Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

959 results found
Article

Krabbe disease

Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy.  Clinical presentation Can vary and depends on the age of onset 5. hypertonia irritability delayed milestones loss of developed milestones fever myoclonus opisthotonus nystagmus Pathol...
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Kump's bump

Kump's bump is a superior convexity of the growth plate located in the anteromedial quadrant of the distal tibia physis, which is the first site of physeal fusion. Closure usually occurs at about 12-13 years of age. The Kump's bump should not to be mistaken for a fracture or abnormal physeal fus...
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Kyphomelic dysplasias

Kyphomelic dysplasias (also known as "pseudocampomelia") is thought to be a heterogeneous class of "bent bone" skeletal dysplasias. Entities included in a differential for the class are: congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal dysplasia, McKusick type) ...
Article

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare organic aciduria but has characteristic MRI findings especially in the early stages 1. This can allow for early diagnosis, often prior to biochemical investigations. Epidemiology As it is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, consanguineous marriag...
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Labelled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labelled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal MR head: T2 axial MR head:...
Article

Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna, also known as the sinus of Guérin, is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology A...
Article

Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned caecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can in...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS manifestations)

The central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Involvement of the CNS is related but distinct from involvement of the skull base or craniofacial structures, which are discussed separately in the article skeletal manifestations of L...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral centre-edge angle

The lateral centre-edge angle is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It has primarily been described in assessing for acetabular dysplasia but can also be used in femoroacetabular impingement. It is calculated on AP pelvic radiographs by using drawing a b...
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Lateral epicondyle fracture

Lateral epicondyle fractures are rare epicondylar fractures. They are much rarer than medial epicondyle fractures and represent avulsion of the lateral epicondyle. They are usually seen in the setting of other injuries 1-3.  Epidemiology Incidence typically peaks in the paediatric age group (6...
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Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Leaky lung syndrome

Leaky lung syndrome refers to a form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Pathology Pulmonary oedema due to increased capillary permeability.   Radiographic features Leaky lung syndrome is considered a mild form of a part of the spectrum of acute lung injury with ARDS at the other end of the...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as: Ortn...
Article

Leg bowing in children

Leg bowing in children is common and often developmental. Differential diagnosis The differential includes: developmental bowing exaggeration of normal age-related angulation changes at the knee neonates and infants normally have varus angulation that gradually corrects within 6 months of w...
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Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (staging)

Staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents 4 phases of the disease: stage I: early asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affected side) apparent increased density of the femoral head epiphysis widening of the medial joint space blurring...
Article

Leigh syndrome

Leigh syndrome, also known as subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy (SNEM), is a mitochondrial disorder with progressive neurodegeneration that invariably leads to death, usually in childhood. Epidemiology Leigh syndrome is encountered in approximately 1 in 40,000 births, although some popu...
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Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a form of refractory childhood-onset epilepsy and is often accompanied by developmental delay and psychological/ behavioural problems. An electroencephalogram (EEG) often shows a slow spike and wave pattern. Epidemiology It is thought to often appear between the 2nd ...
Article

Lenticulostriate vasculopathy

Lenticulostriate vasculopathy also known as thalamostriate vasculopathy or mineralising vasculopathy 1, refers to the ultrasound appearance of hyperechogenic linear or branching tubular streaks in the thalami or basal ganglia of neonates. Epidemiology Lenticulostriate vasculopathy has been rep...
Article

Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome

Lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome is, as the name suggests, characterised by the association of omphalocele and cleft palate.  Prevalence is assumed to be <1 per 1,000,000. It has been postulated that this syndrome is likely to be an autosomal recessive condition 1. History and etymolog...
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Leukodystrophies

The leukodystrophies are dysmyelinating disorders which typically, although not invariably, affect children. They include: lysosomal storage diseases globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) Fabry disease metachromatic leukodystrophy mucopolysaccharidoses Niemann-Pick disease peroxis...
Article

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterised by slowly-progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact prevalen...
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Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts

Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts, also known as Labrune syndrome, is a rare condition that consists of a triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and oedematous cysts. Epidemiology Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is an extremely rare condition, w...
Article

