Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

618 results found
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Spinal astrocytoma

Spinal astrocytomas are the second most common spinal cord tumor, representing 40% of intramedullary tumors 3. They account for 60% of pediatric intramedullary tumors, making them the most common spinal cord tumor in children 6. This article specifically relates to spinal astrocytomas. For a di...
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Spinal canal

The spinal canal, also known as the vertebral canal, is the cavity within the vertebral column which contains the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The spinal canal becomes progressively narrower from its superior opening at the foramen magnum to its inferior opening at the sacral hiatus 1. The canal...
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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system that is found within the spinal canal of the vertebral column. The cord extends from the corticomedullary junction at the foramen magnum of the skull down to the tip of the conus medullaris within the lumbar cistern. It is lined by spinal...
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Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord sizable and formed...
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Spinal cord cavernous malformation

Spinal cord cavernous malformations, also known as spinal cavernomas, are vascular malformations that occur within the spinal cord. This article specifically relates to spinal cord cavernomas. For a discussion of cerebral cavernomas and a general discussion of the pathology refer to the main ar...
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Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed cauda equina syndrome. Pathology Etiology There are numerous causes of cord ...
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Spinal cord compression (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency and if unrecognised or untreated, can result in irreversible neurological damage and disability. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed caud...
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Spinal cord schistosomiasis

Spinal cord schistosomiasis is a grave central nervous system form of this parasitic disease. In endemic areas, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy, as early treatment is fundamental in the prevention of severe and irreversible injuries.  This article discusses spi...
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Spinal cord stimulator

Spinal cord stimulators, also known as dorsal column stimulators, are surgically placed devices to aid with symptom relief in individuals with chronic neurological pain (e.g. failed back syndrome, brachial plexopathy, complex regional pain syndrome). It uses low voltage electrical current deliv...
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Spinal cord transection

Spinal cord transection, as the name implies, refers to a tear within the spinal cord as a result of a significant traumatic injury. It is an important radiological finding that can influence the decision on potential surgery in the setting of spinal trauma. Clinical presentation The presentat...
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Spinal dermoid cyst

Spinal dermoid cysts are uni or multilocular cystic tumors lined by squamous epithelium containing skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) 6. They are congenital in origin. Forty percent are intramedullary, and 60% are extramedullary 6. This article specifically relate...
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Spinal dura mater

The spinal dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges that surround the spinal cord. Gross Anatomy The spinal dura mater is a fibrous, non-adherent, tough layer surrounding the spinal cord.  It is separated from the wall of the vertebral canal by the epidural space. This space contains ...
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Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphisms refer to a broad group of malformations affecting the spine and/or surrounding structures in the dorsum of the embryo. They are a form of neural tube defect. Pathology The neural tube is formed by the lengthwise closure of the neural plate, in the dorsum of the embryo. The ...
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Spinal ependymoma

Spinal ependymomas are the most common spinal cord tumor overall, seen both in adult and pediatric population.  This article specifically relates to spinal cord ependymomas. For a discussion of intracranial ependymomas and for a general discussion of the pathology refer to the main article: epe...
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Spinal epidermoid cyst

Spinal epidermoid cysts are cystic tumors lined by squamous epithelium. Unlike dermoid cysts, they do not contain skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). They are usually extramedullary but rarely can be intramedullary. They may be congenital or acquired. This article ...
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Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess represents infection of the epidural space, located between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral periosteum. It can present with rapidly deteriorating neurological function due to compression. Imaging is best performed with MRI and emergency surgery is often required. ...
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Spinal epidural hematoma

Spinal epidural hematomas (EDH) are a rare spinal pathology which can result in serious morbidity with delayed or non-treatment. They are typically considered a surgical emergency.  Clinical presentation The patient's symptoms and signs will depend on the location of the EDH, and degree of spi...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...
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Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural hematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis
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Spinal epidural space

The spinal epidural (extradural) space is distinctly separate from and not continuous with the cranial epidural space. Its exact definition and description are contentious 3.  Gross anatomy The spinal epidural space is located in the spinal canal between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral...
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardrop...
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Spinal fusion

Spinal fusion is a broad term to denote the joining of two or more adjacent vertebral segments. Fusion can be congenital or acquired as a direct result of disease or deliberately following spinal surgery.  Congenital fusion Fusion of two or more adjacent segments is encountered either as an is...
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Spinal ganglioglioma

