Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

926 results found
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Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5 . Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there i...
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Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumour which can occur in both the paediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumours are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in...
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Omega epiglottis

The omega epiglottis is a variant configuration of the normal epiglottis in which the lateral folds are curled inwards. The configuration is not necessarily pathologic but has been associated with higher rates of laryngomalacia 3.  Differential diagnosis When seen on lateral neck radiograph, a...
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Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
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Umbilical venous catheters

Umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in neonates for vascular access and should be carefully assessed for position on all neonatal films.  Position An umbilical venous catheter generally passes directly superiorly and remains relatively anterior in the abdomen. It passes through...
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Toddler fracture

Toddler fractures are minimally or undisplaced spiral fractures usually of the tibia, typically encountered in toddlers. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to establish on account of both the symptoms and imaging findings being subtle. Terminology The term has sometimes also been used to ...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion injuries are one of the six main types of pelvic apophyseal avulsion fractures. Subacute or chronic avulsion injuries can be mistaken for a pseudotumour.  Epidemiology As with many pelvic avulsion injuries, they most often occur in adolescents (mos...
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of air within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics usually due to positive pressure ventilation. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants with hyaline membrane disease. I...
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Epiglottitis

Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition caused by inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds 1,  which can lead to acute airway obstruction. Treatment should be urgent and performed by appropriately trained individuals, e.g. instrumentation of the trachea should be performed by ...
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Meconium aspiration

Meconium aspiration occurs secondary to intrapartum or intrauterine aspiration of meconium, usually in the setting of fetal distress, often in term or post-term infants. Epidemiology Up to 10-15% of live births after 34 weeks can present with meconium stained fluid but only 1-5% of neonates de...
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Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) is due to periorbital ecchymosis and is specific for base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are several rare causes described, including metastatic neuroblastoma, Kaposi ...
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Megapolycalycosis

Megapolycalycosis is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney which is characterised by dilatation and increase in number of the renal calyces without any distal obstruction. Epidemiology Associations  obstructive uropathy vesicoureteric reflux Schinzel- Giedion syndrome Clinical presentati...
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Developmental dysplasia of the hip

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), or in older texts congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH), denotes aberrant development of the hip joint and results from an abnormal relationship of the femoral head to the acetabulum. There is a clear female predominance, and it usually occurs from lig...
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SADDAN syndrome

SADDAN syndrome is an acronym for severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans. It is an extremely rare condition, and as the name states, comprises a combination of skeletal, brain and cutaneous anomalies. Pathology Genetics The syndrome results from a mutation in ...
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Non-accidental injuries

Non-accidental injuries (NAI) represent both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists are often the first to suspect NAI when confronted with particular injury patterns, and a knowledge of these is essential if the opportunity to save a child from future neglect is not ...
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Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why immediate recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Cl...
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WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome stands for: Wilms tumours (greatly increased risk) aniridia genital anomalies mental retardation Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene. 
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Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...
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Drash syndrome

Drash syndrome, also known as the Denys-Drash syndrome, is associated with an abnormal WT1 gene (Wilms tumour gene) and consists of: Wilms tumour male pseudohermaphroditism progressive glomerulonephritis
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Filar cyst

A filar cyst is an incidental finding on neonatal lumbar sonography located in the filum terminale of the spinal cord. It is considered a normal variant and is often confused for a ventriculus terminalis, a smooth dilated cavity of the central canal, located within the conus medullaris. The inc...
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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition in general radiology practice and is one of the main reasons for abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis. Epidemiology Acute appendicitis is typically a d...
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Conjoined twins

Conjoined twin pregnancy is a rare occurrence resulting from the failure of a zygote to separate completely after 13 weeks. This results in the twins being physically joined. Epidemiology The prevalence of conjoined twins ranges from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000. They are more common in parts of Sout...
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Craniopagus

Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins that are fused at any part of the skull, except the face, foramen magnum, skull base and the vertebral column. The fused structures are most often the cranium, meninges, and dural venous sinuses. Brains tend to be separate; however, may be connected by a br...
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Rachipagus

