Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

507 results found
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Spinal haemangioblastoma

Spinal haemangioblastomas are the third most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm, representing 2-6% of all intramedullary tumours 1,4,7. This article specifically relates to spinal hemangioblastomas. For a discussion on intracranial hemangioblastomas and a general discussion of the pathology ...
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Neoplasms of the cauda equina (differential)

The differential diagnosis for masses of the cauda equina region is often considered separately to the remainder of the spinal cord. It is often difficult to determine whether masses in this region are intramedullary or intradural-extramedullary. Most common tumours myxopapillary ependymoma b...
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Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination of biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter...
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Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries

Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations. Pathology The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results in inst...
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Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females.  Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anato...
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CSF-venous fistula

CSF-venous fistulas are rare and only recently recognised causes of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. They are a direct communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and epidural veins allowing for the loss of CSF directly into the circulation and can be either iatrogenic or spontaneou...
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Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a form of muscular dystrophy characterised by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Epidemiology It is considered one of the more common hereditary muscular disorders with a prevalence of ~1 in 8,000. ...
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Hanging and strangulation

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis is characterised by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology Spondylodiscitis has a bimodal age distribution, which many authors consider essentially as separate entities: paediatric older population ~50 years Clinical presentation T...
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Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
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Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Burst fracture

Burst fractures are a type of compression fracture related to high-energy axial loading spinal trauma that results in disruption of the posterior vertebral body cortex with retropulsion into the spinal canal.  Clinical presentation They usually present as back pain and or lower limbs neurologi...
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Spinal epidermoid cyst

Spinal epidermoid cysts are cystic tumours lined by squamous epithelium. Unlike dermoid cysts, they do not contain skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) 10. They are usually extramedullary but rarely can be intramedullary 1. They may be congenital or acquired. This a...
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Sulcal artery

Sulcal arteries are penetrating branches from the anterior spinal artery and extend posteriorly through the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord. The sulcal arteries supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord at any cross-sectional level. Successive sulcal arteries generally altern...
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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system that is found within the spinal canal of the vertebral column.  Gross anatomy It measures approximately 42-45 cm in length, ~1 cm in diameter and 35 g in weight.  It is divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar parts and terminates at...
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Atlantodental interval

The atlantodental interval (ADI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the anterior arch of the atlas and the dens of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries and injuries of the atlas and axis. It is the distance (in mm) between the posteri...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord injury, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a contusion of the central portion of the cervical spinal cord. Epidemiology Most often central cord syndrome occ...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure for the decompression of the cervical cord due to disc protrusions and posteriorly projecting osteophytes.  Technique The procedure is carried out via an anterolateral neck incision with surgical app...
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Sickle cell disease (skeletal manifestations)

Skeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease result from a combination of bone marrow hyperplasia in the setting of chronic anaemia, and bone infarction as well as their complications. For a general discussion of sickle cell disease, please refer to sickle cell disease. Clinical presentation...
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Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
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Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
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Quadratus lumborum

The quadratus lumborum muscle is an irregular quadrilateral muscle that forms part of the posterior abdominal wall. Summary location: dorsal abdominal wall attachments: medial half of inferior margins of 12th ribs and upper four lumbar transverse processes blood supply branches of the lumba...
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Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...
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Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It is a common cause of congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation anoma...
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Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
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Meningeal melanocytoma

Meningeal melanocytomas are rare benign primary melanocytic tumours of the CNS that are derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes. They can occur anywhere along the neuraxis but are most commonly found in the spinal canal near the foramen magnum, as well as the posterior fossa, Meckel’s cave, or a...
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Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumours of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina). They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochrom...
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS lupus) describe a wide variety of neuropsychiatric manifestations that are secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the central nervous system (CNS). For a general discussion, and for links to other system spec...
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Chalk stick fracture

Chalk stick or carrot stick fractures are fractures of the fused spine, classically seen in ankylosing spondylitis. Terminology Some authors define the chalk stick fracture as a fracture through a Pagetoid long bone (see Paget disease). Pathology They usually occur through the disco-vertebra...
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease and Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which, as the name suggests, results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. E...
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Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to the displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge. A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteop...
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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Neuromyelis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are closely related severe demyelinating diseases caused by an autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 water channel. The classic presentation of NMO is with the triad of optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, and po...
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Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space resulting in compression of the thecal sac. In severe cases, compression may be symptomatic. The lumbar region is most frequently affected. Epidemiology The demographics of affected individuals ref...
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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) and c...
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Spinal neurenteric cysts

Spinal neurenteric cysts are a rare type of foregut duplication cyst, accounting for ~1% of all spinal cord tumours. They are usually classified as spinal or intracranial and are associated with vertebral or CNS abnormalities respectively.  Pathology Neurenteric cysts result from incomplete re...
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Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF)