Spinal gangliogliomas are rare, comprising 1.1% of all spinal cord neoplasms 2. They are more frequent in children, representing 15% of intramedullary neoplasms in the pediatric age group 4. This article specifically relates to spinal gangliogliomas. For a discussion on intracranial ganglioglio...
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Spinal hemangioblastoma

Spinal hemangioblastomas are the third most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm, representing 2-6% of all intramedullary tumors 1,4,7. This article specifically relates to spinal hemangioblastomas. For a discussion on intracranial hemangioblastomas and a general discussion of the pathology re...
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Spinal hematoma

Spinal hematomas are a rare clinical entity and are often idiopathic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial, lest they cause permanent neurological damage. Identifying the location of the hematoma is important for treatment, as is distinguishing it, to the extent possible, from other entit...
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Spinal hydatid disease

Spinal hydatid disease is an uncommon manifestation of hydatid disease, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis, and describes a spectrum of disease involving the spinal cord, the spine, or both. For a general discussion, and fo...
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Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
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Spinal interventional procedures

Back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. Lumbar degenerative facet joints, lumbar disc disease and sacroiliac joint pain account for nearly 70% of cases of lower back pain. Unfortunately, as the incidence of degenerative changes in the spine is so high (e.g. disc abnorm...
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Spinal meningeal cyst

Spinal meningeal cysts are diverticulae of the arachnoid or dura mater or of the nerve root sheath. They are uncommon, usually asymptomatic and typically found incidentally at MRI.  Clinical presentation They cysts are usually asymptomatic, but if they are large, they may cause mass effect and...
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Spinal meninges

The spinal meninges (singular: meninx) are contained within the spinal canal and encase the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and the cauda equina. Gross anatomy They are composed of three layers (outer to inner) dura mater (also known as theca or pachymeninx) arachnoid mater pia mater Colle...
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Spinal meningioma

Meningiomas arising from the coverings of the spinal cord are one of the two most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumors, representing 25-30% of all such tumors 2.  This article specifically relates to spinal meningiomas. For a discussion on intracranial meningiomas and a general discus...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
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Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy is a type of congenital neuromuscular disease affecting anterior horn cells of the brainstem and spinal cord. Epidemiology This disorder affects 1 in 6000-10000 infants 1. Clinical presentation Spinal muscular atrophy typically affects infants and young children, pres...
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Spinal nerve sheath tumors

Spinal nerve sheath tumors are the most common intradural extramedullary masses. This article is an overview of spinal nerve sheath tumors. For a discussion on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology and treatment/prognosis of spinal schwannomas and neurofibromas, please refer to spi...
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Spinal neurenteric cyst

Spinal neurenteric cysts are a rare type of foregut duplication cyst, accounting for ~1% of all spinal cord tumors. They are usually classified as spinal or intracranial and are associated with vertebral or CNS abnormalities respectively.  Pathology Neurenteric cysts result from incomplete res...
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Spinal neurofibroma

Spinal neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, usually of the localized subtype. This article specifically relates to spinal neurofibromas. For a general discussion of neurofibromas, including their epidemiology and pathology, refer to neurofibroma. For a discussion of the gene...
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Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumors of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina. They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochromoc...
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Spinal pia mater

The spinal pia mater (or pia mater spinalis) is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges. In congruence to the cranial pia being closely related to the surface of the brain, the spinal pia is closely related to the surface of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy The spinal pia mater is continuou...
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Spinal pilocytic astrocytoma

Although rare, pilocytic astrocytomas are the most common spinal cord tumors in the pediatric population. This article specifically relates to spinal pilocytic astrocytomas. For a discussion on intracranial pilocytic astrocytomas refer to pilocytic astrocytoma. For a general discussion on spina...
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Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare. Most cases are secondary to metastatic spread through the subarachnoid space from a primary intracranial tumor although rare cases of primary spinal PNETs have been reported. This article specifically relates to spinal PNETs. For a discu...
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Spinal schwannoma

Spinal schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors within the spinal canal, typically arising from spinal nerve roots and it is the most common nerve sheath tumor of spine 11. They are one of the two most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumors, representing 15-50% of such lesions. This a...
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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition in which a portion of the spinal canal narrows to the point at which it can exert pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine. Spinal stenosis is not to be confused with foraminal stenosis which is the narrowing of the foramina with subsequent compression...
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Spinal subarachnoid space

The spinal subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the spine and is continuous with the intracranial subarachnoid space.  It communicates with the intracranial subarachnoid space via the foramen magnum and ends at the level of the S2 vertebra.  It is a relat...
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Spinal subdural hematoma

