Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

436 results found
Article

Column of Goll

The column of Goll, also known as the gracile fasciculus or fasciculus gracilis, represents the medial portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from below and including T7 1. Function The gracile fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (d...
Article

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle is a rare congenital condition, but awareness of its characteristic imaging appearance is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Failure to recognise this entity can lead to misdiagnosis of unilateral facet subluxation/dislocation, leading to unnecessary treatmen...
Article

Congenital anomalies of the posterior atlas arch

Congenital anomalies of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) are relatively common anomalies. They may range from partial defects presenting as clefts to complete absence of the posterior arch (aplasia). These anomalies are classified according to Currarino (see below). It should not be confuse...
Article

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is a type of vertebral central canal stenosis and has a different epidemiology with less severe degenerative change compared to acquired/degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  Epidemiology CLSS tends to affect patients at a younger age (30-50 years old) ...
Article

Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy After the cord terminates, the nerve roots descend within the spinal canal as individual rootlets, collectively termed the cauda equina. The conus medullaris most commonly terminates at the L1/2 intervertebral disc leve...
Article

Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Pathology The conus medullari...
Article

Corduroy sign (vertebral haemangioma)

The corduroy sign refers to a vertically oriented, thickened trabeculations seen in intraosseous haemangiomas of the spine. It is the sagittal/coronal equivalent of the polka-dot sign seen on axial imaging.  It is caused by the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical tra...
Article

Coronal balance

Coronal balance is one of the features that needs to be assessed on long spine radiographs obtained for spinal deformity, particularly scoliosis. It measures whether or not the upper spine is located over the midline (normal) or off to one side.  To assess coronal balance, a vertical (plumb) li...
Article

Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral cleft refers to the presence of a radiolucent vertical defect on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) ...
Article

Corpectomy

Corpectomy refers to removal of one or more vertebral bodies to treat compressive myelopathy caused by extensive hypertrophic osteoarthritis. In most cases, the intervertebral discs are removed as well. It is most commonly performed for degenerative cervical myelopathy; however, thoracic and lum...
Article

Cortical bone

The outer shell of compact bone is called cortical bone or cortex.  Gross anatomy Cortical bone contains Haversian systems (osteons) which contain a central Haversian canal surrounded by osseous tissue in a concentric lamellar pattern. Two fibrovascular layers surround the cortical bone which...
Article

Corticorubral tract

The corticorubral tract contains neurons that connect the primary motor and sensory areas to the red nucleus. The rubrospinal tract then descends through the spinal cord.  The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The corti...
Article

Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology  The cranio-vertebral junctio...
Article

Crowned dens syndrome

The crowned dens syndrome is an inflammatory condition resulting from crystal deposition in cruciform and alar ligaments surrounding the dens, appearing as a radiopaque 'crown' surrounding the top of the dens.  It typically presents with pain and increased inflammatory markers.  Terminology Th...
Article

Cruciate ligament of the atlas

The cruciate ligament of the atlas (also known as the cruciform ligament) is an important ligamentous complex that holds the posterior dens of C2 in articulation at the median atlantoaxial joint. It lies behind a large synovial bursa (surrounded by loose fibrous capsule) and consists of two band...
Article

Curtain sign

The curtain sign (or draped curtain sign) in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends to the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline and is more loosely attached la...
Article

Cyst of the medullary conus

Cyst of the medullary conus is a rare benign ependymal cyst of the conus medullaris which probably relates to abnormal persistence and cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis or "5th ventricle". This entity can be symptomatic and present in adulthood with bladder or bowel sphincter distu...
Article

Dagger sign (spine)

The dagger sign is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis as a single central radiodense line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of supraspinous and interspinous ligaments.
Article

Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter th...
Article

Dejerine Sottas disease

Dejerine-Sottas disease (also sometimes known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III or hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis) is a rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). Clinical presentation The disease is characterised by an early-onset demyelinating neuropathy, ...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
Article

Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
Article

Difference in vertical mid-vertical angle (lumbar spine)

The difference in vertical mid-vertical angle is the difference in the vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) between the caudal segment angle and the adjacent cephalad segment angle of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine as measured on a mid-sagittal MRI or a lateral radiograph. Ra...
Article

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also referred to as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterised by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion of the spine affecting elderly individuals. On imaging, it is typically characterised by the flowing ...
Article

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal. ​...
Article

Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta thalasse...
Article

Diplomyelia

Diplomyelia is a rare spinal cord malformation in which the cord is duplicated. It should be distinguished from diastematomyelia in which a single cord is split. Having said that it has been proposed that the term be abandoned in favour of split cord malformation, which encompasses both diastema...
Article

