Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

802 results found
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Paediatric curriculum

The paediatric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core paediatric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to paediatric radiology, including paediatric neuroradiology and fetal radiology, although there will be some cross cov...
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Necrotising enterocolitis

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal condition in premature neonates. It is characterised by inflammation, ischaemia, and permeability of the neonatal bowel wall to bacteria. It is potentially life threatening with significant associated morbidity. Epidemiology N...
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Haystack sign (pneumomediastinum)

The haystack sign on chest x-rays in paediatric patients is indicative of pneumomediastinum. The paediatric heart is surrounded above and below with gas, giving it an appearance of a haystack from Monet's paintings. 
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Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), also known as Dawson disease, is a rare chronic, progressive and fatal encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. Epidemiology  1 in 100,000 people infected with ...
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Macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95th centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity). Pathology Associations Recognised associations include: chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome tends to be a relative macroglossia may also have intermi...
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Urbach-Wiethe disease

Urbach-Wiethe disease, also known as lipoid proteinosis or hyalinosis cutis et mucosae, is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that primarily affects the skin, upper respiratory tract, and central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology Urbach-Wiethe disease is a very rare condition, with few...
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Bone age assessment

Bone age assessment is an important part of the diagnostic and management pathway in children with growth and endocrine disorders. It is helpful in the diagnosis of various growth disorders and can provide a prediction of final height for patients presenting with short stature. Bone age can als...
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Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation refers to the embryological development of male and female phenotypes. Unlike sexual genotype which is determined at the time of fertilisation, the male and female phenotypes do not begin to differentiate substantially until the seventh week of gestation.  Males  Y chrom...
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Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is also known as bowel telescoping into itself. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude s...
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Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. KFS has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,000 2. Clin...
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Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
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Copper beaten skull

Copper beaten skull, also known as beaten brass skull, refers to the prominence of convolutional markings (gyral impressions on the inner table of the skull) seen throughout the skull vault. Clinical presentation The appearance of copper beaten skull is associated with raised intracranial pres...
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Duane syndrome

Duane syndrome, also known as Duane retraction syndrome, is a rare congenital disease characterised by non-progressive strabismus. It is caused by a variable degree of abnormal development of one or both 6th cranial nerves (CN VI). Epidemiology It presents during childhood and it accounts for ...
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Harrison's sulcus

Harrison's sulcus or Harrison's groove refers to a groove at the lower end of the rib cage seen in young children / infants with abnormally weak bones (e.g. rickets) or chronic respiratory disease (e.g. severe asthma). The lower chest is drawn in with flaring of the rib margin. The exact cause i...
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Cobb's collar

Cobb's collar(also known as a Moormann's ring) is an uncommon finding on a paediatric voiding/micturating cystourethrogram (VCUG), but an indentation of the bulbar urethra is seen in more than half of boy's who are cystoscoped, as the narrow represents two different phenomena3-4. Pathology One...
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Bowing fracture

Bowing fractures are incomplete fractures of tubular long bones in paediatric patients (especially the radius and ulna) that often require no intervention and heal with remodelling. Epidemiology Bowing fractures are almost exclusively found in children. However, there have been several case re...
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Monteggia fracture-dislocation

Monteggia fracture-dislocations consist of a fracture of the ulnar shaft with concomitant dislocation of the radial head. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious, whereas the radial head dislocation can be overlooked, with potentially serious functional and medico-legal ramifications.  Mechanism ...
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Galeazzi fracture-dislocation

Galeazzi fracture-dislocations consist of fracture of the distal part of the radius with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint and an intact ulna. A Galeazzi-equivalent fracture is a distal radial fracture with a distal ulnar physeal fracture 2. Epidemiology Galeazzi fractures are primarily e...
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Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
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Greenstick fracture

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures. Pathology Mechanism Greenstick fractures ...
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Torus fracture

