Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,153 results found
Article

Osteochondritis dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is the end result of the aseptic separation of an osteochondral fragment with the gradual fragmentation of the articular surface. It is often associated with intraarticular loose bodies. Epidemiology Onset is between childhood and middle age, with the majority o...
Article

Osteofibrous dysplasia

Osteofibrous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous cortical lesion that occurs almost exclusively in the tibia and fibula. It is most commonly seen in the mid-diaphysis of the tibia. Some consider it synonymous with ossifying fibroma because of histological similarities, but it is generally consid...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital, non-sex-linked, genetic disorders of collagen type I production, involving connective tissues and bones.  The hallmark feature of osteogenesis imperfecta is osteoporosis and fragile bones that fracture easily, as well a...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification Osteogenesis imperfecta was initially classified by type according to a sche...
Article

Osteoid osteoma

Osteoid osteomas are benign bone-forming tumors that typically occur in children (particularly adolescents). They have a characteristic lucent nidus less than 1.5 or 2 cm and surrounding osteosclerotic reaction, which classically causes night pain that is relieved by the use of salicylate analge...
Article

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a clinically separate entity from osteopathia striata (Voorhoeve disease). Bony changes on their own are typically incidental and autosomal dominant, whereas OS-CS is a multisystem, X-linked dominant disorder. Epidemiology OS-CS is extremel...
Article

Osteopetrosis

Osteopetrosis, also known as Albers-Schönberg disease or marble bone disease, is an uncommon hereditary disorder that results from defective osteoclasts. Bones become sclerotic and thick, but their abnormal structure actually causes them to be weak and brittle. There are two separate subtypes o...
Article

Osteopoikilosis

Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterized by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone islands...
Article

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by severe osteoporosis and blindness. This disease is frequently mistaken for osteogenesis imperfecta.  Epidemiology This disease is encountered in approximately 1 in 2 million births.  Pathology T...
Article

Oxycephaly

Oxycephaly (also known as turricephaly) is the most severe of the craniosynostoses and results from the premature closure of all sutures. Characterized by a tower-like skull which may be associated with: 8th cranial nerve lesion optic nerve compression mental deficiency syndactyly
Article

Oxygen

Oxygen (chemical symbol O) is one of the basic organic elements, and is a constituent of most of the known organic molecules - and therefore all lifeforms - on earth.  Chemistry Basic chemistry Oxygen is a colourless odorless diatomic gas with an atomic number 8 and atomic weight 15.999. It h...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (horizontal beam lateral radiograph)

The horizontal beam lateral radiograph is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for neonates as free abdominal gas can be visualized without the neonate being erect. This view is also ideal for children that are unable to move from the supine position ...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus radiograph is an additional projection for assessing the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for displaying free air in the abdomen and/or if the patient is unable to lie supine 1. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the lateral decubitu...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is the standard view for assessing air-fluid levels and free air in the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the AP supine and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocol...
Article

Pediatric benign liver tumors

Pediatric benign liver tumors are a relatively rare, but important group of conditions. Importantly, the commonest cause of a benign liver tumor is specific to the pediatric population. The list in descending order of frequency is: infantile hepatic hemangioma (previously hemangioendothelioma) ...
Article

Pediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of pediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting pediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle to...
Article

Pediatric cervical lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis of pediatric cervical lesions is commonly encountered in practice, unfortunately, the list is long. Differential diagnosis Inflammatory Most lesions tend to be inflammatory 3: nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis scrofula sialodochitis abscess infected b...
Article

Pediatric chest (AP erect view)

The anteroposterior erect chest view is ideal in younger cooperative pediatric patients (approximately 3-7 years old; this age range is only a guide). This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The AP erect view is often chosen over the PA erect vie...
Article

Pediatric chest (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam pediatric lateral chest view is a modified lateral projection often utilized in populations under the age of 6 months old due to the inability of that patient to independently hold up their head. There is a body of research that suggest the lateral projection is not required...
Article

Pediatric chest (lateral view)

The pediatric lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessi...
Article

