterior horn in the coronal plane at the level of the third ventricle.  Usage It is useful as a marker of ventricular volume and thus has been proposed as a helpful biomarker in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus1. Mea...
Article

Liddle syndrome

Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition which inhibits the normal degradation of the ENaC sodium channel, resulting in findings that mimic Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism); hypernatremia, hypokalemia and elevated serum bicarbonate. Typically patients are asymptomatic other than ...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Limbus labrum

A limbus labrum is as an enlarged and deformed acetabular labrum, which covers the lateral margin of a subluxed femoral head. Epidemiology Seen in children and young adults. Clinical presentation hip pain and labral tears seen mainly in settings of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) o...
Article

Line of Klein

The line of Klein describes a line along the superior edge of the neck of the femur. It is useful in detecting early slipped upper femoral epiphysis​ in adolescents. The line should normally intersect the lateral part of the superior femoral epiphysis. If the line of Klein fails to intersect the...
Article

Lines and tubes: neonatal (chest radiograph)

Neonatal lines and tubes are widely used in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) in the management of critically ill neonates. Examples include: nasogastric (NG) tube endotracheal (ET) tube central venous line umbilical artery catheter umbilical vein catheter Nasogastric tube The NG tu...
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Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumor arising from embryonic white fat. Epidemiology It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3 years). Clinical presentation May present as a rapidly enlarging mass 4. It most often occurs in the extremities an...
Article

Lipoblastomatosis

Lipoblastomatosis is an uncommon presentation of a benign fatty neoplasm. The condition is more common in infants and young children. It differs from a lipoblastoma in that it is extensive and infiltrative.  Pathology Lipoblastomatosis consists of immature adipose tissue surrounding myxomatous...
Article

Lipofibromatosis

Lipofibromatosis refers to a rare unspecified/borderline slow-growing soft tissue tumor prone to recurrence, which is often found in the hands and feet of children. Terminology Infantile or juvenile fibromatosis variant is an alternative term, which has been used but is now discouraged 1. Ep...
Article

Lipomyelocele

Lipomyelocele, also known as lipomyeloschisis, is one of the most common closed spinal dysraphism. It is seen in the thoracolumbar region and usually presents as a fatty subcutaneous mass. It is twice as common as lipomyelomeningocele. Clinical presentation Affected individuals are usually as...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum

The lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum is a useful way to describe the spectrum of diseases that cause relative smoothness of the brain surface and includes: agyria: no gyri pachygyria: broad gyri lissencephaly: smooth brain surface It is a basket term for a number of congenital cortical malf...
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Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterized by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
Article

Lissencephaly type I - subcortical band heterotopia spectrum

Lissencephaly type I, also known as classic lissencephaly, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation characterized by a smooth brain, with absent or hypoplastic sulci and is strongly associated with subcortical band heterotopia (see classification system for cortical malformati...
Article

Lithopaedion

Lithopaedions, also referred as stone babies, are a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1.5 to 1.8% of abdominal ectopic pregnancies 4. Pathology If the deceased fetus is too large to be re-abs...
Article

Little league shoulder

Little league shoulder is thought to occur due to overuse damage of the proximal humeral epiphysis/metaphysis, seen typically in young baseball players, especially pitchers. Epidemiology Although it is most commonly seen in baseball players particularly in pitchers, it also presents in adolesc...
Article

Liver lesions (pediatric)

Pediatric liver lesions are a heterogeneous group that includes infiltrative lesions and those that demonstrate mass-effect. Moreover, they may be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant: benign liver tumors malignant liver tumors Epidemiology There are differing frequencies of both benign...
Article

Lobar holoprosencephaly

Lobar holoprosencephaly is the least severe of the classical subtypes of holoprosencephaly (HPE), characterized by the presence of the inter-hemispheric fissure along almost the entire midline, and with the thalami being completely or nearly completely separated 5. As with all types of HPE, it ...
Article

Loeys-Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which has many features similar to Marfan syndrome. The disease is characterized by skeletal manifestations and vasculopathies. Although Loeys-Dietz syndrome shares many similarities with Marfan syndrome, the course is oft...
Article

Looser zones

Looser zones, also known as cortical infractions, Milkman lines or pseudofractures, are wide, transverse lucencies with sclerotic borders traversing partway through a bone, usually perpendicular to the involved cortex, and are associated most frequently with osteomalacia and rickets. Given that...
Article

Lordosis

Lordosis (plural: lordoses) is the term used to refer to the normal anterior curvature of the cervical and lumbar spines when viewed from the side (concavity at the posterior aspect of the spine (cf kyphosis). Lordosis cervicis and lordosis lumbalis are the respective Terminologia Anatomica term...
Article

Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome, also known as the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, is a multisystem disorder characterized by anomalies primarily affecting the eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Epidemiology It is an extremely rare, pan-ethnic disease, with an estimated prevalence in the general population ...
Article

Lückenschädel skull

Lückenschädel skull, also known as lacunar skull or craniolacunae, is a dysplasia of the membranous skull vault and is associated with Chiari II malformations (seen in up to 80% of such cases). The inner table is more affected than the outer, with regions of apparent thinning (corresponding to u...
Article

Lumbar Scheuermann disease

Lumbar Scheuermann disease is a type of variant Scheuermann disease where there is no abnormal kyphosis. This has been reported in the lumbar spine and thoracolumbar junction of patients of all ages, and back pain may be present. On imaging, affected individuals can have vertebral endplate chan...
Article

LUMBAR syndrome

LUMBAR, PELVIS, or SACRAL syndrome is the association of infantile hemangiomas in the lower body with other extracutaneous congenital abnormalities in the region. The syndrome may be incomplete.   Pathology LUMBAR 1 lower body hemangiomas urogenital anomalies and ulceration myelopathy bony...
Article

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis diagnostic criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the diagnostic criteria of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is: THRALL PVC ​Mnemonic T: tuberous sclerosis H: HRCT characteristic or compatible lung findings of LAM RA: renal angiomyolipoma L: lymphatic malformations L: lung biopsy-proven LAM  P: pneumothorax ​V: VE...
Article

Lymphatic malformations

Lymphatic malformations are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. Specifically, they are vascular malformations and not vascular tumors as per the 2018 ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies 5.  This article focuses on the general features of lymphatic malfo...
Article

Lysosomal storage disorders

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) form a large group of clinical entities, more than forty now described, with the common etiological theme being the presence of dysfunctional lysosomal proteins, with the secondary accumulation of toxic metabolites inside the cellular lysosomes. Epidemiology ...
Article

Lytic skull lesion

Lytic skull lesions have a relatively wide differential that can be narrowed, by considering if there are more than one lesion and whether the mandible is involved. Pathology Causes lytic skeletal metastases multiple myeloma epidermoid - scalloped border with a sclerotic rim eosinophilic g...
Article

Macrodactyly

Macrodactyly is a descriptive term for isolated enlargement of some or all elements of a digit, whether of the hand or foot 1. Often it is equated with its most common cause, macrodystrophia lipomatosa 4. Rarely it can be seen as a form of Proteus syndrome 2 A number of conditions may manifest ...

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