Torus fractures, also known as buckle fractures, are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterised by bulging of the cortex. They result from trabecular compression from an axial loading force along the long axis of the bone. They are usually seen in children, frequently...
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Salter-Harris type I fracture

Salter-Harris type I fractures are relatively uncommon injuries that occur in children. Salter-Harris fractures are injuries where a fracture of the metaphysis or epiphysis extends through the physis. Not all fractures that extend to the growth plate are Salter-Harris fractures. Radiographic fe...
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Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from abnormal metabolism of phenylalanine. If untreated, patients can develop central nervous system impairment.  Epidemiology PKU is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 10,000. It is more commo...
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Metaphyseal corner fracture

Metaphyseal corner fractures, also known as classical metaphyseal lesions (CML) or bucket handle fractures, are observed in young children, less than 2 years old. It is considered pathognomic for non-accidental injury (NAI).  Prevalence This injury is not only the fracture most specific for NA...
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Epicondyle fracture

Epicondyle fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiother...
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Bado classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations

The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognised and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
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Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
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Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common physeal fractures that occur in children. The fracture line will include the physis and a portion of the metaphysis, leaving a triangular metaphyseal fragment intact, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment. Salter-Harris fractures ar...
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Kernicterus

Kernicterus, also known as chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, describes the chronic, toxic, permanent sequelae of high levels of unconjugated bilirubin on the central nervous system of infants. It is part of the spectrum of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction, which also includes acute bilir...
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Multilocular cystic renal tumours

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
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Osgood-Schlatter disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a chronic fatigue injury due to repeated microtrauma at the patellar ligament insertion onto the tibial tuberosity, usually affecting boys between 10-15 years. Epidemiology Osgood-Schlatter disease is seen in active adolescents, especially those who jump and k...
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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour with skeletal muscle cell morphology. It is one of the tumours of muscular origin.  This article focuses on a general discussion of rhabdomyosarcomas. For location specific details, please refer to: rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma...
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Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations, and it is characterised by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsil (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modalit...
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Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a nonmalignant disorder of immune regulation characterised by overproduction of cytokines and diminished immune surveillance. It may affect multiple organs. Epidemiology It typically affects infants and children 5. Pathology The condition can be p...
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Perthes disease

Perthes disease (also referred to as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) refers to idiopathic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral epiphysis seen in children. It should not be confused with Perthes lesion of the shoulder. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of avascular necrosis (includi...
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Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
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Harlequin eye deformity

The harlequin eye deformity may be seen in unilateral (plagiocephaly) or bilateral (brachycephaly) coronal suture synostosis, and refers to the elevation of the superolateral corner of the orbit. The term harlequin eye derives from the appearance of the eyes on a harlequin mask with their exagg...
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Blalock-Taussig shunt

Blalock-Taussig shunt, also known as Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, is a palliative procedure designed to increase pulmonary arterial blood flow in patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot) or during initial staged repair of hypoplastic left heart syndro...
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Triphalangeal thumb

Triphalangeal thumb is considered a form of pre-axial polydactyly. Epidemiology Triphalangeal thumbs have an incidence of 1 in 25,000 7.  Pathology A triphalangeal thumb, as the name implies, has three phalanges instead of the usual two. There is an autosomal dominant genetic transmission 8....
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. Treatment typically consists of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, with the...
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Elbow ossification

Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicodylar fracture for a normal ossification center.  Appearance Order The order of appearances of the elbow os...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
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Medial epicondyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fractures represent almost all epicondyle fractures and occur when there is avulsion of the medial epicondyle. They are typically seen in children, and can be challenging to identify. Failure to diagnose these injuries can lead to significant long term disability.  Epidemiolog...
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Block vertebra

Block vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly where there is a failure of separation of two or more adjacent vertebral bodies. Pathology In a block vertebra, there is partial or complete fusion of adjacent vertebral bodies. Associations there is a frequent association with hemivertebrae/abse...
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Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
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Octreotide scintigraphy

