Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

877 results found
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically encountered in young children.  For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric reflux grading. Epidemiology The incidence of urinary tract in...
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Slipped upper femoral epiphysis

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnormalities in adolescence and is bilateral in ~20% of cases. Epidemiology ...
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Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblite...
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Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioural disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position duri...
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Canal of Nuck

The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of parietal peritoneum extending anteriorly from the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora through the inguinal ring into the inguinal canal. Incomplete obliteration of this canal is known as a patent processus vaginalis and can result i...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Pilocytic astrocytoma

Pilocytic astrocytomas, also known as juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, are low-grade, relatively well-defined astrocytomas that tend to occur in young patients. They are considered WHO grade I tumours in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours and correspondingly have a relatively g...
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Pott puffy tumour

Pott puffy tumour refers to a non-neoplastic complication of acute sinusitis. It is characterised by a primarily subgaleal collection, subperiosteal abscess, and osteomyelitis. It is usually related to the frontal sinus but is sometimes secondary to mastoid pathology. Rarer aetiologies include ...
Article

Pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum (or funnel chest) is a congenital chest wall deformity characterised by concave depression of the sternum, resulting in cosmetic and radiographic alterations. Epidemiology It is the most common chest wall deformity, accounting for approximately 90% of cases, occurs in up to 1 ...
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Fibrous cortical defect

Fibrous cortical defects (FCD) are benign bony lesions and are a type of fibroxanthoma, histologically identical to the larger non-ossifying fibroma (NOF). Epidemiology Fibrous cortical defects typically occur in children (usually 2-15 years), and indeed are one of the most common benign bony ...
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Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a form of muscular dystrophy characterised by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Epidemiology It is considered one of the more common hereditary muscular disorders with a prevalence of ~1 in 8,000. ...
Article

Adrenoleukodystrophy

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder characterised by a lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination of the periventricular deep white matter with posterior-predominant pattern and early ...
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Boot shaped heart

A 'boot-shaped' heart ("cœur en sabot" in French) is the description given to the appearance of the heart on plain film in some cases of Tetralogy of Fallot. It describes the appearances of an upturned cardiac apex due to right ventricular hypertrophy and a concave pulmonary arterial segment. 
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Pyloric stenosis

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) refers to the idiopathic thickening of gastric py­loric musculature which then results in progressive gastric outlet obstruction. Epidemiology Pyloric stenosis is relatively common, with an incidence of approximately 2-5 per 1,000 births, and has a male pred...
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Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a severe postinfectious neurological disorder that presents with status epilepticus in a previously normal child (or less commonly adult) after a febrile illness. Terminology FIRES has received several names in the literature: acute encep...
Article

Hiccups

Hiccups (or hiccoughs), medical term singultus, are an unpleasant phenomenon, experienced by everyone on occasion, and usually self-limiting. However the much rarer intractable chronic form can be extremely debilitating. Epidemiology Hiccups are a symptom that has probably been experienced by ...
Article

Meconium ileus

Meconium ileus refers to a neonatal bowel obstruction of the distal ileum due to abnormally thick and impacted meconium. Unlike in the meconium plug syndrome, the meconium is abnormal in consistency. Epidemiology Meconium ileus is more common in white populations and affects both sexes almost ...
Article

Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. When o...
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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. Treatment typically consists of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, with the...
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Renal tumours

Renal tumours (for the purposes of this article taken to broadly mean neoplastic lesions) should be distinguished from renal pseudotumours. Whilst renal tumours can be broadly divided into primary and secondary (metastatic), benign and malignant or adult and paediatric tumours, they are more fo...
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Lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum

The lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum is useful in describing the spectrum of diseases that cause relative smoothness of the brain surface and includes: agyria: no gyri pachygyria: broad gyri lissencephaly: smooth brain surface It is a basket term for a number of congenital cortical malforma...
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Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter encompasses causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It includes: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing primary megaureter althoug...
Article

Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic tumour-like congenital process, manifested as a localised defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, with the replacement of normal bone with large fibrous stroma and islands of immature woven bone. Fibrous dysplasia has a varied radiographi...
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Intussusception reduction