Rachipagus twins are an extremely rare type of conjoined twins. They are joined in the dorsal aspect and face away from each other. Fusion of the occiput with varying segments of the vertebral column may occur, resulting in the sharing of the spinal cords. The fusion terminates above the sacrum...
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Thoracopagus conjoined twins

Thoracopagus conjoined twins are, as the name suggests, conjoined twins united at their thorax. Fusion is typically face-to-face, at the upper thorax to the umbilicus with a common sternum, diaphragm, and upper abdominal wall. Very often a common pericardial sac is present as well as a degree o...
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Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10 000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and ...
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Scalp haematoma

A scalp haematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of haematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull pe...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection external to the Galeal aponeurosis in the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results f...
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Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
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Octreotide scintigraphy

Octreotide scintigraphy uses 111In-labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog; it is also known as an OctreoscanTM, a brand name for 111In-labelled pentetreotide; pentetreotide is a DTPA-conjugated form of octreotide, originally manufactured by Mallinckrodt Nuclear Medicine LLC, which no...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as: Ortn...
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Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It is more frequently seen in males. The enlarged, floppy calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calcul...
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Urachal cyst

Urachal cysts are one of the manifestations of the spectrum of congenital urachal remnant abnormalities.  Clinical presentation Urachal cysts usually remain asymptomatic until complicated by infection or bleeding. Epidemiology An infected urachal cyst can occur at any age. Pathology Uracha...
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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumours of neuroblastic origin. Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. They represent the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancy and are the third commonest childhood tumour after leukaemia an...
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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), make up the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life in non-mosaic forms, albeit in the case of Edward syndrome only for a week or so.  Epidemiology After Down...
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Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
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Crouzon syndrome

Crouzon syndrome is rare disorder characterised by premature craniosynostoses.  Pathology Features include: abnormal calvarial shape: in severe case can give a "cloverleaf skull"  shallow orbits with exopthalmos mid facial hypoplasia bifid uvula Genetics It carries an autosomal dominant ...
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Necrotising enterocolitis

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal condition in premature neonates. It is characterised by inflammation, ischaemia, and permeability of the neonatal bowel wall to bacteria. It is potentially life-threatening with significant associated morbidity 1. Epidemiology ...
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Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
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Bochdalek hernia

A Bochdalek hernia is a form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. They occur posteriorly and are due to a defect in the posterior attachment of the diaphragm when there is a failure of pleuroperitoneal membrane closure in utero. Retroperitoneal structures may prolapse through the defect, e.g. ret...
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Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
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Lumbar Scheuermann disease

Lumbar Scheuermann disease is a type of variant Scheuermann disease where there is no abnormal kyphosis. This has been reported in the lumbar spine and thoracolumbar junction of patients of all ages, and back pain may be present. On imaging, affected individuals can have vertebral endplate chan...
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Apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal

The apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal lies laterally and is oriented longitudinally parallel to the shaft. Apophysis of the fifth metatarsal base appears on plain radiographs at age 12 for boys and 10 for girls. Fusion of the apophysis to the metatarsal base usually occurs within the fol...
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Right middle lobe syndrome

Right middle lobe syndrome refers to chronic right middle lobe collapse, without an obstructing lesion. It is usually with associated bronchiectasis.  Epidemiology Right middle lobe syndrome is usually encountered in older adults, with a predilection for women (see Lady Windermere syndrome). I...
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Pectus carinatum

Pectus carinatum, otherwise known as a pigeon chest, refers to a chest wall deformity in which the sternum protrudes anteriorly. It is less common than pectus excavatum. Clinical presentation Patients may present with dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Pathology Associations scoliosis (comm...
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Single umbilical artery

Single umbilical artery (SUA) results when there is a congenital absence of either the right or left umbilical artery. In the usual situation, there are paired umbilical arteries. For unknown reasons, the absence of the left umbilical artery is much more common (~70%). Epidemiology The estimat...
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Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
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Gastric duplication cyst