Octreotide scintigraphy uses 111In-labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog; it is also known as an OctreoscanTM, a brand name for 111In-labelled pentetreotide; pentetreotide is a DTPA-conjugated form of octreotide, originally manufactured by Mallinckrodt Nuclear Medicine LLC, which no...
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Herpes simplex encephalitis

Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotizing viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings.  Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus and pattern of involvement. They are 1: neonatal herpes encephalitis ...
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Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Article

Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica

Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), also known as Trevor disease, is an extremely rare, non-hereditary disease that is characterised by osteochondromas arising from the epiphyses. Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at ~1:1,000,000 3. There is a recognised male predilection (M:F = 3:1...
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Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile tumour-like bone lesions of uncertain aetiology, composed of numerous blood filled channels, and mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Aneurysmal bone cysts are primarily seen in children and adolescents, with 80% occurring ...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion injuries are one of the six main types of pelvic apophyseal avulsion fractures.  Epidemiology As with many pelvic avulsion injuries, they most often occur in adolescents (mostly between the ages 14-17). There is a slight male predilection and they ...
Article

Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the paediatric setting. The rule A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the r...
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Slipped upper femoral epiphysis

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnormalities in adolescence and is bilateral in ~20% of cases. Epidemiology ...
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Lateral epicondyle fracture

Lateral epicondyle fractures are rare epicondylar fractures. They are much rarer than medial epicondyle fractures and represent avulsion of the lateral epicondyle. They are usually seen in the setting of other injuries 1-3.  Epidemiology Incidence typically peaks in the paediatric age group (6...
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Humeral condyle fracture

Humeral condyle fractures represent fractures through the medial or lateral distal humeral condyles. 
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Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
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Scham sign (hip)

The Scham sign of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is one of the subtle signs that may be seen on the AP view of an adolescent hip with early slip. In the normal adolescent hip, an intraarticular portion of the diaphysis of the collum overlies the posterior wall of the acetabulum inferiomedial...
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Robin sequence

Robin sequence, also called Pierre Robin syndrome or Pierre Robin anamaloid, is a congenital condition characterised by facial abnormalities. Its aetiology has no genetic base, but rather, is reliant on a sequence of events, one following the other. Terminology Robin sequence is the preferred ...
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Metaphyseal blanch sign

The metaphyseal blanch sign (a.k.a. metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel) is one of the signs seen on AP views of the adolescent hip indicating posterior displacement of the capital epiphysis. It is a crescent-shaped area of increased density, that overlies the metaphysis adjacent to the physis on ...
Article

Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to chilhood onset avascular necrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone avascular necrosis. 4,5 Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years age) and th...
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Panner disease

Panner disease is an osteochondrosis of the capitellum. It should be distinguished from osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow which also affects the capitellum.  Epidemiology Panner disease is typically seen in children (5-10 years of age), although it is also seen in throwers due to repeated...
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Tectal glioma

Tectal gliomas fall under the grouping of childhood brainstem gliomas and unlike the other tumours in that group they are typically low grade astrocytomas with good prognosis.  Epidemiology Tectal plate gliomas are encountered in children and adolescents 4. A male predilection has sometimes be...
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Neonatal neuroblastoma

Neonatal neuroblastoma is a type of congenital neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour arising from the sympathetic nervous system. In the majority of cases (45%), the tumour is localised in the adrenal gland.  Epidemiology Neonatal neuroblastoma accounts for less than 5% of all cases and carries ...
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Caffey disease

Caffey disease or infantile cortical hyperostosis is a largely self-limiting disorder which affects infants. It causes bone changes, soft-tissue swelling, and irritability. A rare variant known as prenatal onset cortical hyperostosis is severe and fatal, though it is probably a separate entity ...
Article

Hoffa's fat pad herniation

Hoffa's fat pad herniation is defined as herniation of infrapatellar fat through a defect in the lateral retinaculum. It is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass often detected at the fully flexed knee 1. Clinical presentation Mainly occurs in preschool-aged and young children as a p...
Article