Spinal subdural hematomas (SSDH) are much less common than epidural hematomas; however, progression of symptoms due to compression tends to be faster 1. Epidemiology Spinal subdural hematomas are a rare entity, much more so than epidural hematomas. In a meta-analysis of over 600 spinal hematom...
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Spinal subdural space

The spinal subdural space is a potential area between the spinal arachnoid mater and the spinal dura mater. Unlike the cranial subdural space, the spinal subdural space does not contain any bridging veins, and thus hemorrhage into this area only occurs in very rare cases 1.  It only contains a ...
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Spinal subependymoma

Spinal subependymomas are very rare low-grade tumors (WHO I) of the spinal cord. Like intracranial subependymomas, that are far more common,  spinal subependymomas are slow-growing, discrete tumors with little if any contrast enhancement. Epidemiology Due to the small number of cases reported ...
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Spinal synovial cyst

Spinal synovial cysts are cystic formations connected to the facet joint and containing synovial fluid lined by a cuboid or pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They may result in lumbar radiculopathy in a significant number of cases. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic and found i...
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Spinal vascular malformations

Spinal vascular malformations (SVM) are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications.  Pathology There are two main types of SVMs 1,2: spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF): 70% of SVMs pial: small, large, or giant dural AVF (DA...
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Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tracts are afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive data from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. There are anterior (or Gowers' tract) and posterior spinocerebellar tracts, the latter also referred to as Flechsig's tract. Both the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tra...
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Spinothalamic tracts

The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other tracts main spinal tracts, the spinothalamic tracts de...
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Splenius capitis muscle

The splenius capitis is a strap-like muscles that, along with the splenius cervicis, comprise the superficial layer of intrinsic back muscles. Gross anatomy Attachments origin: ligamentum nuchae, and the tips of the spinous processes and associated supraspinous ligaments of C7 and the upper t...
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Splenius cervicis muscle

The splenius cervicis is part of the superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It is one of the two muscles in this group, the other being the splenius capitis. Summary origin: spinous processes of T3-T6 insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3 innervation: dorsal rami of the lower ce...
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Split atlas

Split or bipartite atlas is the rare congenital anomaly where the atlas is split into two halves by fusion defects in both the anterior and posterior arches. The osseous defects are spanned by fibrous tissue. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on spinal imaging. Patients may h...
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Split fat sign

The split fat sign is feature that can be seen typically on MRI images with peripheral nerve sheath tumors. It is seen as a fine rind of fat around the lesion. It is best appreciated on T1 weighted images 1. On coronal or sagittal images (i.e.images along the direction of the nerve) a tapered ri...
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Spondylodiskitis

Spondylodiskitis, (rare plural: spondylodiskitides) also referred to as diskitis-osteomyelitis, is characterized by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Terminology In adults, the use of the term diskitis is generally discouraged as isolated infection of the spin...
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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis (plural: spondylolistheses) denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is dir...
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Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
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Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis is a defect in the pars interarticularis of the neural arch, the portion of the neural arch that connects the superior and inferior articular facets. It is commonly known as pars interarticularis defect or more simply as pars defect.  Epidemiology Spondylolysis is present in ~5% ...
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Spondyloptosis

Spondyloptosis is a term to denote grade V spondylolisthesis - a vertebra having slipped so far with respect to the vertebra below that the two endplates are no longer congruent. It is usually anterolisthesis of L5 on S1 but can be seen elsewhere rarely 1,2. 
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Spondylosis

Spondylosis (plural: spondyloses) is used as a broad descriptive term referring to degeneration of the spinal column from any cause; it is usually further qualified by the part of the spine affected, e.g. cervical spondylosis. History and etymology It derives from the Ancient Greek word σπόνδυ...
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Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures.  It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
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Subacute combined degeneration of the cord

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord (SACD) is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Epidemiology Most common in patients older than 40 years and especially older than 60 years 7.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of SACD is usually with loss of vibration and proprioception ...
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Subaxial cervical spine injury classification

The subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) and severity score is a system for cervical spine trauma that helps guide treatment and predicts prognosis. Classification Three parameters are assessed, two being radiologic determined and the last being a clinical assessment. Injury m...
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Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
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Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
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Suboccipital triangle

The suboccipital triangles are a paired triangular-shaped space formed by the configuration of three paired muscles in the posterior neck between the occipital bone, C1 and C2. Gross Anatomy The suboccipital triangle has an inferomedial pointing apex (pointing towards the nuchal ligament) form...
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Sugar coating

So-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) refers to the appearance of diffuse linear/sheetlike leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in the brain or spinal cord due to drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from dista...
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Sulcal artery