A gastric duplication cyst is a rare congenital foregut duplication cyst affecting the stomach. It accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal duplications. The most common site of gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDCs) is the ileum, followed by oesophagus, large bowel and jejun...
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Osteopoikilosis

Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterised by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone i...
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Midgut volvulus

Midgut volvulus is a complication of malrotated bowel. It may result in proximal bowel obstruction with resultant ischaemia if prompt treatment is not instigated. Epidemiology A midgut volvulus of malrotated bowel can potentially occur at any age but in approximately 75% of cases occur within ...
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Cozen fracture

Cozen fracture or phenomenon is the valgus angulation deformity of the tibia following a proximal tibial metaphyseal fracture in children. Epidemiology This typically occurs as a late deformity in children aged 3-6 years. Pathology Aetiology Proposed causes include: non-recognised or under...
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Corkscrew sign

The corkscrew sign describes the spiral appearance of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum seen in midgut volvulus 1. In patients with malrotation and volvulus, the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum do not cross the midline and instead pass in an inferior direction. These loops twist on ...
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Type I choledochal cyst

Type I choledochal cysts appear as a fusiform or cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary system (common bile duct +/- common hepatic duct). Epidemiology Although uncommon in Western countries (1:100,000 to 1:150,000), they are the most common type of biliary cyst. Their prevalence may be...
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Lateral centre-edge angle

The lateral centre-edge angle is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It has primarily been described in assessing for acetabular dysplasia but can also be used in femoroacetabular impingement. It is calculated on AP pelvic radiographs by using drawing a b...
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Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2,500 to 5,000 live births 6,8. T...
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CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
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Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000. Pathology Classification Post-axial...
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Extrusion index

The extrusion index is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It is useful in assessing for developmental dysplasia as well as femoroacetabular impingement. It is calculated by dividing the horizontal distance of the lateral femoral head that is uncovered by...
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Tubulinopathy

Tubulinopathy refers to a wide spectrum of cortical malformations that result from defects in genes encoding the tubulin protein that regulates neuronal migration during brain development. Clinical presentation Some series report a high prevalence of seizures during infancy which may the initi...
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Sphenoidal fontanelles

The sphenoidal or anterolateral fontanelles (or fontanels) are paired bilateral soft membranous gaps at the junction of the coronal, sphenofrontal, sphenoparietal, sphenosquamosal, and squamosal sutures. Each mastoid fontanelle persists until approximately six months after birth, after which it ...
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Posterior fontanelle

The posterior fontanelle or occipital fontanelle (or fontanel) is the triangular soft membranous gap at the junction of the lambdoid and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 3 months after birth, after which it is known as the lambda. It can be used as an additional sonographic wind...
Article

Mastoid fontanelle

The mastoid or posterolateral fontanelles (or fontanels) are paired bilateral soft membranous gaps at the junction of the parietomastoid, occipitomastoid, and lambdoid sutures. Each mastoid fontanelle persists until the second year of life, after which it is known as the asterion. It can be used...
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Anterior fontanelle

The anterior or frontal fontanelle (or fontanel) is the diamond-shaped soft membranous gap at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 18-24 months after birth, after which it is known as the bregma. It is the largest of the fontanelles and is the main so...
Article

Pericallosal lipoma

Pericallosal lipomas are fat-containing lesions occurring in the interhemispheric fissure closely related to the corpus callosum, which is often abnormal. It is the most common location for an intracranial lipoma. On imaging, they can be identified in two different morphologies: tubulonodular, ...
Article

Congenital spinal meningocele

Congenital spinal meningoceles are developmental anomalies of meningothelial elements displaced into the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Please refer on menigocele article for a broad overview of all types of this condition.  Pathology It is defect of the neural tube, an embryonic structure th...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Encephalocele