Bronchial atresia

Bronchial atresia is a developmental anomaly characterised by focal obliteration of the proximal segment of a bronchus associated with hyperinflation of the distal lung.  On imaging, it commonly presents as a proximal focal tubular shaped opacity radiating from the hilum associated with a dista...
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Paediatric liver tumour (PRETEXT grouping system)

The PRETEXT system proposed by the International Childhood Liver Tumours Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumour Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumours at diagnosis.  It is used to descri...
Article

Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassamia, tuberculosis D: disease of Caf...
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Leukodystrophies

The leukodystrophies are dysmyelinating disorders which typically, although not invariably, affect children. They include: lysosomal storage diseases metachromatic leukodystrophy globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) Fabry disease Niemann-Pick disease mucopolysaccharidoses peroxis...
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Birth trauma

Birth trauma relates to those conditions caused by both physical/mechanical and hypoxic injuries. Epidemiology Birth trauma occurs in ~5 per 1000 births 2. Risk factors asphyxia breech presentation shoulder dystocia instrument delivery macrosomia obstructed labour Pathology Aetiology ...
Article

Sclerosing bone dysplasias

Sclerosing bone dysplasias comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders (skeletal dysplasias) united by the presence of sclerosis of one form or another. Some of these entities are thought to be related (e.g. osteopoikilosis, melorheostosis and Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome) 1.  They include: cra...
Article

Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
Article

Increased bone age

A generalised acceleration in bone maturation can result from a number of aetiological factors. They include: endocrine disorders idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty hypothalamic or parathalamic lesion with sexual precocity: e.g. craniopharyngioma astrocytoma hypothalamic hamartoma hy...
Article

Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral cleft refers to the presence of a radiolucent vertical defect on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) ...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why proper recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Clini...
Article

Sincipital encephalocoele

Sincipital encephalocoeles are congenital herniations of cerebral parenchyma through a cranial defect. There are three main types 1,2: frontonasal encephalocoele (~50%): more common in Asia and Latin America 4 naso-ethmoidal encephalocoele (30%): more common in North America 4 naso-orbital (n...
Article

Intestinal nonrotation

Intestinal nonrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestines that results in the small bowel occupying the right side of the peritoneal cavity and the colon predominantly on the left. It is sometimes thought of as a subtype of intestinal malrotation. Epidemiology Nonrotation is estimated ...
Article

Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
Article

Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
Article

Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
Article

Non-ossifying fibroma

Non-ossifying fibromas (NOF) are the most common of non-neoplastic fibrous bone lesions and are essentially a larger version (>3 cm) of a fibrous cortical defect; both are encompassed by the term fibroxanthoma or metaphyseal fibrous defect. Epidemiology NOFs are very common in children and ado...
Article

Prune belly syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as Eagle Barrett syndrome 3 or triad syndrome, is a rare anomaly comprising a specific constellation of features. It consists of three major findings: gross ureteric dilatation anterior abdominal wall underdevelopment (resulting in the "prune belly" appearance)...
Article

Neonatal hydronephrosis

Neonatal hydronephrosis is most commonly diagnosed antenatally as fetal pylectasis, and in the majority of cases is due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.   Pathology Aetiology pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction (50% of cases 1,6) vesicoureteric reflux (~20% of cases 5) po...
Article

Double track sign (pyloric stenosis)

The double track sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on various imaging modalities.  Barium study Double streaks of barium passing through the narrow pylorus 1. Ultrasound On fluid aided real-time examination, the pyloric fluid is compressed into smaller tracks as it is...
Article

Normal paediatric imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the paediatric patients divided by region, modality, and age. Chest Radiographs chest X-ray premature (27 weeks):  example 1 neonate:  example 1 6-year-old:  example 1 12-year-old: example 1 CT CT chest: examples needed Abdomen Radiogra...

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