Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

790 results found
Article

Mendosal suture

The mendosal suture (also known as the accessory occipital suture) is a normal calvarial suture. Gross anatomy The suture extends through the occipital bone, lying superior to the occipitomastoid suture and inferiomedial to the lambdoid suture. It closes in utero or in the first few days of li...
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Jejunal atresia

Jejunal atresia is a congenital anomaly characterised by obliteration of the lumen of the jejunum. The site of the atresia can be anywhere from the ligament of Treitz to the jejunoileal junction. There can be more than one atretic segment. This article will focus on jejunal atresia alone but be...
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Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
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Mucopolysaccharidoses

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) constitute a group of hereditary disorders, one of a number of lysosomal storage disorders, having in common an excessive accumulation of mucopolysaccharides secondary to deficiencies in specific enzymes (lysosomal hydrolases) responsible for degradation of mucopolysa...
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Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup stag...
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Incomplete hippocampal inversion

Incomplete hippocampal inversion unsurprisingly describes the situation where the normal inversion of the hippocampus fails to happen during development. Terminology Incomplete hippocampal inversion is the most correct description of this finding. Hippocampal malrotation is a term used by some...
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Accessory occipital bone sutures

The parietal and occipital bones in particular are common regions for accessory sutures because of their multiple ossification centres. The occipital bone has complex development, ossifying from six centres. The foramen magnum is surrounded by four ossification centres. On each side are the exo...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic tumour-like congenital process, manifested as a localised defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, with the replacement of normal bone with large fibrous stroma and islands of immature woven bone. Fibrous dysplasia has a varied radiographi...
Article

Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of congenital neuromuscular disease affecting anterior horn cells of the brainstem and spinal cord. Epidemiology This disorder affects 1 in 6000-10000 infants 1. Clinical presentation The condition typically affects infants and young children, presenti...
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Tethered cord

Tethered spinal cord syndrome, also known as an occult spinal dysraphism sequence, is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. Clinical presentation The condition is closely linked to spina bifida, and as such pre...
Article

Pott puffy tumour

Pott puffy tumour refers to a non-neoplastic complication of acute sinusitis characterised by a primarily subgaleal collection, also subperiosteal abscess and osteomyelitis. It is usually related to the frontal sinus but sometimes also related with the mastoid. Forehead swelling is seen, which i...
Article

Meningocele

Meningoceles are protrusions of the meninges through a defect or weak point in the skull or spine, usually involving the soft tissues beneath the surface of the skin. They are typically categorized into congenital, iatrogenic (e.g. following a craniotomy, sinus surgery, or as a laminectomy compl...
Article

Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis

Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis is the most common neurological complication of enterovirus infection 1. Clinical presentation Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis causes acute and severe neurologic disorders such as ataxia, nystagmus, oculomotor palsies, or bulbar palsy. In some cases, neurologic af...
Article

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory bone disorder seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion once underlying infection has been ruled out. Epidemiology There is a female predominance, with 85% of cases reported i...
Article

Madelung deformity

Madelung deformity is due to premature closure or defective development of the ulnar third of the distal epiphysis of the radius.  This deformity results in a radial shaft that is bowed with increased interosseous space and dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint. It can be bilateral ...
Article

Septo-optic dysplasia

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), also known as de Morsier syndrome, is a condition characterised by optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum and, in two-thirds of patients hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. It is best thought of as being part of the holoprosencephaly spectrum (see cl...
Article

Holoprosencephaly

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from incomplete separation of the two hemispheres. Classically three subtypes have been recognised, however additional entities are now included in the spectrum of the disease. The three main subtypes, in order of decreas...
Article

Meconium peritonitis

Meconium peritonitis refers to a sterile chemical peritonitis due to intra-uterine bowel perforation and spillage of fetal meconium into the fetal peritoneal cavity. It is a common cause of peritoneal calcification.  Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~1 in 35,000. Pathology The aet...
Article

Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Aetiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary...
Article

Hypovitaminosis C (scurvy)

Scurvy (also known as Barlow disease in infants) is a condition characterised by an increased bleeding tendency and impaired collagen synthesis resulting in osteoporosis and impaired wound healing. It is caused by a dietary lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Epidemiology Scurvy in adults is ra...
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Evaluation of endotracheal tube position