Pediatric chest (supine view)

In pediatric imaging, the anteroposterior supine chest x-ray is beneficial for imaging unconscious or uncooperative patients. This view is preferred in infant and neonate imaging, whilst AP erect and PA erect views are ideal for children able to cooperate in sitting or standing 1. As radiation ...
Article

Pediatric clavicle abnormalities

The clavicle is a unique bone and as such it often displays unique pathology. The following is an attempt to summarize pediatric clavicle abnormalities. Pediatric bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of the clavicle majority of clavicular tumors are malignant Ewing sarcoma (most common) osteos...
Article

Pediatric curriculum

The pediatric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core pediatric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to pediatric radiology, including pediatric neuroradiology and fetal radiology, although there will be some cross coverag...
Article

Pediatric cystic renal diseases

The pediatric cystic renal diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions defined by the presence of kidney cysts due to hereditary or non-hereditary causes: isolated simple cyst cystic renal dysplasia multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) obstructive cystic renal dysplasia genetic disorde...
Article

Pediatric elbow radiograph (an approach)

Pediatric elbow radiographs are commonly encountered in the emergency department and, when approached in a systematic fashion, are not as difficult to interpret as most people think! Systematic review Ossification Check that the ossification centers are present and in the correct position. Th...
Article

Pediatric hand (PA view)

The posteroanterior hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the affe...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1. Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the hip joints an...
Article

Pediatric kidney size

The pediatric kidneys follow a growth curve. The measurements below are of the longest maximal dimension. Measurements in parentheses are one standard deviation. 0 months 1:  female: 4.15 cm (0.35); male: 4.22 cm (0.32) 2 months: 5.28 cm (0.66) 6 months: 6.15 cm (0.67) 10 months: 6.23 cm (0....
Article

Pediatric liver tumor (PRETEXT grouping system)

The PRETEXT system proposed by the International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumor Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumors at diagnosis.  It is used to describe ...
Article

Pediatric mediastinal masses

Pediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal ma...
Article

Pediatric midface anomalies (classification)

This classification system based on the embryology and anatomy of the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, and nasolacrimal apparatus as well as anomalies associated with craniofacial syndromes.2 Nasal cavity choanal atresia and stenosis pyriform aperture stenosis Nasofrontal region  conge...
Article

Pediatric nasal cavity masses

Pediatric nasal cavity masses can occur within the nose or the nasopharynx. These masses are often found incidentally on imaging but can be readily apparent clinically. Clinical presentation The clinical features of these lesions tend to mimic upper respiratory processes and may result in dela...
Article

Pediatric pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is a routine view for pediatric patients to examine the hip joints, proximal femora, iliac crests and pelvic ring. The complications of pelvic pathology in pediatrics can significantly affect the child's future, highlighting the importance of proper patient positioning 1. Pat...
Article

Pediatric posterior fossa tumors (mnemonic)

Tumors of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
Article

Pediatric radiography

Pediatric radiography is a subset within general radiography specializing in the radiographic imaging of the pediatric population. The general principles of radiography remain the same. However, additional consideration needs to be taken into account when determining patient-specific exposure f...
Article

Pediatric radiology for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pediatric radiology curriculum for medical students covers the fundamental imaging modalities, conditions and presentations on children that require imaging. As expected and of more importance compared to adults, when cons...
Article

Pediatric renal tumors and masses

Pediatric renal tumors and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumor: common in older children 1-8 years old nephroblastomatosis: ...
Article

Pediatric skeletal metasases (differential)

There is a wide range of primary malignancies that results in pediatric skeletal metastases 1: neuroblastoma leukemia: although not truly metastases lymphoma clear cell sarcoma: Wilms’ variant rhabdomyosarcoma retinoblastoma Ewing’s sarcoma: lung metastases much more common osteosarcoma:...
Article

Pediatric urinary tract infection

Pediatric urinary tract infections are common and are a source of significant imaging in young children. Epidemiology Pediatric urinary tract infections affect up to 2.8% of all children every year, with approximately 2% of boys and 8% or more of girls developing a urinary tract infection at s...
Article

