Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

460 results found
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
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Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour type...
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Intradural disc herniation

Intradural disc herniations (IDH) occur when disc material related to an intervertebral disc hernia penetrate the spinal dura and lies in an intradural extramedullary location. Epidemiology IDH correspond to a rare presentation of a common pathology, comprising ~0.28% of all disc herniations 2...
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Intervertebral osteochondrosis

Intervertebral osteochondrosis represents the pathologic degenerative process involving the intervertebral disc and the respective vertebral body endplates (not necessarily symptomatic). It is believed to be different and a further stage of spondylosis deformans, which is a consequence of normal...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Olisthesis

Olisthesis, also known as the etymologically less correct listhesis, means slipping or sliding. Pathology Types include: anterolisthesis spondylolisthesis spondylolisthesis grading retrolisthesis
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Ochronosis

Ochronosis, or alkaptonuria, is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. On imaging, the most particular presentation is on the spine, with osteoporotic bones and dense disc calcifications.  Terminology The term ochronosis usually refers to the bluish-black discolouration of...
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Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is typically an entity seen in patients of Asian descent, although it is seen in all ethnic groups. It is characterised by, as the name suggests, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Epidemiology There is a recognised g...
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Ossification of the ligamentum flavum

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a phenomenon where there is a formation of ossific-calcific components in the ligamentum flavum. It is recognised causes of myelopathy (especially in the thoracic and to a lesser degree the cervical region). Epidemiology The condition as a whole i...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis is a rare condition characterised by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from non-tumour conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect the periphe...
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Neurenteric cyst

Neurenteric cysts are a rare type of foregut duplication cyst, accounting for ~1% of all spinal cord tumours. They are usually classified as spinal or intracranial and are associated with vertebral or CNS abnormalities respectively.  Pathology Neurenteric cysts result from incomplete resorptio...
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Myelomeningocoele

Myelomeningocoele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be ...
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Modic type endplate changes

Modic type endplate changes represent a classification for vertebral body end-plate MRI signal, first described in 1988 1. It is widely recognised by radiologists and clinicians and is a useful shorthand for reporting MRIs of the spine. Recently Modic type I has received renewed attention due t...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Fish vertebra

Fish vertebra, also known as codfish vertebra, describes the biconcave appearance of vertebrae (especially lumbar vertebrae). Pathology Seen in: osteoporosis  sickle cell disease hereditary spherocytosis homocystinuria renal osteodystrophy osteogenesis imperfecta thalassemia major (rare...
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Fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally. Radiographic features Plain film/CT Described features include: increased bone density: oste...
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Fibrocartilaginous embolism

Fibrocartilaginous embolism (also known as nucleus pulposus embolism) is a rare cause of spinal cord ischaemia due to embolisation of nucleus pulposus material from intervertebral disc in a retrograde direction into a spinal artery or vein. Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a diagnosis of suspicio...
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Lateral thoracic meningocele

Lateral thoracic meningoceles are a type of spinal meningocoele. Pathology As with any meningocele, it results from herniation of the meninges through a foramen or a defect in the vertebral column.  Associations They are typically associated with neurofibromatosis type I but can rarely occur...
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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
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Terminal myelocystocele

Terminal myelocystoceles are an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism representing marked dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord, herniating posteriorly through a dorsal spinal defect. The result is a skin-covered mass in the lower lumbar region, consisting of an ependyma-lined sac.  E...
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Epidural angiolipoma

Epidural angiolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes and abnormal vessels.  Epidemiology Epidural angiolipomas are more frequently encountered in women, and typically in middle age (40-50 years of age) 1.  Clinical presentation In keeping with the slow growth of these ...
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Transverse myelitis

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory condition affecting both halves of the spinal cord and associated with rapidly progressive motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. It is mostly imaged with MRI, which generally shows a long segment (3-4 segments or more) of T2 increased sign...
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Kümmell disease

Kümmell disease is an eponymous name for osteonecrosis and collapse of a vertebral body. Pathology Kümmell disease represents delayed (usually two weeks) vertebral body collapse due to ischaemia and non-union of anterior vertebral body wedge fractures after major trauma. Risk factors Risk fa...
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Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It is a common cause of congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation anoma...
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Hirayama disease

Hirayama disease, also termed non-progressive juvenile spinal muscular atrophy of the distal upper limbs, is a type of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. It is considered a benign motor neurone disorder with a stationary stage after a progressive course. Epidemiology ...
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Haematomyelia

Haematomyelia refers to the presence of intramedullary haemorrhage or haematoma within the spinal cord. This is distinct from extramedullary haemorrhage such as that seen in epidural haematoma. Pathology Although haematomyelia can occur in the setting of trauma, the term is generally used to s...
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Haemosiderin cap sign

The haemosiderin cap sign refers to an MR imaging feature in some spinal tumours where a cap of T2 hypointense haemosiderin is above and/or below the tumour due to previous haemorrhage.  It is most often associated with spinal cord ependymomas (20-33% of cases) 1. It may also be seen in haemang...
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Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Lumbosacral transitional vertebra

e (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and can be seen in ~25% (range 15-35%) of the general population 1-3. Non-recognition of this variant and/or poor description in the report can lead to operations or procedures performed at the wrong level.  Depending on the number of thoracic vertebrae,...
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Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web is a cause of focal thoracic cord distortion with resulting neurological dysfunction.  Clinical presentation Due to the limited number of reported cases the incidence of this condition may well be under-recognised. The cases reported have a variety of signs and sy...
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Dorsal epidural disc migration