Liddle syndrome

Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition which inhibits the normal degradation of the ENaC sodium channel, resulting in findings that mimic Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism); hypernatraemia, hypokalaemia and elevated serum bicarbonate. Typically patients are asymptomatic other tha...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Line of Klein

The line of Klein describes a line along the superior edge of the neck of the femur. It is useful in detecting early slipped upper femoral epiphysis​ in adolescents. The line should normally intersect the lateral part of the superior femoral epiphysis. If the line of Klein fails to intersect the...
Article

Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumour arising from embryonic white fat.  It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3). It most often occurs in the extremities and trunk, although it can be seen in other areas 1. The entity was originally describe...
Article

Lipoblastomatosis

Lipoblastomatosis is an uncommon presentation of a benign fatty neoplasm. The condition is more common in infants and young children. It differs from a lipoblastoma in that it is extensive and infiltrative.  Pathology Lipoblastomatosis consists of immature adipose tissue surrounding myxomatous...
Article

Lipomyelocele

Lipomyelocele is one of the most common closed spinal dysraphism. It is seen in thoracolumbar region and usually presents as a fatty subcutaneous mass. It is twice as common as lipomyelomeningocele. Clinical presentation Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic at birth, but many (~ 50%)...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum

The lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum is a useful way to describe the spectrum of diseases that cause relative smoothness of the brain surface and includes: agyria: no gyri pachygyria: broad gyri lissencephaly: smooth brain surface It is a basket term for a number of congenital cortical malf...
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Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterised by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
Article

Lissencephaly type I - subcortical band heterotopia spectrum

Lissencephaly type I, also known as classic lissencephaly, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation characterised by a smooth brain, with absent or hypoplastic sulci and is strongly associated with subcortical band heterotopia (see classification system for cortical malformati...
Article

Lithopaedion

Lithopaedions, also referred as stone babies, are a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1.5 to 1.8% of abdominal ectopic pregnancies 4. Pathology If the deceased fetus is too large to be re-abs...
Article

Liver lesions (paediatric)

Paediatric liver lesions are a heterogeneous group that include infiltrative lesions and those that demonstrate mass effect. Moreover, they may be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant: benign liver tumours malignant liver tumours Epidemiology There are differing frequencies of both beni...
Article

Lobar holoprosencephaly

Lobar holoprosencephaly is the least severe of the classical subtypes of holoprosencephaly (HPE), characterised by the presence of the inter-hemispheric fissure along almost the entire midline, and with the thalami being completely or nearly completely separated 5. As with all types of HPE, it ...
Article

Loeys-Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which has many features similar to Marfan syndrome. The disease is characterised by skeletal manifestations and vasculopathies. Although Loeys-Dietz syndrome shares many similarities with Marfan syndrome, the course ...
Article

Luckenschadel skull

Luckenschadel skull, also known as lacunar skull or craniolacunae, is a dysplasia of the membranous skull vault and is associated with Chiari II malformations (seen in up to 80% of such cases). The inner table is more affected than the outer, with regions of apparent thinning (corresponding to n...
Article

Lumbar Scheuermann disease

Lumbar Scheuermann disease is a type of variant Scheuermann disease where there is no abnormal kyphosis. This has been reported in the lumbar spine and thoracolumbar junction of patients of all ages, and back pain may be present. On imaging, affected individuals can have vertebral endplate chan...
Article

Lymphangioma

Lymphangiomas are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. It is considered the lymphatic equivalent of a haemangioma of blood vessels.  This article focuses the general features of lymphangiomas. For a specific discussion in other locations, please refer to the ar...
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Lytic skull lesion

Lytic skull lesions have a relatively wide differential that can be narrowed, by considering if there are more than one lesion and whether the mandible is involved. Pathology Causes lytic skeletal metastases multiple myeloma epidermoid - scalloped border with a sclerotic rim eosinophilic g...
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Macrodystrophia lipomatosa