Pediatric urinary tract infection (NICE guideline)

The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published the “Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management” in 2007 as a guideline for pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) management, including imaging, prophylaxis and follow-up 1.  This article intend...
Article

Pallister-Hall syndrome

Pallister-Hall syndrome displays a wide range of severity and is characterized by hypothalamic hamartomas seen as a mass at the floor of the third ventricle, posterior to the optic chiasm 3,4. Epidemiology Pallister-Hall syndrome is rare and the exact prevalence is unknown. Patients with posta...
Article

Pallister Killian syndrome

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremely rare chromosomal anomaly. Epidemiology It may be more prevalent in births from women of advanced age 4. Clinical presentation Phenotypic expression can significantly vary from multiple anomalies resulting in perinatal death to the more charact...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare pediatric tumors of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean age ...
Article

Panner disease

Panner disease is an osteochondrosis of the capitellum. It should be distinguished from osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow which also affects the capitellum.  Epidemiology Panner disease is typically seen in children (5-10 years of age), although it is also seen in throwers due to repeated...
Article

Parachute mitral valve

A parachute mitral valve is a valvular congenital abnormality usually identified in infants or young children, though it can present later, in adulthood. Pathology Parachute mitral valves occur when all the chordae tendineae are attached to a single papillary muscle origin. Unlike the normal s...
Article

Parapagus

Parapagus twins are conjoined twins that lie side-by-side with ventrolateral fusion.  This type of conjoined twins usually shares the umbilicus, abdomen, and pelvis. The conjoined pelvis may have a single symphysis pubis and one or two sacra.  The lower gastrointestinal tract (single colon and...
Article

Parotid infantile hemangioma

Parotid infantile hemangiomas are the most common parotid tumor of childhood. They usually run a characteristically benign course. Epidemiology The median age at diagnosis is 4 months 1. There is a female preponderance with a male: female ratio of 1:3. Clinical presentation Presents as an en...
Article

Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. Patau syndrome along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Edward syndrome (trisomy 18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days...
Article

Patellar sleeve fracture

Patellar sleeve fractures (also commonly, patellar sleeve avulsion fracture) represent chondral or osteochondral avulsion injury commonly at the inferior pole of the patella (including cartilage from the articular surface, as well as periosteum and cartilage over the dorsal surface). Very rarel...
Article

Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus or arteriosum (PDA) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where there is persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, a normal connection of the fetal circulation between the aorta and the pulmonary arterial system that develops from the 6th aortic arch. Epidemiology PDAs oc...
Article

Patent urachus

A patent urachus is one of the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies. It has occasionally been termed "urachal fistula". Clinical presentation A patent urachus is often diagnosed in neonates when urine is noted leaking from the umbilicus. The umbilicus may also have an abnormal appearance o...
Article

Patterns of neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injuries can manifest in different patterns of involvement depending on the severity and timing of the insult. When considering the perinatal maturation process of the brain and the severity of an insult, it is possible to understand the various manifestations. T...
Article

PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm

The PECARN (Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1. This validated pediatric algorithm predicts likelihood of the abo...
Article

Pectus carinatum

Pectus carinatum, otherwise known as a pigeon chest, refers to a chest wall deformity in which the sternum protrudes anteriorly. It is less common than pectus excavatum. Epidemiology Associations scoliosis (common) 2 cyanotic congenital heart disease (uncommon) Marfan syndrome familial occ...
Article

Pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum, also known as funnel chest, is a congenital chest wall deformity characterized by concave depression of the sternum, resulting in cosmetic and radiographic alterations. Epidemiology It is the most common chest wall deformity, accounting for approximately 90% of cases, occurs ...
Article

Pediatric chest (PA erect view)

The posteroanterior erect chest view is often performed in older pediatric patients; when the patient is able to cooperate with sitting or standing erect. This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The PA erect view is often chosen over the AP erect...
Article