Dorsal epidural disc migration represents, as the name suggests, migration of disc material, usually a sequestrated disc fragment, into the dorsal (posterior) epidural space, posterior to the theca. This is a rare occurrence, often not suspected preoperatively and is almost invariably encountere...
Article

Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
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Disc sequestration

Sequestrated disc, also referred to as a free disc fragment, corresponds to extruded disc material that has no continuity with the parent disc and is displaced away from the site of extrusion. By definition, it corresponds to a subtype of disc extrusion. The term "migrated" disc refers only to ...
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Disc extrusion

Disc extrusion is a type of intervertebral disc herniation and is distinguished from a disc protrusion in that it: in at least one plane, has a broader dome (B) than a neck (A) and/or extends above or below the disc level (into the suprapedicular or infrapedicular zone) Disc extrusions are a...
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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also referred to as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterised by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion of the spine affecting elderly individuals. On imaging, it is typically characterised by the flowing ...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
Article

Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter th...
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Spinal meningioma

Meningiomas arising from the coverings of the spinal cord represent a minority of all meningiomas (approximately 12% 5) but are the second most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumour representing 25% of all such tumours 2. Despite usually being small, due to the confines of the spinal ca...
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Ventral cord herniation

Ventral cord herniation, also known by a variety of other terms such as spontaneous thoracic cord herniation or idiopathic spinal cord herniation, is a rare cause of focal myelopathy due to herniation of the thoracic cord through a dural defect.  Post surgical cord herniation can occur at any l...
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Vertebral haemangioma

Vertebral haemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected due to their characteristic features on imaging for other reasons. Please refer on the article on primary intraosseous haemangioma for a general discussion in this enti...
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Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the bony s...
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Vertebral pneumatocyst

Vertebral pneumatocysts refers to the presence of a gas-filled cavity within the vertebrae, more prevalent on the cervical spine. Intraosseous pneumatocysts are more common adjacent to the sacroiliac joint while it is rare in the vertebral column. Other causes of vertebral gas e.g. Kümmell disea...
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Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Pathology The conus medullari...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localised to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Perched facet joint

Perched facet joint is a vertebral facet joint whose inferior articular process appears to sit 'perched' on the ipsilateral superior articular process of the vertebra below. Any further anterior subluxation will result in dislocation, with one facet "jumping" over the other and becoming locked ...
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Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is a type of vertebral central canal stenosis and has a different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology CLSS tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 years old) ...
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Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
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Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  It's name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail".
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Spinal meninges

The spinal meninges are contained within the spinal canal and encase the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and the cauda equina. Gross anatomy They are composed of three layers (outer to inner) dura mater (also known as theca or pachymeninx) arachnoid mater pia mater Collectively the arachno...
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Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Associations This condition may be associated Parkinson disease: ...
Article

Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a synovial and fibrous joint between ilium and the sacrum. It has little movement and its main function is to transfer weight between the axial and lower appendicular skeletons. The SI joint is a symmetrical joint (i.e. is paired) with an oblique coronal orientation ...
Article

Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
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Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema

Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema is a very frequent finding on MRI of spine. A clinical correlation is almost always required to identify the significance of this. Pathology Causes overweight (raised BMI) age (advancing age) sex (more common in females) posterior compartment degenerati...
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Tarlov cyst

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural cysts, are CSF filled dilatations of the nerve root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion (posterior nerve root sheath). These are type II spinal meningeal cysts that are, by definition, extradural but contain neural tissue. Epidemiology They occur in ~5% of t...
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Swischuk line

The Swischuk line is helpful in differentiating pathological anterior displacement of the cervical spine from physiological displacement, termed pseudosubluxation. Measurement the line is drawn from anterior aspect of posterior arch of C1 to anterior aspect of posterior arch of C3 the anterio...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
Article

Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. KFS has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,000 2. Clin...
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Disc protrusion

Disc protrusions are a type of disc herniation characterised by protrusion of disc content beyond the normal confines of the intervertebral disc, over an segment less than 25% of the circumference of the disc. The width of the base is wider than the largest diameter of the disc material which pr...
Article

Annular fissure

Annular fissures are a degenerative deficiency of one or more layers that make up the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.  Terminology Many authors prefer the term annular fissure over annular tear, as the latter seems to imply acute injury 1,2. In the setting of severe trauma with di...
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Atlanto-occipital assimilation

Atlanto-occipital assimilation is the fusion of the atlas (C1) to the occiput and is one of the transitional vertebrae.  Epidemiology Atlanto-occipital assimilation occurs in approximately 0.5% (range 0.25-1%) of the population 2-4.  Clinical presentation It is typically asymptomatic but sym...
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Sandwich vertebral body