Endotracheal tubes (ETT) are wide-bore plastic tubes that are inserted into the trachea to allow artificial ventilation. Tubes come in a variety of sizes and have a balloon at the tip to ensure that gastric contents are not aspirated into the lungs. Adult tubes are usually approximately 1 cm in ...
Article

HANAC syndrome

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown. Clinical presentation The cardinal features of HANAC syndrome are helpfully described in the name of...
Article

COL4A1 brain small-vessel disease

COL4A1 brain small-vessel disease is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder that primarily causes cerebral small vessel disease. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the condition is likely under-diagnosed. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is vari...
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COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Porencephaly

Porencephaly is a rare congenital disorder that results in cystic degeneration and encephalomalacia and the formation of porencephalic cysts. The term is used variably among radiologists with its broadest definition being a cleft or cystic cavity within the brain 9, and its more narrow definitio...
Article

Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The ...
Article

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastomas are the most common intraocular neoplasm found in childhood, and with modern treatment modalities are, in most cases, curable. On imaging, they are generally characterised by a heterogeneous retinal mass with calcifications, necrotic components, and increased vascularisation on ...
Article

Leg bowing in children

Leg bowing in children is common and often developmental. Differential diagnosis The differential includes: developmental bowing congenital bowing rickets scurvy Blount disease: tibia vara neurofibromatosis type 1 usually lateral bowing skeletal dysplasias  osteogenesis imperfecta ca...
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Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Article

Antral nipple sign

The antral nipple sign refers to redundant pyloric mucosa protruding into the gastric antrum and is seen in pyloric stenosis. See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the CNS

Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (or CNS PNET) were considered aggressive neoplasms of the brain, most frequently encountered in the paediatric population. Importantly, the term no longer appears in the current WHO classification of CNS tumours 11-12.  Please refer to embryonal tumours with mu...
Article

Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumour which can occur in both the paediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumours are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in...
Article

Scimitar syndrome (lungs)

Scimitar syndrome, also known as hypogenetic lung syndrome, is characterised by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous vein into the systemic venous system. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and is one of the several findings in congenital pulmonary venolobar ...
Article

Bronchogenic cyst

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations of the bronchial tree (a type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation). They can present as a mediastinal mass that may enlarge and cause local compression. It is also considered the commonest of foregut duplication cysts. Epidemiology Bronchoge...
Article

Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
Article

Midgut volvulus

Midgut volvulus is a complication of malrotated bowel and results in a proximal bowel obstruction and ischaemia. Epidemiology A midgut volvulus of malrotated bowel can potentially occur at any age but in approximately 75% of cases is within a month of birth 4,6, most within the first week 3, a...
Article

Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It most commonly occurs after vacuum assisted delivery, but may also be seen following head trauma. In patients with intracranial haemorrhage or skull fractures, the incidence o...
Article

Meckel diverticulum

Meckel diverticulum is a congenital intestinal diverticulum due to fibrous degeneration of the umbilical end of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct that occurs around the distal ileum. It is considered the most common structural congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology ...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal number...
Article

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
Article

Lithopaedion

Lithopaedions, also referred as stone babies, are a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1.5 to 1.8% of abdominal ectopic pregnancies 4. Pathology If the dead fetus is too large to be re-absorbe...
Article

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
Article

Lateral epicondyle fracture

Lateral epicondyle fractures are rare epicondylar fractures. They are much rarer than medial epicondyle fractures and represent avulsion of the lateral epicondyle. They are usually seen in the setting of other injuries 1-3.  Epidemiology Incidence typically peaks in the paediatric age group (6...
Article

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumours of neuroblastic origin corresponding to the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancies and the third commonest childhood tumours after leukaemia and brain malignancies. It accounts for ~15% of childhood cancer deaths. Epidemiology The tumours typically occ...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (ultrasound measurements mnemonic)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis can be characterised in ultrasound studies by the measurements of the hypertrophic muscle. Although the criteria can vary from publication to publication, an easy way to keep in mind those values is remembering the first digits of the number "pi", also represented b...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare anatomical abnormalities linked to abnormal embryological venous development. They can be extrahepatic or intrahepatic. In either case, the underlying abnormality is shunting of blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system thus avoid...
Article