Pediatric cystic nephroma

Pediatric cystic nephromas, previously known as multilocular cystic nephromas, are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in children. As of the 2016 WHO classification, they are considered distinct from adult cystic nephromas 1,2. Terminology Evolving terminology regarding cystic nephromas and...
Article

Pelvic osteotomy

Pelvic osteotomy relates to an orthopedic treatment for developmental acetabular dysplasia of the hip. The main purpose of pelvic osteotomy is the prevention of early degenerative changes by stabilization of the hip and redistribution of joint loading. It is obtained by surgical reshaping/remod...
Article

Pelvis (hip surveillance)

Hip surveillance radiographs are part of a concerted effort to monitor and enable early detection of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy or neuromuscular disorders. The radiographs consist of a modified AP pelvis in which the patient's legs are in a neutral position, with the patell...
Article

Pelvis radiograph (pediatric)

The radiography of the pelvis in the pediatric patient varies greatly from the adult examination; particularly as specialized techniques are often required to immobilize the patient. To avoid future mobility and pain complications, it is essential to treat fractures and correct developmental pat...
Article

PELVIS syndrome

PELVIS or LUMBAR syndrome is the combination of pelvic hemangiomas with other extracutaneous abnormalities. The syndrome may be incomplete.   Pathology PELVIS perineal hemangiomas external genital malformations lipomyelomeningocele vesicorenal anomalies imperforate anus skin tag LUMBAR ...
Article

Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosis. ...
Article

Pentalogy of Cantrell

The pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare phenomenon with an incidence estimated at around 6 per million live births 3.  It encompasses the following 5 main features 1. omphalocoele ectopia cordis (abnormal location of heart) diaphragmatic defect pericardial defect or sternal cleft ca...
Article

Pentalogy of Fallot

The pentalogy of Fallot is a variant of the more common tetralogy of Fallot, comprising the classic four features with the addition of an atrial septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus: ventricular septal defect (VSD)  right ventricular outlfow tract narrowing or complete obstruction right ...
Article

Pepper syndrome

Pepper syndrome is of interest only (the term is not readily used in day-to-day practice), and refers to primary adrenal neuroblastoma with extensive liver metastases 1. In essence, it refers to stage 4S neuroblastoma (see staging of neuroblastoma). 
Article

Pericallosal lipoma

Pericallosal lipomas are fat-containing lesions occurring in the interhemispheric fissure closely related to the corpus callosum, which is often abnormal. It is the most common location for an intracranial lipoma. Epidemiology Pericallosal lipomas are rare, found in only 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 25,...
Article

Pericardial teratoma

Pericardial teratomas are type of primary pericardial tumor. They are usually diagnosed in infants and neonates. As with all teratomas, they are comprised of contain endodermal, mesodermal and neuroectodermal germinal layers. While they are usually benign tumors, they may be life-threatening du...
Article

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH) is the most severe form of hypophosphatasia. If untreated, it is lethal in all cases. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:100,000 live births. Pathology Genetics As with all hypophosphatasia cases, this is due to a mutation in chromosome 1q3...
Article

Periosteal new bone formation in children

Periosteal reaction in the pediatric population, also known as periostitis in children, is relatively common occurrence and can result from many causes. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for multiple bone periostitis include but not limited to the following: physiological peri...
Article

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNET) tend to be large and aggressive retroperitoneal tumors.  Radiographic features The imaging characteristics of peripheral PNETs are nonspecific. However, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a large, aggressive retroperit...
Article

Periventricular leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), or white matter injury of prematurity affecting the periventricular zones, typically results in cavitation and periventricular cyst formation.  It is important to note that both periventricular and subcortical leukomalacia corresponds to a continuous disease ...
Article

Periventricular leukomalacia classification

One of the methods used for grading of periventricular leukomalacia based on sonographic appearances is as: grade 1: areas of increased periventricular echogenicity without any cyst formation persisting for more than 7 days grade 2: the echogenicity has resolved into small periventricular cyst...
Article