Encephalocele, also known as meningoencephalocele, is a form of neural tube defect and a type of cephalocele where brain tissue and overlying meninges herniate out through a defect in the cranium.  Terminology It should be distinguished from cranial meningocele in which the lesion contains onl...
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Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations, and it is characterised by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modali...
Article

Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumour

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structu...
Article

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/ge...
Article

Diastasis recti

Diastasis recti (rectus diastasis) is a stretching of the linea alba with abnormal widening of the gap between the two sides of the rectus abdominus muscle (inter-recti distance). The degree of widening needed for the diagnosis is controversial, with the degree of abdominal protrusion (rather t...
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Multilocular cystic renal tumour

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Chondroblastoma

Chondroblastomas, also referred as Codman tumours, are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms that characteristically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone in young patients. Despite being rare, they are one of the most frequently encountered benign epiphyseal neoplasms in skeletally i...
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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance with an overall incidence of 1 in 2000-2500. 8% of cases are syndromic or familial....
Article

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
Article

Triradiate cartilage

The triradiate cartilage is the Y- shaped epiphyseal plate that occurs at the junction where the ischium, ilium and pubis meet in the skeletally immature skeleton.   The vertical component of the "Y" is the meeting of the ischium and pubic bone, the anterior arm is the junction of the ilium and...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification Osteogenesis imperfecta was initially classified by type according to a sche...
Article

Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
Article

Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile tumour-like bone lesions of uncertain aetiology, composed of numerous blood-filled channels, and mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Aneurysmal bone cysts are primarily seen in children and adolescents, with 80% occurring ...
Article

Non-ossifying fibroma

Non-ossifying fibromas (NOF) are the most common of non-neoplastic fibrous bone lesions and are a larger version (>3 cm) of a fibrous cortical defect; both are encompassed by the term fibroxanthoma or metaphyseal fibrous defect. Epidemiology NOFs are very common in children and adolescents, an...
Article

Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term given to a group of anomalies where there are malformations in the dorsum of the embryo. Neural tube defects come under this group as well.  Pathology There is often abnormal fusion of the midline embryonic neural, vertebral and mesenchymal structures.  Subty...
Article

Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
Article

Rachitic rosary

Rachitic rosary refers to expansion of the anterior rib ends at the costochondral junctions and is most frequently seen in rickets as nodularity at the costochondral junctions. Differential diagnosis Other causes of this appearance include:  scurvy:  the costochondral junction is more angula...
Article

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as macrophage activation syndrome, is a non-malignant disorder of immune regulation characterised by overproduction of cytokines and diminished immune surveillance. It may affect multiple organs and is one of the few entities which demonstrat...
Article

Terminal zones of myelination

The terminal zones of myelination are located at the posterior aspect of the lateral ventricles (the peritrigonal regions) and are the only part of the cerebral white matter that may exhibit high T2 signal in a normal brain at 2 years of age, when myelination of cerebral white matter normally be...
Article

Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly

Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly, is an autosomal-recessive inherited condition that manifests in the early childhood with moderate to severe psychomotor retardation and spasticity. On imaging, it is characterised by bilateral anterior subcortical temporal lobe cysts and extens...
Article

Ulnar hemimelia

Ulnar hemimelia is a rare congenital upper limb anomaly characterized by complete or partial absence of the ulna bone. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1/100,000-150,000 live births, with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Associations Ulnar hemimelia may be associated with other skeletal ...
Article

Ductus venosus

Ductus venosus (DV) is a narrow, trumpet-shaped vessel which is seen in the fetal liver connecting the umbilical vein directly to the caudal inferior vena cava. The vessel plays a critical role in the fetal circulation by shunting oxygenated and nutrient-rich umbilical venous blood from the plac...
Article

Ingested foreign bodies in children

Ingested foreign bodies in children are common as the world is a curious place to young children, who will put anything and everything into their mouth, and will often inadvertently swallow.  The usual practice is for plain films of the chest/abdomen to identify a foreign body. Epidemiology P...
Article

Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterised by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Du...
Article

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblite...

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