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a form of lumbar surgical spinal fusion developed in 2001 to be a safer alternative to the older anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) developed in the 1950s 1,2. Unlike an ALIF, an XLIF is performed from a lateral trans-psoas approach and does not r...
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Tuberculous spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis, also known as Pott disease, refers to vertebral body osteomyelitis and intervertebral discitis from tuberculosis (TB). The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis, and commonly related symptoms are back pain and lower limb weakness/paraplegia....
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Hirayama disease

Hirayama disease, also termed non-progressive juvenile spinal muscular atrophy of the distal upper limbs, is a type of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. It is considered a benign motor neurone disorder with a stationary stage after a progressive course. Epidemiology ...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Adjacent level ossification

Adjacent level ossification is a complication of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with anterior plate stabilisation. It represents pathological heterotopic ossification of the soft tissues above or below the ends of the plate, contiguous with the adjacent vertebral body. It occurs ...
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Adjacent segment degeneration

Adjacent segment degeneration is a common complication of spinal fusion occurring at the adjacent unfused level above or below the fused segment. It is usually encountered in the cervical spine or lumbar spine and occurs with an incidence of roughly between 2% and 4% per year 4.  The underlying...
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Ganglioneuroblastoma

A ganglioneuroblastoma is a transitional tumour which lies on the intermediate spectrum of disease between a ganglioneuroma and a neuroblastoma. Epidemiology They are seen more commonly in children younger than 10 years. There is no definite gender predilection reported at the time of writing....
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Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
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Unilateral facet dislocation

Unilateral facet dislocation is a relatively stable type of facet dislocation. Pathology Mechanism Flexion/distraction associated with rotation. The inferior articular facet of vertebral above moves over the superior facet of the vertebral below and becomes locked. It usually affects C4-C5 or...
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Unfused spinous process

Unfused spinous process, which is really failure of fusion of the neural arch, is a relatively common anatomical variant and is part of the spectrum of spina bifida occulta.  This should be differentiated from accessory ossicles of the spinous process, which appear after non-fusion of the secon...
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Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the bony s...
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Arcuate foramen

The arcuate foramen (foramen arcuale atlantis, ponticulus posticus or posterior ponticle, or Kimerle anomaly) is a frequently encountered normal variant of the atlas and is easily appreciated on a lateral plain film of the cranio-cervical junction. It develops by calcification of the posterior ...
Article

Corpectomy

Corpectomy (followed by fusion) refers to the removal of one or more vertebral bodies to treat compressive myelopathy caused by extensive hypertrophic osteoarthritis, tumour, infection or severe trauma. In most cases, the intervertebral discs are removed as well 1-3.  Technique An anterior or ...
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Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a spinal fusion procedure performed as an alternative to posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) when posterior decompression of the spinal canal is not required 1.  A facetectomy is usually performed followed by a discectomy and insertion of in...
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Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a spinal fusion procedure usually performed at L5/S1 or L4/5.  It is carried out either via a transabdominal or lateral retroperitoneal approach. A discectomy is performed, an interbody spacer introduced and fixed in place with screws with or without a...
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Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure that can be performed at a single level or a multiple adjacent levels. It relies on the introduction of pedicle screws with connecting rods posteriorly. A partial laminectomy is performed to gain access to ...
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Cervical spine series

The cervical spine series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate the bony structures of the cervical spine, albeit commonly replaced by the CT, the cervical spine series is an essential trauma radiograph for all radiographers to understand. Indications Cervical spine radiographs are indi...
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Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of cord compression. These can be divided according to the location of the compressing mass: interverte...
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Os odontoideum

Os odontoideum is an anatomic variant of the odontoid process of C2 and needs to be differentiated from persistent ossiculum terminale and from a type 2 odontoid fracture. It can be associated with atlantoaxial instability.  Although it was originally thought to be a congenital lesion due to a ...
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Winking owl sign (spine)

The (absent) pedicle sign, also called the winking owl sign, occurs on plain film when a pedicle is absent. The term, winking owl sign, where the missing pedicle corresponds to the closed eye, the contralateral pedicle to the other open eye, and the spinous process to the beak of the animal on ...
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Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome

Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome (ASCIS) is uncommon, but usually presents with profound neurological signs and symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.  Epidemiology Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome represents only 5-8% of acute myelopathies 4,5 and <1% of all strokes 7. The demographic o...
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Foraminal disc protrusion

Foraminal disc protrusions are an important entity to recognise for a number of reasons. First of all, it is relatively easy to overlook as it does not impinge upon the spinal canal. Secondly, as it does not narrow the subarticular recess it compresses the exiting nerve root only, thus clinical...
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Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
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AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only three classes of thoracolumbar injuries. Unlik...
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Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
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Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