Perkin line

Perkin line is a line drawn perpendicular to Hilgenreiner line, intersecting the lateral most aspect of the acetabular roof.  The upper femoral epiphysis should be seen in the inferomedial quadrant: it should lie below Hilgenreiner line, and medial to Perkin line. If the nucleus of the femoral ...
Article

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency, also known as pseudo-neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy or just pseudoadrenoleukodystrophy, is a very rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the enzyme Acyl-Coa oxidase (encoded by ACOX1 gene, 17q25.1) that results in the accu...
Article

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also known as the persistent fetal vasculature, refers to a rare congenital developmental malformation of the eye. Clinical presentation Clinically, this condition usually manifests as unilateral or bilateral leucocoria. Patients may also have p...
Article

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

The most common cause of pulmonary hypertension in newborns is persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). It occurs in term or late preterms infants, where the fetal shunts persist after birth and fail to close. It falls under group 1.5 of the Dana Point classification system of pu...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
Article

Perthes disease

Perthes disease, also known as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, refers to idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral epiphysis seen in children. It should not be confused with Perthes lesion of the shoulder. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of osteonecrosis (including sickle cell disease...
Article

Perthes disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Perthes disease is the name given to idiopathic AVN (avascular necrosis) of the femoral epiphysis in children. It most often occurs in children around the age of 5-6 years and is one of the common considerations when childr...
Article

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough is a highly contagious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Epidemiology The incidence of pertussis in children has dramatically decreased since the introduction of pertussis vaccination. However,...
Article

Pfeiffer syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome (also known as type V acrocephalosyndactyly) is characterized by skull and limb abnormalities. Epidemiology It affects about 1 in 100,000 births Clinical presentation craniosynostosis hypertelorism proptosis maxillary hypoplasia brachydactyly syndactyly Pathology Pfe...
Article

PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: hemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Article

Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from abnormal metabolism of phenylalanine. If untreated, patients can develop central nervous system impairment.  Epidemiology PKU is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 10,000. It is more commo...
Article

Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital skeletal disorder that characteristically affects the limbs. It can affect either the upper limbs or lower limbs or both. Phocomelia is also a descriptive term to describe the characteristic limb anomalies occurring with its associated conditions. Path...
Article

Physeal arrest

Physeal arrest refers to the disturbance or complete cessation of normal growth of skeletally immature bone at the physeal growth plate due to the latter's premature closure Classification Physeal arrests can be either complete 10, i.e. premature closure of the entire physeal growth plate, or ...
Article

Physeal fracture

Physeal fractures (also called Salter-Harris fractures) are important childhood fractures that involve the physis (physeal/growth plate). They are relatively common and important to differentiate from other injuries because the involvement of the physis may cause premature closure resulting in l...
Article

Physiologic periostitis

Physiologic periostitis describes the normal presence of smooth bilateral diaphyseal periosteal new bone in the humeri, femora or tibiae of infants aged 1 to 6 months. It can be observed in both preterm and term infants. The etiology is unclear but may simply relate to rapid growth.   Radiograp...
Article

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Pilocytic astrocytomas, also known as juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, are low-grade, relatively well-defined astrocytomas that tend to occur in young patients. They are considered WHO grade I tumors in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors and correspondingly have a relatively goo...
Article

Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
Article

Pink tetralogy of Fallot

Pink tetralogy of Fallot refers to a tetralogy of Fallot in which the degree of right ventricular outflow obstruction is minimal, resulting no significant right to left shunt, and therefore no cyanosis. Symptoms are mild and presentation may be delayed, even into adulthood. See also tetralogy ...
Article

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, also known as pituitary stalk transection syndrome, is a syndrome characterized by an absent or hypoplastic anterior pituitary gland, thin or absent infundibulum, and ectopic posterior pituitary location. Epidemiology Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome...
Article

Plagiocephaly

Plagiocephaly refers to a type of craniosynostosis in which there is asymmetric premature closure of the coronal and/or lambdoid sutures. It can either involve single or asymmetric multiple sutures. Premature coronal suture closure is associated with the Harlequin eye deformity. History and ety...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.