Intussusception reduction is a procedure performed in paediatric patients who have an ileocolic intussusception. There are several ways that reduction can be achieved radiologically: air-reduction under fluoroscopic guidance water-reduction under fluoroscopic guidance physical reduction unde...
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Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
Article

Multicystic encephalomalacia

Multicystic encephalomalacia (MCE) corresponds to a variant of encephalomalacia commonly seen in neonates in which numerous loculated lacy pseudocysts within the white matter and cortex are present as a result of an extensive brain insult.  It is a common feature observed in the neonatal hypoxi...
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of air within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants who have hyaline membrane disease. Interstitial emphysema can also occasional...
Article

Osteoid osteoma

Osteoid osteomas are benign bone-forming tumours that typically occur in children (particularly adolescents). They have characteristic lucent nidus <2 cm and surrounding solid periosteal reaction and classically cause night pain that is relieved by the use of salicylate analgesia, e.g. aspirin. ...
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Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is...
Article

Alexander disease

Alexander disease (AD), also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a rare fatal leukodystrophy, which usually becomes clinically evident in the infantile period, although neonatal, juvenile and even adult variants are recognised. As with many other diseases with variable age of presentation, the...
Article

Radial ray anomaly

Radial ray anomalies comprise of a large spectrum of upper limb anomalies which range from partial (radial hypoplasia) to a complete (radial aplasia) deficiency of the radius with or without accompanying deficiency of the thumb bones. Pathology Associations They can be associated with a numbe...
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Torus fracture

Torus fractures, also known as buckle fractures, are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterised by bulging of the cortex. They result from trabecular compression from an axial loading force along the long axis of the bone. They are usually seen in children, frequently...
Article

Hirschsprung disease

Hirschsprung disease is the most common cause of neonatal colonic obstruction (15-20%). It is commonly characterised by a short segment of colonic aganglionosis affecting term neonates, especially boys.  Epidemiology Hirschsprung disease affects approximately 1:5000-8000 live births. In short ...
Article

Infantile hepatic haemangioma

Infantile hepatic haemangiomas (IHH) are a liver lesion composed of large endothelial-lined vascular channels seen in fetuses and neonates. It should not be confused with a hepatic epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, which occurs in older patients. Terminology Those benign tumours were previous...
Article

J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
Article

Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus. Epidemiology The measles vaccine, first introduced in 1963, has significantly reduced the incidences of measles. However, it remains endemic in countries with low vaccination rates 1. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of va...
Article

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is an extremely rare clinically heterogenous developmental disorder of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:10,000-160,000 births ref. There is no recognised racial or gender predilection 8. Clinical spectrum The syndrome carries ...
Article

Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour with skeletal muscle cell morphology. It is one of the tumours of muscular origin.  This article focuses on a general discussion of rhabdomyosarcomas. For location specific details, please refer to: rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma...
Article

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
Article

Tectal beaking (midbrain)

Tectal beaking refers to the fusion of the midbrain colliculi into a single beak pointing posteriorly and invaginating into the cerebellum. It is seen with a Chiari type II malformation. Terminology The term bird beak sign is used in a number of other contexts: see bird beak sign (disambiguati...
Article

Trigonocephaly

Trigonocephaly refers to the triangular appearance of the frontal skull created by premature fusion of the metopic suture (metopic craniosynostosis) 2.  Trigonocephaly accounts for around 5% of all craniosynostosis cases. Pathology The metopic suture divides the frontal bones in the midline. I...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Optic pathway glioma

Optic pathway gliomas are relatively uncommon tumours, with a variable clinical course and usually seen in the setting of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Histologically the majority are pilocytic astrocytomas.  They are characterised by imaging by an enlarged optic nerve seen either on CT or MR...
Article

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space in infancy

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (BESS or BESSI) also known as benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is, as per the name, a benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infants. It usually involves the frontal lobe subarachnoid spaces, and it is characterised clinically...
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Scaphocephaly

Scaphocephaly (also known as dolichocephaly) is the most common form of craniosynostosis, where premature closure of the sagittal suture results in impediment to lateral growth of the skull while anteroposterior growth continues, producing a narrow elongated skull. Causes are primary, or seconda...
Article