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of localised gigantism, and many terms have been used interchangeably, with resulting confusion. They include macrodactyly, megalodactyly, digital gigantism, macromelia, partial acromegaly, macrosomia, and limited gigantism 3. It is worth noting that  m...
Article

Macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95th centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity). Pathology Associations Recognised associations include: chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome tends to be a relative macroglossia may also have intermi...
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Madelung deformity

Madelung deformity is due to premature closure or defective development of the ulnar third of the distal epiphysis of the radius.  This deformity results in a radial shaft that is bowed with increased interosseous space and dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint. It can be bilateral ...
Article

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
Article

Malignant liver tumours (paediatric)

Paediatric malignant liver tumours are rare, some of which occur only in children but that are similar to those that occur in adults. Epidemiology Malignant liver tumours account for ~1% of paediatric malignancies 2. Pathology Broadly, any malignant liver mass can be defined as a metastasis ...
Article

Maple syrup urine disease

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a very rare metabolic disorder. It is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which classically affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Epidemiology MSUD occurs in 1 in 185,000 births 9. Clinical presentation It usually ma...
Article

Marshall-Smith syndrome

Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a rare genetic syndrome primarily comprising of the triad of facial dysmorphism, failure to thrive and accelerated osseous maturation 5. Many cases, however, have wider clinical spectrum. Clinical spectrum general overgrowth - fetal macrosomia failure to thri...
Article

Mastoid fontanelle

The mastoid or posterolateral fontanelles (or fontanels) are paired bilateral soft membranous gaps at the junction of the parietomastoid, occipitomastoid, and lambdoid sutures. Each mastoid fontanelle persists until the second year of life, after which it is known as the asterion. It can be used...
Article

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is a congenital anomaly characterised by vaginal agenesis associated with, in the majority of cases, a spectrum of other genitourinary tract abnormalities. MRKH syndrome belongs to class I Mullerian duct anomalies. Two different forms are described...
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McKusick Kaufman syndrome

McKusick Kaufman syndrome (MKS) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome primarily characterised by hydrometrocolpos - vaginal atresia post-axial polydactyly congenital heart disease
Article

Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus. Epidemiology The measles vaccine, first introduced in 1963, has significantly reduced the incidences of measles. However, it remains endemic in countries with low vaccination rates 1. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of va...
Article

Meckel diverticulum

Meckel diverticulum is a congenital intestinal diverticulum due to fibrous degeneration of the umbilical end of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct that occurs around the distal ileum. It is considered the most common structural congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology ...
Article

Meckel-Gruber syndrome

Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MGS) is classically characterised by the triad of: renal cystic dysplasia: multiple renal cysts (present most cases) occipital encephalocoele / holoprosencephaly (~70%) postaxial polydactyly: usually hexadactyly (~65%) Additional hepatic developmental defects and hepa...
Article

Meconium aspiration

Meconium aspiration occurs secondary to intrapartum or intrauterine aspiration of meconium, usually in the setting of fetal distress, often in term or post-term infants. Epidemiology Up to 10-15% of live births after 34 weeks can present with meconium stained fluid but only 1-5% of neonates de...
Article

Meconium ileus

Meconium ileus refers to a neonatal bowel obstruction of the distal ileum due to abnormally thick and impacted meconium. Unlike in the meconium plug syndrome, the meconium is abnormal in consistency. Epidemiology Meconium ileus is more common in white populations and affects both sexes almost ...
Article

Meconium peritonitis

Meconium peritonitis refers to a sterile chemical peritonitis due to intra-uterine bowel perforation and spillage of fetal meconium into the fetal peritoneal cavity. It is a common cause of peritoneal calcification.  Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~1 in 35,000. Pathology The aet...
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Meconium plug syndrome

Meconium plug syndrome refers to a functional colonic obstruction in a newborn due to an obstructing meconium plug. It is usually transient and affects the left colon with meconium plugging the bowel distal to this segment. In this situation, it is also termed the small left colon syndrome. Pat...
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Meconium pseudocyst