Disc bulge

A disc bulge  represents displacement of the outer fibres of the annulus fibrosus beyond the margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies, involving more than one quarter (25%, 90 degrees) of the circumference of an intervertebral disc 3. Because it is limited by the annulus fibrosus it does not ext...
Article

Disc desiccation

Disc desiccation is an extremely common degenerative change of intervertebral discs. The incidence climbs with age, and to a large degree a gradual desiccation is a 'normal' part of disc aging. It results from replacement of the hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans within the nucleus polposus with fib...
Article

Disc extrusion

Disc extrusion is a type of intervertebral disc herniation and is distinguished from a disc protrusion in that it: in at least one plane, has a broader dome (B) than a neck (A)and/or extends above or below the disc level (into the suprapedicular or infrapedicular zone) Disc extrusions are ass...
Article

Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to the displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge. A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteop...
Article

Disc osteophyte complex

Disc osteophyte complex is a term used on MRI of the cervical spine to denote the presence of disc protrusion and/or marginal endplate osteophytes resulting in narrowing of the cervical canal. The term was introduced early in the practice of MRI as distinguishing between disc and osteophyte can ...
Article

Disc protrusion

Disc protrusions are a type of disc herniation characterised by protrusion of disc content beyond the normal confines of the intervertebral disc, over an segment less than 25% of the circumference of the disc. The width of the base is wider than the largest diameter of the disc material which pr...
Article

Disc sequestration

Sequestrated disc, also referred to as a free disc fragment, corresponds to extruded disc material that has no continuity with the parent disc and is displaced away from the site of extrusion. By definition, it corresponds to a subtype of disc extrusion. The term "migrated" disc refers only to ...
Article

Discal cyst

Discal cysts (also known as a disk cyst or disc cyst) are uncommon lesions of the spine, representing an extrathecal cyst which communicates with the adjacent intervertebral disc through an annular fissure.  Epidemiology The vast majority of discal cysts, as rare as they are, have been reporte...
Article

Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
Article

Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
Article

Dorsal epidural disc migration

Dorsal epidural disc migration represents, as the name suggests, migration of disc material, usually a sequestrated disc fragment, into the dorsal (posterior) epidural space, posterior to the theca. This is a rare occurrence, often not suspected preoperatively and is almost invariably encountere...
Article

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web is a cause of focal thoracic cord distortion with resulting neurological dysfunction.  Clinical presentation Due to the limited number of reported cases the incidence of this condition may well be under-recognised. The cases reported have a variety of signs and sy...
Article

Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours

Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours refers to a tumour which has both a component within the canal and a component in the paravertebral space linked by tumour traversing the neural exit foramen. The appearance can be seen in: spinal nerve sheath tumours spinal schwannoma (90%) 1 spinal neu...
Article

Dural ectasia

Dural ectasia refers to ballooning or widening of the dural sac which can result in posterior vertebral scalloping and is associated with herniation of nerve root sleeves. Clinical presentation Patients with dural ectasia may present with low back pain or radicular pain in the buttocks or legs...
Article

Empty thecal sac sign

The empty thecal sac sign or empty sac sign is when the thecal sac appears empty on MRI of the lumbar spine, best seen on T2-weighted images. If the empty thecal sac sign is present, a diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis can be made.​ Radiographic features MRI There is usually no gadolinium c...
Article

Ependymoma versus astrocytoma of the spinal cord

A number of factors are useful when differentiating between spinal cord ependymoma and spinal cord astrocytoma of the spinal cord.  Ependymoma child or adult more central in location bone remodelling is common low T1 signal well-defined enhancement syrinx is more common haemorrhage is mo...
Article

Epidural angiolipoma

Epidural angiolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes and abnormal vessels.  Epidemiology Epidural angiolipomas are more frequently encountered in women, and typically in middle age (40-50 years of age) 1.  Clinical presentation In keeping with the slow growth of these ...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anaesthetists.  Indications craniospinal hypotension...
Article

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space, typically in the lumbar region, such that the thecal sac is compressed, and in some instances results in compressive symptoms.  Epidemiology Demographic of affected individuals reflects the underl...
Article

Epitransverse process of the atlas

Epitransverse process is a rare anatomical variant of the atlas, consisting of a bony exostosis which extends cephalad from from the transverse process of the atlas to articulate with the occipital bone. This process sometimes meets with a paracondylar process, forming a pseudoarthrosis at the i...
Article

Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. The iliocostalis group occurs most laterally, followed by the longissimus group, and finally the spinalis as the most me...
Article

Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1-2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
Article

Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
Article

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
Article

Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
Article

Facet joint

The facet (or apophyseal or zygapophyseal) joints are the articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.  Gross anatomy They are synovial-lined joints that have a fibrous capsule and connect the articular facets of the vertebrae. The superior facet ...
Article

