Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

535 results found
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Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. Thi...
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Polio-like paralysis

Polio-like paralysis refers to a paralytic state which is similar in clinical appearance to polio, but from which poliovirus is not isolated. Like polio, the main presenting symptom is acute flaccid paralysis. Pathology There are many causes, some of which are infective, e.g. coxsackie A9 and ...
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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis encompasses an enormously wide disease spectrum affecting multiple organs and body systems predominantly caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A small proportion can also be caused Mycobacterium bovis.  Epidemiology Although tubeculsosis continues to be very common in...
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Magnetic resonance neurography

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a relatively new non-invasive imaging technique for dedicated assessment of peripheral nerves. It is used to assess peripheral nerve entrapments and impingements as well as localization and grading of nerve injuries and lesions. Dedicated high-resolution...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
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Disc bulge

A disc bulge  represents displacement of the outer fibres of the annulus fibrosus beyond the margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies, involving more than one-quarter (25% or 90 degrees) of the circumference of an intervertebral disc 3. Because it is limited by the annulus fibrosus it does not e...
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Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1,2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
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Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
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Dorsal cord syndrome

Dorsal cord syndrome, also known as posterior spinal cord syndrome, is one of the incomplete cord syndromes resulting from pathology affecting the posterior part of the spinal cord, particularly the dorsal columns and potentially (in larger lesions) the lateral corticospinal tracts 1.  Clinical...
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterised by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
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Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
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Laminectomy

Laminectomy (whether unilateral or bilateral) refers to the surgical removal of the lamina of a vertebral body. By removing the lamina, we are able to decompress the spinal canal, and thus reduce the pressure on the spinal cord. Spinal stenosis may be caused by: arthritis of the spine (in olde...
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Spinal fusion

Spinal fusion is a broad term to denote the joining of two or more adjacent vertebral segments. Fusion can be congenital or acquired as a direct result of disease or deliberately following spinal surgery.  Congenital fusion Fusion of two or more adjacent segments is encountered either as an is...
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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD disease), also referred as pyrophosphate arthropathy and perhaps confusingly as pseudogout, is common, especially in the elderly, and is characterised by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in soft tissues and cartilage. Terminology  CPPD is on...
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Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most commo...
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Benign notochordal cell tumour

Benign notochordal cell tumours (BNCT) are vertebral lesions that are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging of the head or spine. As this is a poorly-recognised entity, it can often be confused with aggressive vertebral lesions, such as a chordoma, when it is seen on imagin...
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Picture frame vertebral body

Picture frame vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the cortex of the vertebral body is thickened. This sign can be seen in patients with Paget disease.  It is a result of disorganised new cortical bone formation after excessive osteoclastic activity causes the resorption of normal...
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Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be a...
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Vertebral haemangioma

Vertebral haemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected due to their characteristic features on imaging for other reasons. Please refer on the article on primary intraosseous haemangioma for a general discussion in this enti...
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Filar cyst

A filar cyst is an incidental finding on neonatal lumbar sonography located in the filum terminale of the spinal cord. It is considered a normal variant and is often confused for a ventriculus terminalis, a smooth dilated cavity of the central canal, located within the conus medullaris. The inc...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. CSF is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle, then fourth ventricle and then ...
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Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition in which a portion of the spinal canal narrows to the point at which it can exert pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine (spinal cord or cauda equina). Spinal stenosis is not to be confused with foraminal stenosis which is the narrowing of the forami...
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Sacrum

The sacrum is the penultimate segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior part of the bony pelvis. It transmits the total body weight between the lower appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton. Gross anatomy The sacrum is an irregularly-shaped bone, shaped roughly like an ...
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Anterior sacral meningocele

Anterior sacral meningocele is a congenital defect seen in the anterior aspect of the spine. It is defined as a meningeal cyst that occurs in the presacral space secondary to agenesis of a portion of the anterior sacrum. Pathology Associations In approximately 50% of cases, associated malform...
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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect/spinal dysraphism which can occur to varying degrees of severity. It is often considered the most common congenital CNS malformation. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:1000-2000 live births 2. Clinical presentation A constellation of fe...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is typically an entity seen in patients of Asian descent, although it is seen in all ethnic groups. It is characterised by, as the name suggests, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Epidemiology There is a recognised g...
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Posterior spinal artery syndrome

Posterior spinal artery syndrome is a rare syndrome associated occlusion of the posterior spinal artery and results in a unilateral dorsal cord syndrome (since the posterior arteries are paired) 3.  The syndrome is clinically characterised by isolated loss of proprioception and vibratory sensat...
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Incomplete cord syndromes