Meconium pseudocyst formation is a complication that can occur with meconium peritonitis. Pathology It occurs when the extruded meconium becomes walled off within the peritoneal space. Radiographic features Plain radiograph May be seen as a rim calcified mass within the abdomen. Antenetal ...
Article

Medial epicondyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fractures represent almost all epicondyle fractures and occur when there is avulsion of the medial epicondyle. They are typically seen in children, and can be challenging to identify. Failure to diagnose these injuries can lead to significant long term disability.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Medial pneumothorax

Medial pneumothorax refers to the abnormal collection of air on medial aspect of the pleural cavity. This occurs when the quantity of air is small. Radiographic features Chest radiograph (supine) Seen as a linear lucent area along the medial aspect of lung at the interface of the pleural surf...
Article

Medial stripe sign

Medial stripe sign refers to an area of increased lucency at the interface of the medial lung and the mediastinum in case of medial pneumothorax. A small volume of pneumothorax generally accumulates anteriorly or medially which can be difficult to detect hence this sign holds a certain significa...
Article

Medullary cystic disease complex

Medullary cystic disease complex belongs to group of paediatric cystic renal diseases charaterised by progressive tubular atrophy with glomerulosclerosis (chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis) and multiple small medullary cysts.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection Clinica...
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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. Treatment typically consists of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, with the...
Article

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, also known as Van der Knaap disease, refers to a rare inherited autosomal recessive disease characterised by diffuse subcortical leukoencephalopathy associated with white matter cystic degeneration.  Epidemiology The age at symptoms m...
Article

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome, also known as macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome, is a rare and well described genetic disorder caused by somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene on chromosome 3q26 and characterised by early brain overgrowth and body morphogenesis an...
Article

Megapolycalycosis

Megapolycalycosis is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney which is characterised by dilatation and increase in number of the renal calyces without any distal obstruction. Epidemiology Associations  obstructive uropathy vesicoureteric reflux Schinzel- Giedion syndrome Clinical presentati...
Article

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented tumour that primarily affects the calvaria or facial skeleton of children, typically during infancy. It is usually a benign tumour, albeit locally aggressive. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed during infancy, usually wi...
Article

Mendosal suture

The mendosal suture (also known as the accessory occipital suture) is a normal calvarial suture. Gross anatomy The suture extends through the occipital bone, lying superior to the occipitomastoid suture and inferomedial to the lambdoid suture. It closes in utero or in the first few days of lif...
Article

Meningocele

Meningoceles are protrusions of the meninges through a defect or weak point in the skull or spine, usually involving the soft tissues beneath the surface of the skin. They are typically categorized into congenital, iatrogenic (e.g. following a craniotomy, sinus surgery, or as a laminectomy compl...
Article

Menkes disease

Menkes disease, also known as trichopoliodystrophy or kinky hair kinky vessel syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in a derangement in copper handling. It results in low copper levels and subsequently, deficiency in copper-dependant mitochondrial enzymes.  Epidemiology Menk...
Article

MERRF

MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with red ragged fibres) is a rare, multisystem mitochondrial disorder.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present in late adolescence or early adulthood with 1,2,3 myoclonus epilepsy cerebellar ataxia intellectual disability vision and/or hearing loss cardi...
Article

Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall

A mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a very rare benign chest wall tumour. It is sometimes classified as a non-neoplastic developmental anomaly rather than a tumour. Epidemiology They typically present in neonates or infants 1-3. Clinical presentation Many present with a chest wall m...
Article

Mesomelia

Mesomelia refers to a shortening of the middle (intermediate) portion of a limb.  Pathology Associations mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (MSS) or mesomelic dysplasia with acral synostoses1 Ellis van-Creveld syndrome 2 Robinow syndrome See also rhizomelia
Article

Metachondromatosis

Metachondromatosis refers to the rare combination of: multiple enchondromatosis (Ollier disease) and  osteochondromatosis (diaphyseal aclasis) In contrast to enchondromatosis alone, metachondromatosis carries an autosomal dominant inheritance.  Radiographic features Characterised by the pre...
Article