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of localised gigantism, and many terms have been used interchangeably, with resulting confusion. They include macrodactyly, megalodactyly, digital gigantism, macromelia, partial acromegaly, macrosomia, and limited gigantism 3. It is worth noting that  m...
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Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Elbow ossification

Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicodylar fracture for a normal ossification center.  Appearance Order The order of appearances of the elbow os...
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Ossification centres of the elbow

There are six ossification centres of the elbow that appear and develop in a relatively reproducible fashion, and are key to assessment of the paediatric elbow radiograph. Timing of their appearance varies in the literature but an approximation is given below. A useful mnemonic to remember the o...
Article

Thymic sail sign

The thymic sail sign represents a triangular-shaped inferior margin of the normal thymus seen on a neonatal frontal chest radiograph. It is more commonly seen on the right side, but can also be bilateral. It is seen in 3-15% of all cases. This sign should not be confused with the spinnaker sail ...
Article

Round pneumonia

Round pneumonia is a type of pneumonia usually only seen in paediatric patients. They are well defined, rounded opacities that represent regions of infected consolidation. Epidemiology The mean age of patients with round pneumonia is 5 years and 90% of patients who present with round pneumonia...
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Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O - olecranon E - external ...
Article

Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever) is the term for infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The infection classically occurs in teenagers and young adults. It usually is diagnosed clinically supported by serum testing, but also may have suggestive imaging findings. Epidemi...
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Necrotising pneumonia

Necrotising pneumonia refers to pneumonia characterised by the development of the necrosis within infected lung tissue. Terminology While the term has sometimes been used synonymously with cavitating pneumonia in some publications 2, not all necrotising pulmonary infections may be complicated ...
Article

Fibromatosis colli

Fibromatosis colli is a rare form of infantile fibromatosis that occurs within the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection. It typically presents a few weeks after birth. Clinical presentation Presentation is usually with torticollis and is most...
Article

Herpes simplex encephalitis

Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotising viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings.  Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus, and pattern of involvement. They are 1: neonatal herpes encephalitis ...
Article

Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It it more frequently seen in males. The enlarged, floppy calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calcul...
Article

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable paediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slight...
Article

Cystic fibrosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis are some of the best known in cystic fibrosis (CF). This is partly because the lungs are often severely affected and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality.  For general discussion of cystic fibrosis, and a discussion of its other manifestat...
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Sickle cell disease (skeletal manifestations)

Skeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease result from a combination of bone marrow hyperplasia in the setting of chronic anaemia, and bone infarction as well as their complications. For a general discussion of sickle cell disease, please refer to sickle cell disease. Clinical presentation...
Article

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough is a highly contagious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Epidemiology The incidence of pertussis in children has dramatically decreased since the introduction of pertussis vaccination. However,...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Sinus pericranii

Sinus pericranii is a cranial venous anomaly in which there is an abnormal communication between intracranial dural sinuses and extracranial venous structures, usually via an emissary transosseous vein. It is considered a type of low flow vascular malformation. It occurs in close communication ...
Article

Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterised by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden naevus, when it is considered a type o...
Article

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common congenital neck cyst. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Epidemiology Thyroglossal d...
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Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presenation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration),...
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Paediatric curriculum

The paediatric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core paediatric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to paediatric radiology, including paediatric neuroradiology and fetal radiology, although there will be some cross cov...
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Apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal

The apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal lies laterally and is oriented longitudinally parallel to the shaft. Apophysis of the fifth metatarsal base appears on plain radiographs at age 12 for boys and 10 for girls. Fusion of the apophysis to the metatarsal base usually occurs within the fol...
Article

Greenstick fracture

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures. Pathology Mechanism Greenstick fractures ...
Article

Pulmonary sequestration (extralobar)

Extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration, the other type being intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS). Epidemiology It is usually encountered in infants, most being diagnosed before six months. It is more common in male (M:F 4:1). Pathology Extraloba...
Article

Perthes disease

Perthes disease (also referred to as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) refers to idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral epiphysis seen in children. It should not be confused with Perthes lesion of the shoulder. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of osteonecrosis (including sickle cell d...
Article

Anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion injuries are one of the six main types of pelvic apophyseal avulsion fractures.  Epidemiology As with many pelvic avulsion injuries, they most often occur in adolescents (mostly between the ages 14-17). There is a slight male predilection and they ...
Article

Ureteric jet

Ureteric jets (or ureteral jets) are the visualisation of the normal physiological periodic efflux of urine from the distal end of each ureter into the bladder.  Physiology When the urine passing down the ureter reaches the vesicoureteric junction it is forced out into the bladder via a strong...
Article

Maple syrup urine disease

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a very rare metabolic disorder. It is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which classically affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Clinical presentation Manifests itself in the first few days of life (12-24 hours) with ...
Article

Blount disease

Blount disease refers to a local disturbance of growth of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial metaphysis and/or epiphysis that results in tibia vara. The condition is commonly bilateral.  Epidemiology There is no recognised inheritance pattern.  Clinical presentation Clinically, the chi...
Article

Hilgenreiner line

The Hilgenreiner line is a line drawn horizontally through the inferior aspect of both triradiate cartilages. It should be horizontal, but is mainly used as a reference for Perkin line and measurement of the acetabular angle. Use of this line with the other lines and angles is used to diagnose ...
Article

Oesophageal atresia

An oesophageal atresia refers to an absence in the contiguity of the oesophagus due to an inappropriate division of the primitive foregut into the trachea and oesophagus. This is the most common congenital anomaly of the oesophagus.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in ~1:3000-4500 live bir...
Article

Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are: adjacent to the thorax: ~60% abdominal: 15-30% thoracoabdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The estimated pre...
Article

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...
Article

Porencephaly

Porencephaly is a rare congenital disorder that results in cystic degeneration and encephalomalacia and the formation of porencephalic cysts. The term is used variably among radiologists with its broadest definition being a cleft or cystic cavity within the brain 9, and its more narrow definitio...
Article

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
Article

Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts

Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts, also known as Labrune syndrome, is a rare condition that consists of a triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and oedematous cysts. Epidemiology Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is an extremely rare condition, w...
Article

Band heterotopia

Band heterotopia, also known as double cortex syndrome, is a form of diffuse grey matter heterotopia affecting almost only women. Refractory epilepsy is present in nearly all affected patients, with partial complex and atypical absence epilepsy being the most common syndromes. On imaging, this ...
Article

Atypical callosal dysgenesis

Atypical callosal dysgenesis is a term used to denote an unusual pattern of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The development of the corpus callosum occurs between the 12th and 16-20th weeks of gestation 2-3. It begins with the genu and then continues posteriorly along the body to the splenium...
Article

Lobar holoprosencephaly

Lobar holoprosencephaly is the least severe of the classical subtypes of holoprosencephaly (HPE), characterised by the presence of the inter-hemispheric fissure along almost the entire midline, and with the thalami being completely or nearly completely separated 5. As with all types of HPE, it ...
Article

Pericallosal lipoma

Pericallosal lipomas are fat-containing lesions occurring in the interhemispheric fissure closely related to the corpus callosum, which is often abnormal. It is the most common location for an intracranial lipoma. On imaging, they can be identified in two different morphologies: tubulonodular, ...
Article

Non-ossifying fibroma

Non-ossifying fibromas (NOF) are the most common of non-neoplastic fibrous bone lesions and are a larger version (>3 cm) of a fibrous cortical defect; both are encompassed by the term fibroxanthoma or metaphyseal fibrous defect. Epidemiology NOFs are very common in children and adolescents, an...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
Article

Incomplete fracture

Incomplete fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that predominantly occur in the long bones of paediatric patients. Rang 1 describes a continuum of fractures that occur with increasing longitudinal force applied along the length of the bone. At the point where force exceeds the struct...
Article

Multicentric carpal tarsal osteolysis

Multicentric carpal tarsal osteolysis is a rare skeletal disorder which is characterized by progressive osteolysis of the carpal, metacarpal and tarsal bones. It usually presents in early childhood with progressive pain and stiffness of the wrist, feet and elbow, clinically mimicking juvenile rh...

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