Sandwich vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the endplates are densely sclerotic, giving the appearance of a sandwich. This term and pattern are distinctive for osteopetrosis. Differential diagnosis the sandwich vertebrae appearance resembles rugger-jersey spine but can be diff...
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease and Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which, as the name suggests, results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. E...
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Axis (C2)

The axis is the second cervical vertebra, commonly called C2. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features and important relations that make it easily recognisable. Its most prominent feature is the odontoid process, which is embryologically the body of the atlas (C1) 1,2. It plays a...
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Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...
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Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space, typically in the lumbar region, such that the thecal sac is compressed, and in some instances results in compressive symptoms.  Epidemiology Demographic of affected individuals reflects the underl...
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Y sign (epidural lipomatosis)

The Y sign refers to a common appearance in lumbar epidural lipomatosis where excess fat in the extradural space compresses the dural sac into the shape of the letter "Y". 
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome is the result of a hemicord lesion (i.e. damage or impairment to the left or right side of the spinal cord). Clinical presentation Due to some fibres crossing within the cord whilst others cross in the brainstem, the neurology is bilateral, namely 1:  ipsilateral ascen...
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Romanus lesion

The Romanus lesion represents an early finding in inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis and enteropathic arthritis, and appears as irregularity and erosion involving the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral endplates 1. Healing response to these inflammatory...
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Rugger-jersey spine

Rugger-jersey spine describes the prominent subendplate densities at multiple contiguous vertebral levels to produce an alternating sclerotic-lucent-sclerotic appearance. This mimics the horizontal stripes of a rugby jersey. This term and pattern are distinctive for hyperparathyroidism. Pathol...
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Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
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Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Lateral meningocele syndrome

The lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies an...
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Polka-dot sign (vertebral haemangioma)

The polka-dot sign is the result of the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae surrounded by fat marrow or vascular lacunae in vertebral intraosseous haemangiomas 2. It is the axial equivalent of the corduroy sign seen on sagittal and coronal images. On CT the...
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Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
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Subacute combined degeneration of the cord

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord (SCD) is caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency. Epidemiology Most common in patients older than 40 and especially older than 60 7.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of SCD is usually with loss of vibration and proprioception in the hands...
Article

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterised by slowly-progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact prevalen...
Article

Spinal hydatid disease

Spinal hydatid disease is an uncommon manifestion of hydatid disease, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis, and describes a spectrum of disease involving the spinal cord, the spine, or both. Epidemiology Hydatid disease is e...
Article

Tabes dorsalis

Tabes dorsalis is a form of tertiary late neurosyphilis in which there is demyelination of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Clinical presentation Patients presen...
Article

Myelitis

Myelitis, is a collective term simply referring to any inflammation of the spinal cord. It is a form of myelopathy. The two major sub types include: leukomyelitis multiple sclerosis ADEM transverse myelitis ideopathic transverse myelitis secondary transverse myelitis: viral, neurosyphilis...
Article

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (also known as tropical spastic paraparesis) is primarily seen in Japan, Melanesia and the Caribbean and presents with chronic spastic paraparesis.  Terminology This condition has been independently described in Japan (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy) and in the Carib...
Article

HIV vacuolar myelopathy

HIV vacuolar myelopathy is the most common chronic myelopathy associated with HIV infection and is typically seen in the late stages of the disease. Clinical presentation Patients tend to have slowly progressive weakness of the lower extremities, gait disorders, sensory abnormalities in the lo...
Article

Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess represents infection of the epidural space, located between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral periosteum. It can present with rapidly deteriorating neurological function due to compression. Imaging is best performed with MRI and emergency surgery is often required. ...
Article

Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

Another commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral mic...
Article

Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect/spinal dysraphism which can occur to varying degrees of severity. It is often considered the most common congenital CNS malformation. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:1000-2000 live births 2. Clinical presentation A constellation of fe...
Article

Arachnoid cyst

Arachnoid cysts are relatively common benign and asymptomatic lesions occurring in association with the central nervous system, both within the intracranial compartment (most common) as well as within the spinal canal. They are usually located within the subarachnoid space and contain CSF.  On ...
Article

Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
Article

Burst fracture

Burst fractures are a type of compression fracture related to high-energy axial loading spinal trauma that results in disruption of the posterior vertebral body cortex with retropulsion into the spinal canal.  Clinical presentation They usually present as back pain and or lower limbs neurologi...
Article

Bladder neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy of the bladder is complex, described here is a summary of the co-ordination of micturition. The bladder acts as a reservoir normally storing 400-500 mL of urine under low pressure (<15 cmH2O) before voluntary voiding can occur at a socially-convenient time. Bladder filling and empt...
Article

Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries

Atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations. Pathology The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results i...
Article

Intradural spinal lipoma

Intradural lipomas are a subset of spinal lipomas. They are typically intradural, subpial, juxtamedullary lesions 1 although they have occasionally been reported as entirely intramedullary lesions 2. Mature fatty tissue within the spinal dura can be seen in a number of entities: lipomyelomenin...
Article

Déjerine-Sottas disease

Déjerine-Sottas disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III or hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis, is a rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). This syndrome should not be confused with Déjerine syndrome or Déjerine-Roussy syndrome. Clinical present...

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