Facet joint capsule

Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.  In the cervical re...
Article

Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
Article

Fibrocartilaginous embolism

Fibrocartilaginous embolism (also known as nucleus pulposus embolism) is a rare cause of spinal cord ischaemia due to embolisation of nucleus pulposus material from intervertebral disc in a retrograde direction to a spinal artery or vein. Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a diagnosis of suspicion....
Article

Fifth lumbar vertebra (L5)

The fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is the largest of the five lumbar vertebrae and is considered an atypical vertebra due to its shape.  Gross anatomy L5 is the largest, most inferior lumbar discovertebral unit in the vertebral column, and participates in forming the lumbar lordosis (from L1 to L5...
Article

Filum terminale

The filum terminale is a filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris. Gross anatomy The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections: filum terminale internum: upper three quarters of the filum; covere...
Article

Flexion tear drop fracture

Flexion tear drop fractures are the most severe fracture of the cervical spine, often causing anterior cervical cord syndrome and quadriplegia. Pathology Mechanism It typically occurs from severe flexion and compression forces, most commonly at C5-6 (e.g. diving head first, motor vehicle coll...
Article

Fluid sign in acute vertebral collapse

The fluid sign is one of the radiological features of osteoporotic fractures, and can be helpful in distinguishing them from metastatic vertebral fractures, as it is seen more often in osteoporotic fractures and is rarely seen in metastatic fractures 1. It is not as helpful as identifying a para...
Article

Fluoroscopy guided lumbar puncture

Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar punctures (LPs) are a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves the removal of a small volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or an injection of medication or other substance (e.g. radiotracer, chemotherapy agents) into the lumbar...
Article

Fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally. Radiographic features Plain film/CT Described features include: increased bone density: oste...
Article

Focal fatty deposits in spinal bone marrow

Focal fatty deposits/replacement in spinal bone marrow are well-defined focal fat islands within the bone marrow of spine or other parts of axial skeleton. Epidemiology Common in older individuals, related to age and not related to sex. Pathology This process is a normal variant. Histologica...
Article

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome refers to presentation of spinal AVMs with progressive neurological deterioration. Initially, patients have a spastic paraplegia which progresses to flaccidity, loss of sphincter control and ascending sensory level. It is thought to be due to venous hypertension.
Article

Foraminal disc protrusion

Foraminal disc protrusion (see intervertebral disc disease nomenclature) is an important entity to recognise for a number of reasons. First of all it is relatively easy to overlook as it does not impinge upon the spinal canal. Secondly as it does not narrow the subarticular recess it compresses...
Article

Friedreich ataxia

Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common inherited progressive ataxia. It carries an autosomal recessive inheritance 1. Epidemiology Thought to have an estimated prevalence of ~1:50,000. There is no recognised gender predilection. Typically present in childhood to adolescence. Those with a h...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
Article

Gibbus deformity

Gibbus deformity is a short-segment structural thoracolumbar kyphosis resulting in sharp angulation. Pathology There are a number of causes which can be divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital achondroplasia cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism) Apert syndrome Coffin-Lowry syndro...
Article

Ginkgo leaf sign (spinal meningioma)

The ginkgo leaf sign of spinal meningiomas (not to be confused with the ginkgo leaf sign of subcutaneous emphysema) has been described as a useful MRI sign in distinguishing a spinal meningioma from neurogenic tumour (e.g. spinal schwannoma).  It is seen on axial post contrast T1 imaging, with ...
Article

Grisel syndrome

Grisel syndrome is a rare cause of torticollis that involves subluxation of atlanto-axial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity following an infectious process in the head and neck, usually a retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemiology It usually occurs in infants or young children. Clinical p...
Article

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1)3. It may occasionally...
Article

Haematomyelia

Haematomyelia refers to the presence of intramedullary haemorrhage or haematoma within the spinal cord. This is distinct from extramedullary haemorrhage, such as that seen in epidural haematomas. Although this can occur in the setting of trauma, the term is generally used to signify non-traumat...
Article

Haemosiderin cap sign

The haemosiderin cap sign refers to an MR imaging feature in some spinal tumours where a cap of T2 hypointense haemosiderin is above and/or below the tumour due to previous haemorrhage.  It is most often associated with spinal cord ependymomas, being seen in 20-33% of these cases 1. The sign, h...
Article

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
Article

Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It can be a common cause of a congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation...
Article

Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterised by progressive degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and posterior column of the spinal cord. Clinical presentation Patients often tend to have progressive lower extremity weakn...
Article

Hirayama disease

Hirayama disease, also termed non-progressive juvenile spinal muscular atrophy of the distal upper limbs, is a type of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. It is considered a benign motor neurone disorder with a stationary stage after a progressive course. