Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

601 results found
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually, the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most common...
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Central sacral vertical line

The central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is used in the assessment of spinal scoliosis.  It is a line constructed on frontal films of the spine and pelvis to measure coronal balance, drawn as follows: a line connecting the top of the iliac crests is drawn a second line is drawn perpendicular t...
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Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL)

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles.  It should not be confused with its autosomal dominant counterpart, CADASIL. Autosomal recessive i...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. Physiology Production Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ve...
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Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ...
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Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
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Cervical disc replacement

A cervical disc replacement (also known as a spacer) is a prosthesis surgically inserted in the native disc space.  It is invariably inserted for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Disc replacements can be placed either in isolation or along with anterior fixation. The appearances are varied wi...
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are used to inject steroids in the epidural space and around the exiting nerve roots and are one of the two main spinal epidural injections; the other cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically performed in pat...
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Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is formed by the ventral (anterior) rami of the C1 to C5 nerve roots and innervates the diaphragm, provides motor supply to some neck muscles and cutaneous sensation to the skin of the head, neck and chest. Gross anatomy Roots anterior rami of C1 to C5 nerves Course runs...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females. Related pathology Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the mo...
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Cervical spine

The cervical spine (often shortened to C-spine) is the upper part of the spine extending from the skull base to the thorax at the level of the first vertebra with a rib attached to it. It normally consists of seven vertebrae. Its main function is to support the skull and maintain the relative po...
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Cervical spine alignment

When assessing cervical spine alignment, look for four parallel lines connecting structures in the cervical spine: anterior vertebral line: anterior margin of the vertebral bodies posterior vertebral line: posterior margin of the vertebral bodies (also known as George's line) spinolaminar lin...
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Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. Patient position patient is standing erect with either the left or right posterior side clos...
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Cervical spine (AP view)

The AP cervical spine projection is part of the cervical spine series. Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position (unless trauma when the patient will be supine) patient shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing straight fo...
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Cervical spine (flexion and extension views)

The cervical spine flexion and extension views demonstrate the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine when the patient is in a lateral position. Indications These views are specialized projections often requested to assess for spinal stability. Note: Such functional views should not be perform...
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Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterized by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
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Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
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Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females with the median age of injury being 56 years. Falls, motor vehicle collisions, pedestrian accidents, cyclin...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Cervical spine (lateral view)

Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine. It is often performed in the setting of trauma. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily availa...
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Cervical spine ligaments

Cervical spine ligaments ordered from anterior to posterior include: anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) anterior atlanto-occipital membrane apical ligament alar ligaments (paired) cruciate ligament of the atlas longitudinal band: joins the body of the axis to the foramen magnum transver...
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Cervical spine (odontoid view)

The odontoid or 'peg' projection is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing strai...
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Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, Odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. This projection can be used to visualize the intervertebral foramina. Patient position patie...
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Cervical spine series

The cervical spine series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate the bony structures of the cervical spine, albeit commonly replaced by the CT, the cervical spine series is an essential trauma radiograph for all radiographers to understand. Indications Cervical spine radiographs are indi...
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Cervical spine (swimmer's lateral view)

Cervical spine swimmer's lateral view is a modified lateral projection of the cervical spine to visualize the C7/T1 junction.  As technology advances, computed tomography has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where computed tomography is no...
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Chalk stick fracture

Chalk stick, also known as carrot stick fractures, are fractures of the fused spine, classically seen in ankylosing spondylitis. Terminology Some authors define the chalk stick fracture as a fracture through a Pagetoid long bone (see Paget disease) 3. Pathology They usually occur through the...
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Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...
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Chance fracture

Chance fractures, also referred to as seatbelt fractures, are flexion-distraction type injuries of the spine that extend to involve all three spinal columns. These are unstable injuries and have a high association with intra-abdominal injuries. Pathology Mechanism They tend to occur from a fl...
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
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Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
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Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
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Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
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Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov cy...
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Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
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Cobb angle

The Cobb angle is the most widely used measurement to quantify the magnitude of spinal deformities, especially in the case of scoliosis, on plain radiographs. Scoliosis is defined as a lateral spinal curvature with a Cobb angle of >10° 4. A Cobb angle can also aid kyphosis or lordosis assessment...
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Cobb syndrome

Cobb syndrome, also called cutaneous vertebral medullary angiomatosis, or spinal arteriovenous metameric syndrome, consists of the presence of a vascular nevus with a spinal vascular malformation of the same body somite (metamere).  The importance of this syndrome is the recognition that cutane...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
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Compressive myelopathy

Compressive myelopathy refers to neurological deficits that result from abnormal compression of the spinal cord. It most commonly occurs in the cervical spinal cord.  Pathology Any cause of spinal canal stenosis including disc herniation, osteophytes, extradural mass, and/or paravertebral liga...
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Congenital absence of a spine pedicle

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle is a rare congenital condition, but awareness of its characteristic imaging appearance is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Failure to recognize this entity can lead to misdiagnosis of unilateral facet subluxation/dislocation, leading to unnecessary treatmen...
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Congenital anomalies of the posterior atlas arch

Congenital anomalies of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) are relatively common anomalies. They may range from partial defects presenting as clefts to complete absence of the posterior arch (aplasia). These anomalies are classified according to Currarino (see below). It should not be confuse...
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Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is a type of spinal canal stenosis and has different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 ye...
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Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy After the cord terminates, the nerve roots descend within the spinal canal as individual rootlets, collectively termed the cauda equina. The conus medullaris most commonly terminates at the L1/2 intervertebral disc leve...
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Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Clinical presentation Patient...
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Corduroy sign (vertebral hemangioma)

The corduroy sign refers to vertically-oriented, thickened trabeculae seen in intraosseous hemangiomas of the spine. It is the sagittal/coronal equivalent of the polka-dot sign seen on axial imaging.  It is caused by the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae...
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Coronal balance

Coronal balance is one of the features that needs to be assessed on long spine radiographs obtained for spinal deformity, particularly scoliosis. It measures whether or not the upper spine is located over the midline (normal) or off to one side.  To assess coronal balance, a vertical (plumb) li...
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Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral clefts refer to the presence of radiolucent vertical defects on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) t...
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Corpectomy

Corpectomy (followed by fusion) refers to the removal of one or more vertebral bodies to treat compressive myelopathy caused by extensive hypertrophic osteoarthritis, tumor, infection or severe trauma. In most cases, the intervertebral discs are removed as well 1-3.  Technique An anterior or p...
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Cortical bone

The outer shell of compact bone is called cortical bone or cortex. It is formed by compact bone which is one of the two macroscopic forms of bone, the other being cancellous bone.  Gross anatomy Cortical bone contains Haversian systems (osteons) which contain a central Haversian canal surround...
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Corticorubral tract

The corticorubral tract contains neurons that connect the primary motor and sensory areas to the red nucleus. The rubrospinal tract then descends through the spinal cord.  The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The corti...
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Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology The craniovertebral junction ...
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Crowned dens syndrome

Crowned dens syndrome is an inflammatory condition resulting from crystal deposition in the cruciform and alar ligaments surrounding the dens, appearing as a radiopaque 'crown' surrounding the top of the dens. It typically presents with pain and increased inflammatory markers.  Terminology The...
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Cruciate ligament of the atlas

The cruciate ligament of the atlas (also known as the cruciform ligament) is an important ligamentous complex that holds the posterior dens of C2 in articulation at the median atlantoaxial joint. It lies behind a large synovial bursa (surrounded by loose fibrous capsule) and consists of two band...
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CSF-venous fistula

CSF-venous fistulas are rare and only recently recognized causes of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. They are a direct communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and epidural veins allowing for the loss of CSF directly into the circulation and can be either iatrogenic or spontaneou...
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Cuneate fasciculus

The cuneate fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus cuneatus (plural: fasciculi cuneati) or column of Burdach, represents the lateral portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from between and including C1 and T6 1.  Function The cuneate fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibrat...
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Curtain sign (vertebral body mass)

The curtain sign, also known as the draped curtain sign, in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends posteriorly towards the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline...
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Cyst of the ligamentum flavum

Cysts of the ligamentum flavum, also known as flaval cysts, are classified as a type of degenerative spinal cysts 1, which arise from the ligamentum flavum. Epidemiology Cyst of the ligamentum flavum do not show a gender predilection (M=F) and are most commonly found in the middle aged and eld...
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Cyst of the medullary conus

Cyst of the medullary conus is a rare benign ependymal cyst of the conus medullaris which probably relates to abnormal persistence and cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis or "5th ventricle". This entity can be symptomatic and present in adulthood with bladder or bowel sphincter distu...
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Dagger sign (spine)

The dagger sign is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis as a single central radiodense line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments secondary to enthesitis.
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Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination of biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter...
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Déjerine-Sottas disease

Déjerine-Sottas disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III or hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis, is a rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). This syndrome should not be confused with Déjerine syndrome or Déjerine-Roussy syndrome. Clinical present...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular lateral extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal ...
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Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for blunt cerebrovascular injury are divided into sign...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
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Difference in vertical mid-vertical angle (lumbar spine)

The difference in vertical mid-vertical angle is the difference in the vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) between the caudal segment angle and the adjacent cephalad segment angle of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine as measured on a mid-sagittal MRI or a lateral radiograph. Ra...
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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also referred to as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterized by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion of the spine affecting elderly individuals. On imaging, it is typically characterized by the flowing o...
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Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta-thalasse...
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Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss is associated with replacement of fatty marrow by edema or cellular tissue. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. In the case of homogenous involv...
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Diplomyelia

Diplomyelia is a rare spinal cord malformation in which the cord is duplicated. It should be distinguished from diastematomyelia in which a single cord is split. Having said that it has been proposed that the term be abandoned in favor of split cord malformation, which encompasses both diastemat...
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Discal cyst

Discal cysts (also known as a disk cyst or disc cyst) are uncommon lesions of the spine, representing an extrathecal cyst which communicates with the adjacent intervertebral disc through an annular fissure.  Epidemiology The vast majority of discal cysts, as rare as they are, have been reporte...
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Disc bulge

A disc bulge represents displacement of the outer fibers of the annulus fibrosus beyond the margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies, involving more than one-quarter (25% or 90 degrees) of the circumference of an intervertebral disc 3. Because it is limited by the annulus fibrosus it does not ex...
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Disc desiccation

Disc desiccation (also known as disc dehydration) is an extremely common degenerative change of intervertebral discs. The incidence climbs with age, and to a large degree a gradual dehydration is a 'normal' part of disc aging. It results from replacement of the hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans wit...
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Disc extrusion

Disc extrusion is a type of intervertebral disc herniation and is distinguished from a disc protrusion in that it: in at least one plane, has a broader dome (B) than a neck (A) and/or extends above or below the disc level (into the suprapedicular or infrapedicular zone) Disc extrusions are a...
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Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to the displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge). A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteo...
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Disc osteophyte complex

Disc osteophyte complex (also known as disc osteophyte bar) is a term used on MRI of the cervical spine to denote the presence of disc protrusion and/or marginal endplate osteophytes resulting in narrowing of the cervical canal. The term was introduced early in the practice of MRI as distinguish...
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Disc protrusion

Disc protrusions are a type of disc herniation characterized by protrusion of disc content beyond the normal confines of the intervertebral disc, over a segment less than 25% of the circumference of the disc. The width of the base is wider than the largest diameter of the disc material which pro...
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Disc sequestration

Sequestrated disc, also referred to as a free disc fragment, corresponds to extruded disc material that has no continuity with the parent disc and is displaced away from the site of extrusion. By definition, it corresponds to a subtype of disc extrusion. The term "migrated" disc refers only to ...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Dorsal cord syndrome

Dorsal cord syndrome, also known as posterior spinal cord syndrome, is one of the incomplete cord syndromes resulting from pathology affecting the posterior part of the spinal cord, particularly the dorsal columns and potentially (in larger lesions) the lateral corticospinal tracts 1.  Clinical...
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Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid as in a form of spinal dysraphism.  Clinical presentation A dorsal dermal sinus manifests as a small dimple or pinpoint ostium, which is often associated with an area of hyperpigmented...
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Dorsal epidural disc migration

Dorsal epidural disc migration represents, as the name suggests, migration of disc material, usually a sequestrated disc fragment, into the dorsal (posterior) epidural space, posterior to the theca. This is a rare occurrence, often not suspected preoperatively and is almost invariably encountere...
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Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web refers to a thickened band of arachnoid over the dorsal aspect of the cord. It usually causes a focal thoracic cord distortion with consequent neurological dysfunction.  On imaging, it is characterized by a focal dorsal indentation and anterior displacement of the ...
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Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumors

The dumbbell appearance of spinal tumors refers to a tumor which has both a component within the canal and a component in the paravertebral space contiguous with each other via a thinner tumor component traversing the neural exit foramen. The appearance can be seen in: spinal nerve sheath tumo...
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Dural ectasia

Dural ectasia refers to ballooning or widening of the dural sac which can result in posterior vertebral scalloping and is associated with herniation of nerve root sleeves. Clinical presentation Patients with dural ectasia may present with low back pain or radicular pain in the buttocks or legs...
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Empty thecal sac sign

The empty thecal sac sign or empty sac sign is when the thecal sac appears empty on MRI of the lumbar spine, best seen on T2-weighted images. If the empty thecal sac sign is present, a diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis can be made.​ Radiographic features MRI There is usually no gadolinium c...
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Empty vertebral body sign

The empty vertebral body sign is referred to as a radiolucency on a vertebral body seen on the  AP radiograph in patients with a flexion-distraction injury mechanism 1 caused by the absent superposition of the posterior spine elements onto the vertebral body. In other words, the sign results fr...
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Enthesophyte

Enthesophytes (less commonly, enthesiophytes) are bony proliferations (spurs) that develop at an enthesis, that is at the attachment of a ligament, tendon or articular capsule onto bone. They are oriented along the direction of pull and develop in response to repetitive mechanical stress or a mo...
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Ependymoma vs astrocytoma of the spinal cord

A number of factors are useful when differentiating between spinal cord ependymoma and spinal cord astrocytoma.  Ependymoma child or adult more central in location bone remodeling is common low T1 signal well-defined enhancement syrinx is more common hemorrhage is more common Astrocytom...
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Epidural angiolipoma

Epidural angiolipomas are rare benign tumors composed of mature adipocytes and abnormal vessels.  Epidemiology Epidural angiolipomas are more frequently encountered in women, and typically in middle age (40-50 years of age) 1.  Clinical presentation In keeping with the slow growth of these t...
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Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
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Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space resulting in compression of the thecal sac. In severe cases, compression may be symptomatic. The lumbar region is most frequently affected. Epidemiology The demographics of affected individuals ref...