Incomplete cord syndromes encompass a variety of patterns of cross-sectional partial disruption of the spinal cord. Due to the spatial segregation of various ascending and descending tracts within the cord, regional dysfunction results in predictable and distinct clinical patterns of deficit. As...
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White matter tracts of the spinal cord

The spinal cord has numerous tracts of white matter that ascend and descend in the peripheral substance of the cord. They can be divided by their location and function: anterolateral columns anterior corticospinal tract medial longitudinal fasiculus spinothalamic tracts lateral spinothalami...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterio...
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Spinothalamic tracts

The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other tracts main spinal tracts, the spinothalamic tracts de...
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Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Lateral corticospinal tract

The lateral corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids when the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate – the majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterior corticospinal tract, with only a few non...
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Rubrospinal tract

The rubrospinal tract contains neurons that carry signals from the corticorubral tract. The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The magnocellular portion of the red nucleus gives rise to the rubrospinal tract. It decussates...
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Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tracts are afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive data from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. There are anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts, the latter also referred to as Flechsig's tract. Both the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts lie in the peri...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Gracile fasciculus

The gracile fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus gracilis or column of Goll, represents the medial portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from below and including T7 1. Function The gracile fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (d...
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Cuneate fasciculus

The cuneate fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus cuneate or column of Burdach, represents the lateral portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from between and including C1 and T6 1.  Function The cuneate fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception...
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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system that is found within the spinal canal of the vertebral column. It is contained by the thecal sac, a continuation of the intracranial dura matter, and extends from the corticomedullary junction at the foramen magnum of the skull down to th...
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Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Clinical presentation Patient...
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Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is a type of spinal canal stenosis and has a different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 ...
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WHO classification of CNS tumours

The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumour. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which sho...
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Meningocele manqué

Meningocele manqué (from French, literally "missed meningocele") is a rare condition characterized by focal dorsal tethering of the spinal cord. The term is used to designate a meningocele which failed to develop and became atretic. Epidemiology It has been reported in neonates, but median age...
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Lateral meningocele syndrome

Lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies and ne...
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Lateral thoracic meningocele

Lateral thoracic meningoceles are a type of spinal meningocele. Pathology As with any meningocele, it results from herniation of the meninges through a foramen or a defect in the vertebral column.  Associations They are typically associated with neurofibromatosis type I but can rarely occur ...
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Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term given to a group of anomalies where there are malformations in the dorsum of the embryo. Neural tube defects come under this group as well.  Pathology There is often abnormal fusion of the midline embryonic neural, vertebral and mesenchymal structures.  Subty...
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Occult intrasacral meningocele

Occult intrasacral meningocele is a rare congenital lesion characterised by the presence of a cyst within the sacral thecal sac. It is an extradural sacral arachnoid cyst - Nabor type Ib meningeal cyst. It is not a true meningocele, since meninges are not involved. It is associated with spinal ...
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Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. Patient position patient is standing erect with either the left or right posterior side clos...
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White matter

The white matter is the substance of the brain and spinal cord that contains the fibre tracts of neuronal axons in the central nervous system. The term is due to the paler colour of the lipid-rich myelin that encase the axons in the tracts compared to the grey matter, which contains predominantl...
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Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine x...
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Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are one of the most frequently performed spinal interventional procedures, as both treatment for and diagnosis of radicular pain syndrome and facet syndrome. It can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance and cervical, thoracic or most commonl...
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Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

 The PA oblique view of the sacroiliac joints can be performed in patients who cannot assume the supine position. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Oblique views can be taken either AP or PA....
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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
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Grey matter

The grey matter is the substance of the brain and spinal cord that contains the neuronal cell bodies of the central nervous system. Within the cerebrum the two main locations of grey matter are on the surface of the gyri (the cortical gray matter) and the nuclei of the basal ganglia. The brains...
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Lumbar enlargement

The lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord corresponds to the mild increase in cross sectional area of the cord from the T11 level to the conus medullaris. It is enlarged due to the present of spinal nerve anterior rami which contribute to the lumbar and sacral plexuses.
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Lateral horn

The lateral horn of the spinal cord is the small lateral projection of grey matter located between the dorsal horn and ventral horn and contain the neuronal cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord, the spinal grey matter is describe...
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Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord sizable and formed...
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Fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally. Radiographic features Plain radiograph/CT Described features include: increased bone density...
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Cervical spine (swimmer's lateral view)

Cervical spine swimmer's lateral view is a modified lateral projection of the cervical spine to visualise the C7/T1 junction. It is most often performed in the setting of trauma, where a standard lateral projection cannot image the cervicothoracic junction. As technology advances, computed tomo...
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Cervical spine (AP view)