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the most common hereditary (autosomal recessive) leukodystrophy and is one of the lysosomal storage disorders. It has characteristic imaging features including peri-atrial and to a lesser extent frontal horns leukodystrophy as well as periventricular periven...
Article

Metaphyseal blanch sign

The metaphyseal blanch sign (a.k.a. metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel) is one of the signs seen on AP views of the adolescent hip indicating posterior displacement of the capital epiphysis. It is a crescent-shaped area of increased density, that overlies the metaphysis adjacent to the physis on ...
Article

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (also known as metaphyseal dysplasia or dysostosis) is a type of skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Classification Schmid type - mild type, due to mutation in type X collagen (COL10A1 gene), metaphyses are cupped resembling rickets Pena and Vaandrager type - intermedi...
Article

Metaphyseal corner fracture

Metaphyseal corner fractures, also known as classical metaphyseal lesions (CML) or bucket handle fractures, are observed in young children, less than 2 years old. It is considered pathognomic for non-accidental injury (NAI).  Epidemiology This injury is not only the fracture most specific for ...
Article

Metaphyseal dysplasia

Metaphyseal dysplasia (also known as Pyle disease) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by flaring of the ends of long bones with relative constriction and sclerosis of the diaphysis and mild cranial sclerosis. It is one of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity. The flared ...
Article

Meyer dysplasia

Meyer dysplasia (also known as dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris) is a fragmentation and delayed ossification of the femoral capital epiphyses that affects the paediatric hips. It is considered more of a normal hip developmental variation rather than a true dysplasia. It can be bilateral in...
Article

MIBG

MIBG scan is a scintigraphic study that uses metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled to iodine-123 or iodine-131. It is indicated in the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. MIBG is positive in: neuroblastoma olfactory neuroblastoma 1 carcinoid tumour 4 paraganglioma phaeochromocytoma medullary th...
Article

Microcephaly

Microcephaly is a descriptive term meaning a small head and is associated with numerous disorders of diverse aetiology. It is usually associated with microencephaly (small brain). For the purpose of this article the two will be used interchangeably. Terminology As with most terms which describ...
Article

Midface anomalies in children

Midface anomalies (craniofacial syndromes ) in children include Apert syndrome Crouzon syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Treacher Collins syndrome Roberts syndrome Coffin-Lowry syndrome Saethre-Chotzen syndrome Noack syndrome Jackson-Weiss syndrome Carpenter syndrome Lowr...
Article

Midgut volvulus

Midgut volvulus is a complication of malrotated bowel. It may result in proximal bowel obstruction with resultant ischaemia if prompt treatment is not instigated. Epidemiology A midgut volvulus of malrotated bowel can potentially occur at any age but in approximately 75% of cases occur within ...
Article

Miller-Dieker syndrome

Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) or is a rare chromosomal anomaly and is one of the conditions considered part of lissencephaly type I (classic) 6.  Clinical presentation Features include: CNS neuronal migrational anomalies: lissencephaly type I prominent subarachnoid spaces widened cerebral v...
Article

Mineralising microangiopathy

Mineralising microangiopathy is a condition characterized by parenchymal cerebral calcifications, and is usually seen in children as a complication of cranial radiotherapy and chemotherapy 1,2. Radiographic features Mineralizing microangiopathy can affect the brain widely, with typical sites i...
Article

M-line of Cremin

M-line of Cremin is an imaginary line that can be used to determine the level at which the blind pouch ends in anal atresia, determining whether the anal atresia is a high or a low type. The line is drawn perpendicular to the long axis of the ischium on the lateral view and passes through the j...
Article

Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome, also known as congenital facial diplegia syndrome, is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence or underdevelopment of the abducens nerve (CN VI) and facial nerve (CN VII) nuclei. Epidemiology Möbius syndrome is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1 case per 10...
Article

Monteggia fracture-dislocation

Monteggia fracture-dislocations consist of a fracture of the ulnar shaft with concomitant dislocation of the radial head. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious, whereas the radial head dislocation can be overlooked, with potentially serious functional and medico-legal ramifications.  Mechanism ...

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