The two most commonly currently used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are the AO classification and the TLICS although a number of other classification systems have been proposed over the years 1. Each has benefits and drawbacks and each incorporates various features in an at...
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Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. Klippel-Feil syndrome has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,...
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Ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia

With the growing incidence of obesity in the western world, ultrasound-guided anaesthesia is becoming more common. Spinal anaesthesia is traditionally administered by identifying relevant surface anatomy and imaging is rarely used for pre-procedural identification of structures.  Indications l...
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WHO classification of CNS tumours

The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumour. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which sho...
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Musculoskeletal hydatid infection

Musculoskeletal hydatid infections are a very rare form of hydatid disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with slow growing swelling with or witho...
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Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web refers to a thickened band of arachnoid over the dorsal aspect of the cord. It usually causes a focal thoracic cord distortion with consequent neurological dysfunction.  On imaging, it is characterised by a focal dorsal indentation and anterior displacement of the ...
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AO classification of subaxial injuries

The AO classification of subaxial injuries aims to simplify and universalise the classification of subaxial cervical spine fractures and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO subaxial cervical spine injury classification involves four criteria based on morphology, facet in...
Article

Spinal hydatid disease

Spinal hydatid disease is an uncommon manifestion of hydatid disease, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis, and describes a spectrum of disease involving the spinal cord, the spine, or both. For a general discussion, and for ...
Article

Uncinate process of the cervical spine

The uncinate process of the cervical spine is a hook-shaped process found bilaterally on the superolateral margin of the cervical vertebral bodies of C3-C7. The uncinate processes are more anteriorly positioned in the upper cervical spine and more posteriorly location in the lower cervical spin...
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AO classification of sacral injuries

The AO classification of sacral injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying sacral injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO sacral classification is broken into three subsections that follow a hierarchical structure similar to the AO cla...
Article

Uncovertebral joint

Uncovertebral joints, also called Luschka’s joints, are seen bilaterally between adjacent cervical vertebrae, identified by the cat ear shaped uncinate processes of the C3-7 vertebrae (C1 and C2 have no uncinate processes). Gross anatomy Articulations The articulation forms between the uncina...
Article

Picture frame vertebral body

Picture frame vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the cortex of the vertebral body is thickened. This sign can be seen in patients with Paget disease.  It is a result of disorganised new cortical bone formation after excessive osteoclastic activity causes the resorption of normal...
Article

Sacrum

The sacrum is the penultimate segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior part of the bony pelvis. It transmits the total body weight between the lower appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton. Gross anatomy The sacrum is an irregularly-shaped bone, roughly an inverted tri...
Article

Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. The iliocostalis group occurs most laterally, followed by the longissimus group, and finally the spinalis as the most me...
Article

Atypical thoracic vertebrae

T1 and T9 - T12 are considered atypical thoracic vertebrae. T1 bears some resemblance to low cervical vertebrae. T9 has no inferior demifacet. T10 often, but not always, shares features with T11 and T12.  For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
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Typical thoracic vertebrae

Given the twelve thoracic vertebrae are largely similar, most are considered typical thoracic vertebrae with the exceptions T1 and T9 to T12. For a basic anatomic description of the structure of typical vertebrae, see vertebrae. Gross anatomy Relative to cervical and lumbar vertebrae, thoracic...
Article

Atlas (C1)

The atlas is the first cervical vertebra, commonly called C1. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features. It articulates with the dens of the axis and the occiput, respectively allowing rotation of the head, and flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the head.  Unlike the rest o...
Article

Vertebra

The vertebra (plural: vertebrae) is the fundamental segmental unit of the vertebral column (also know as the spine). Gross anatomy Vertebrae, apart from those that are atypical, have a similar basic structure which can be described as an anterior vertebral body and a posterior neural (or verte...
Article

Cervical spine

The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine extending from the skull base to the thorax at the level of the first vertebra with a rib attached to it. It normally consists of seven vertebrae. Its main function is to support the skull and maintain the relative positions of the brain and spin...
Article

Lumbar spine

The lumbar spine consists of five adjacent vertebrae of the lower vertebral column. They participate in the lumbar lordosis, a natural curve in the spine, that is convex anteriorly.  Articulations of the facet (zygapophyseal) joints permit flexion/extension and abduction movements. Rotation is ...
Article

Laminectomy

Laminectomy refers to unilateral or bilateral surgical removal of the lamina of a vertebra body. It is performed to decompress the spinal canal in spinal canal stenosis.  This is typically caused by degenerative changes. The most common site of the procedure is the lumbar spine. 
Article

Spinal anatomy

Spinal anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine, the spinal cord and its supporting structures. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature.  Overview The spine...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess represents infection of the epidural space, located between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral periosteum. It can present with rapidly deteriorating neurological function due to compression. Imaging is best performed with MRI and emergency surgery is often required. ...
Article

Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
Article

Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...

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