The AP cervical spine projection is part of the cervical spine series. Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing straight forward...
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Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord, and their supporting structures. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Dural ectasia

Dural ectasia refers to ballooning or widening of the dural sac which can result in posterior vertebral scalloping and is associated with herniation of nerve root sleeves. Clinical presentation Patients with dural ectasia may present with low back pain or radicular pain in the buttocks or legs...
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Arachnoiditis

Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Terminology Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.  Clinical presentation Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
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Split fat sign

The split fat sign is feature that can be seen typically on MRI images with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. It is seen as a fine rind of fat around the lesion. It is best appreciated on T1 weighted images 1. On coronal or sagittal images (i.e.images along the direction of the nerve) a tapered r...
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Pseudosinus tract

A pseudosinus tract is a normal fibrous cord extending from the coccyx to an overlying sacral dimple. These have no associated mass and contain no fluid (if CSF drainage is occurring via the sacral dimple, then a true dorsal dermal sinus should be considered). Diagnosis Ultrasound Hypoechoic ...
Article

Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
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Sacral dimple

Sacral dimples are a clinical and radiological feature that is associated with occult spinal dysraphism (e.g. tethered cord syndrome) but are more frequently a non-significant isolated finding. Epidemiology Common in healthy children (~5%) 1. Pathology Simple sacral dimples have the followin...
Article

Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus, and refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an acutely extruded lumbar d...
Article

HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy

HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy, also known as AIDS-related myelopathy, is the most common chronic myelopathy associated with HIV infection and is typically seen in the late stages of the disease. Clinical presentation Patients tend to have slowly progressive weakness of the lower extremities,...
Article

Traumatic spinal cord injury

Traumatic spinal cord injury can manifest as a wide variety of clinical syndromes resulting from damage to the spinal cord or its surrounding structures. It can result from minor injury if the spine is weakened from disease such as ankylosing spondylitis or if there is pre-existing spinal stenos...
Article

Notochord

The notochord represents the earliest foetal axial skeleton, and extending from the Rathke's pouch to the coccyx. It is a primitive cell line in which the skull base and the vertebral column develop around. The notochord which is cylindrical in shape is replaced by sclerotomes that produce carti...
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Sorensen criteria

In typical Scheuermann disease of the thoracic spine the Sorensen criteria are met when three or more consecutive vertebrae are wedged by 5 degrees or more 1.
Article

Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, Odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. This projection can be used to visualise the intervertebral foramina. Patient position patie...
Article

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature has changed over the years, and a familiarity with current definitions is essential if clear communication is to be achieved via radiology reports or referrals, especially as lumbar disc disease is a common problem and a source of a great deal of imaging....
Article

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Neuromyelis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are closely related severe demyelinating diseases caused by an autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 water channel. The classic presentation of NMO is with the triad of optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, and po...
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Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL), also known as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), represent extensive involvement of the spinal cord, with abnormal T2 signal traversing at least three vertebral body segments in length. Differential diagnosis They are typi...
Article

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
Article

Coronal balance

Coronal balance is one of the features that needs to be assessed on long spine radiographs obtained for spinal deformity, particularly scoliosis. It measures whether or not the upper spine is located over the midline (normal) or off to one side.  To assess coronal balance, a vertical (plumb) li...
Article

Sagittal balance (C7 plumb line)

Sagittal balance forms part of the plain radiographic assessment of spinal deformity including kyphotic or lordotic deformities and scoliosis. There are numerous ways of assessing this, using various bony landmarks and angles to evaluate whether or not a normal distribution of weight and stresse...
Article

Cervical disc replacement

A cervical disc replacement (also known as a spacer) is a prosthesis surgically inserted in the native disc space.  It is invariably inserted for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Disc replacements can be placed either in isolation or along with anterior fixation. The appearances are varied wi...
Article

Insufficiency fracture

Insufficiency fractures are a type of stress fracture, which are the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone. They should not be confused with fatigue fractures which are due to abnormal stresses on normal bone, or with pathological fractures, the result of diseased, weakened bone due to foca...
Article

Scottie dog sign (spine)

The Scottie dog sign refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen on oblique radiographic projection. On oblique views, the posterior elements of the vertebra form the figure of a Scottie dog with: the transverse process being the nose the pedicle forming the eye the inferior...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

Schmorl nodes

Schmorl nodes, also referred as intravertebral disc herniations, refer to protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent vertebra. The protrusions may contact the marrow of the vertebra, leading to inflammation. Epidemiology Qu...

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