Sulcal arteries are penetrating branches from the anterior spinal artery and extend posteriorly through the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord. The sulcal arteries supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord at any cross-sectional level. Successive sulcal arteries generally altern...
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Supraspinous ligament

The supraspinous ligament runs along the tips of adjacent spinous processes and is particularly thick in the cervicothoracic region. Above the level C7 spinous process the ligament no longer directly attaches to the spinous process but rather continues as the nuchal ligament up to its attachment...
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Surfer's myelopathy

Surfer's myelopathy is a rare, nontraumatic spinal cord injury occurring in novice surfers in whom prolonged hyperextension of the back causes infarction of the artery of Adamkiewicz. Terminology These patients are almost always novice surfers 1,2. However, cases of a similar syndrome have bee...
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Swischuk line

The Swischuk line is helpful in differentiating pathological anterior displacement of the cervical spine from physiological displacement, termed pseudosubluxation. Measurement the line is drawn from anterior aspect of posterior arch of C1 to anterior aspect of posterior arch of C3 the anterio...
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Sympathetic chain

The sympathetic chain is a component of the autonomic nervous system and is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via the hypothalamus. The overarching function of the sympathetic system is to control the 'fight, fright o...
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Syndesmophyte

Syndesmophytes are calcifications or heterotopic ossifications inside a spinal ligament or of the annulus fibrosus.​ They are seen in only a limited number of conditions including:  ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis reactive arthritis psoriatic arthritis They can be classified as...
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Synovial cyst

Synovial cysts are para-articular fluid-filled sacs or pouch-like structures containing synovial fluid and lined by synovial membrane. They can occur around virtually every synovial joint in the body and also around tendon sheaths and bursae. Communication with the adjacent joint may or may not ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS lupus) describe a wide variety of neuropsychiatric manifestations that are secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the central nervous system (CNS). For a general discussion, and for links to other system spec...
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T11 vertebra

T11 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet that articulates with the atypical eleventh rib. There are no facets on the transverse processes.
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T12 vertebra

T12 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet with no facets on transverse processes.
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T1 vertebra

T1 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a complete facet for the 1st rib and a demifacet for the 2nd rib. It contains lips on the upper surface of the body. T1 also has a spinous process more horizontal than other thoracic vertebrae.
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Tabes dorsalis

Tabes dorsalis is a form of tertiary late neurosyphilis in which there is demyelination of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Clinical presentation Patients presen...
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Tarlov cyst

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural cysts, are CSF-filled dilatations of the nerve root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion (posterior nerve root sheath). These are type II spinal meningeal cysts that are, by definition, extradural but contain neural tissue. Most Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic, ...
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Tectorial membrane of the spine

The tectorial membrane is the thin superior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament from the body of the axis. It joins the axis body to the clivus on the anterior half of the foramen magnum, and ascends as high as the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and laterally extends to the hypog...
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Terminal myelocystocele

Terminal myelocystoceles are an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism representing marked dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord, herniating posteriorly through a dorsal spinal defect. The result is a skin-covered mass in the lower lumbar region, consisting of an ependyma-lined sac.  E...
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Tethered cord syndrome

Tethered cord syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Tethered cord syndrome is a clinical diagnosis based on neurologic deterioration involving the lower spinal cord 7. Patients ...
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Third condyle

The third condyle, also known as condylus tertius or median occipital condyle, is a rare anatomic variant of the occipital condyles. It is a small separate ossicle at the anteromedial margin of the occipital condyle formed by the failure of the embryonic proatlas (4th occipital sclerotome) to un...
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Thoracic anatomy

Thoracic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the thorax. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the international standard of anatomical nomenclature. 
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Thoracic spine

The thoracic spine (often shortened to T-spine) forms the middle part of the vertebral column. It extends from below C7 of the cervical spine to above L1 of the lumbar spine. There are 12 thoracic vertebra, termed T1-T12. The thoracic spine is unique due to its articulation with ribs via costal...
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Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine anteroposterior (AP) view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, sublux...
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Thoracic spine fracture-dislocation

Thoracic spine fracture-dislocations are severe forms of spinal column injuries that occur secondary to high-energy trauma, in which there is vertebral fracture concomitant with dislocation of facet joints and/or the intervertebral disc space. They are mechanically unstable and are associated wi...
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Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, subluxation or kyph...
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Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
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Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
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Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are numerous and represent attempts by various authors to create systems that allow uniform and reproducible classification and description of thoracolumbar fractures which in turn can help with treatment decision making and prognostication.  ...

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