Ingested foreign bodies in children

Ingested foreign bodies in children are common as the world is a curious place to young children, who will put anything and everything into their mouth, and will often inadvertently swallow.  The usual practice is for plain films of the chest/abdomen to identify a foreign body. Epidemiology P...
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Bochdalek hernia

A Bochdalek hernia is a form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. They occur posteriorly and are due to a defect in the posterior attachment of the diaphragm when there is a failure of pleuroperitoneal membrane closure in utero. Retroperitoneal structures may prolapse through the defect, e.g. ret...
Article

Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a rare severe developmental disorder. It results from an X-linked genetic defect that is fatal in males and therefore only manifests in females (except for rare 47-XXY cases). Clinical features The typical presentation in infancy is with a triad of: infantile spasms: salaa...
Article

Encephalocoele

Encephalocoele, also known as meningoencephalocele, is a form of neural tube defect and a type of cephalocoele where brain tissue and overlying meninges herniate out through a defect in the cranium.  Terminology It should be distinguished from cranial meningocele in which the lesion contains o...
Article

Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is also known as bowel telescoping into itself. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude s...
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Congenital infections (mnemonic)

The group of the most common congenital infections are referred to by the mnemonic TORCH or STORCH. They usually cause mild maternal morbidity, but are related to serious fetal consequences 4. Mnemonic T: toxoplasmosis O: other (e.g. syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19) R: rubella C:...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is eight years, and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is l...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS manifestations)

The central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Involvement of the CNS is related but distinct from involvement of the skull base or craniofacial structures, which are discussed separately in the article skeletal manifestations of L...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Epidemiology The disease is more common in the paediatric population, with a peak incidence between one and three years of age 5. Incidence is...
Article

Vitamin E

Vitamin E (the tocopherols) are a group of fat-soluble vitamins that act as an antioxidant. Hypovitaminosis E is rarely seen outside premature infants. Hypervitaminosis E is extremely rare as vitamin E is the least toxic of all the vitamins.
Article

Vitamin K

Vitamin K (phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2)) are a group of fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal blood-clotting function. Menaquinone is synthesised by normal flora in the intestine although the amount produced in vivo in the human gut is likely negligible. Vitamin K serves as a coen...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common congenital neck cyst. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Epidemiology Thyroglossal d...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the second most common cyanotic congenital heart condition and has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta, and a late right ventricular hypertrophy. ...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
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Normal paediatric imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the paediatric patients divided by region, modality, and age. Chest Radiographs chest X-ray premature (27 weeks):  example 1 neonate:  example 1 6-year-old:  example 1 12-year-old: example 1 CT CT chest: examples needed Abdomen Radiogra...
Article

Galeazzi fracture-dislocation

Galeazzi fracture-dislocations consist of fracture of the distal part of the radius with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint and an intact ulna. A Galeazzi-equivalent fracture is a distal radial fracture with a distal ulnar physeal fracture 2. Epidemiology Galeazzi fractures are primarily e...
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Generalised increased bone density in children

The causes of generalised increased bone density in paediatric patients can be divided accodring to broad categories of cause : skeletal dysplasias osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis metabolic renal osteodystrophy poisoning lead dense metaphyseal bands cortex and flat bones may also be sligh...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
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Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification OI was initially classified by type according to a scheme developed by Dr Da...
Article

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) are an uncommon WHO Grade IV tumour, which in the vast majority of cases occurs in young children less than two years of age. It most frequently presents as a posterior fossa mass.  AT/RTs were until relatively recently classed as medulloblastomas, al...
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Benign liver tumours (paediatric)

Paediatric benign liver tumours are a relatively rare, but important group of conditions. Importantly, the commonest cause of a benign liver tumour is specific to the paediatric population. The list in descending order of frequency is: infantile hepatic hemangioma (previously haemangioendotheli...
Article

Fetal circulation

Fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation due to the presence of certain vessels and shunts.  These shunts will close after birth, and most of these fetal vessels will be seen as remnants in the adult circulation. The function of these shunts is to direct oxygen-rich venous blood to ...
Article

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a rare condition characterised by short-trunk dwarfism secondary to developmental anomalies of the vertebrae and ribs. Previously the condition Jarcho-Levin syndrome (also known as spondylothoracic dysostosis) was grouped together with spondylocostal dysostosi...
Article

Scaphocephaly

Scaphocephaly (also known as dolichocephaly) is the most common form of craniosynostosis, where premature closure of the sagittal suture results in impediment to lateral growth of the skull while anteroposterior growth continues, producing a narrow elongated skull. Causes are primary, or seconda...
Article

Liver lesions (paediatric)

Paediatric liver lesions are a heterogeneous group that include infiltrative lesions and those that demonstrate mass effect. Moreover, they may be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant: benign liver tumours malignant liver tumours Epidemiology There are differing frequencies of both beni...
Article

Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
Article

Osteopetrosis

Osteopetrosis, or Albers-Schönberg disease, is an uncommon hereditary disorder that results from defective osteoclasts. Bones become sclerotic and thick, but their abnormal structure results in them being both weak and brittle. There are two separate subtypes of osteopetrosis: infantile autoso...
Article

Omphalocoele

Omphalocoeles, or exomphalos, are congenital midline abdominal wall defects at the base of the umbilical cord insertion with herniation of gut (or occasionally other content) out of the fetal abdomen. Epidemiology The estimated occurrence can be up to 1:4000 of live births 3.  Pathology It i...
Article

Jarcho-Levin syndrome

The Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) or spondylothoracic dysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder which can occur to variable severity. Previously the condition spondylocostal dysostosis was also considered as part of the JLS spectrum but is now considered a distinct pathologic...
Article

Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma, also known as cystic or nuchal lymphangioma, refers to the cystic variety of congenital lymphangioma which, most commonly, occur in the cervicofacial regions, particularly at the posterior cervical triangle.  Epidemiology  They usually occur in the fetal/infantile and paediatri...
Article

Terminal myelocystocele

Terminal myelocystoceles are an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism representing marked dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord, herniating posteriorly through a dorsal spinal defect. The result is a skin-covered mass in the lower lumbar region, consisting of an ependyma-lined sac.  E...
Article

Intramembranous ossification

Intramembranous ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) without a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures. The stages of intramembranous ossification osteogenesis are as follows: mesenchymal cells differentiate in...
Article

Endochondral ossification

Endochondral ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) with a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures. Bone formation occurs at centers of ossification (or ossification centres) which are either primary or secondary...
Article

Leigh syndrome

Leigh syndrome, also known as subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy (SNEM), is a mitochondrial disorder with progressive neurodegeneration that invariably leads to death, usually in childhood. Epidemiology Leigh syndrome is encountered in approximately 1 in 40,000 births, although some popu...
Article

Intestinal malrotation

Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anatomical anomaly that results from an abnormal rotation of the gut as it returns to the abdominal cavity during embryogenesis. Although some individuals live their entire life with malrotated bowel without symptoms, the abnormality does predispose to mid...
Article

Intussusception reduction

Intussusception reduction is a procedure performed in paediatric patients who have an ileocolic intussusception. There are several ways that reduction can be achieved radiologically: air-reduction under fluoroscopic guidance water-reduction under fluoroscopic guidance physical reduction unde...
Article

Choanal atresia

Choanal atresia refers to a lack of formation of the choanal openings. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Epidemiology It frequently presents in neonates where it is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction in this age group. There is a recognised female predilection. The incidence is ...
Article

Oesophageal atresia

An oesophageal atresia refers to an absence in contiguity of the oesophagus due to an inappropriate division of the primitive foregut into the trachea and oesophagus. This is the most common congenital anomaly of the oesophagus.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in ~1:3000-4500 live births ...
Article

Stroke in children and young adults

Brain ischaemia/infarction in children and young adults can result from several causes. embolic phenomena cyanotic heart disease cardiomyopathies mitral valve prolapse Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome arterial dissection trauma spontaneous fibromuscular dysplasia Marfan syndrome Ehlers Danl...
Article

Glutaric aciduria type 1

Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a leukodystrophy that can be subclassified as an organic acidopathy. It has a highly variable clinical presentation, and laboratory investigations are not always diagnostic. Imaging, therefore, has an important role to play as the MRI features can be characteristic. ...
Article

Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
Article

Target sign (intussusception)

The target sign of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign or bull's eye sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by mucosa and muscularis whereas the submucosa is responsible fo the hypoec...

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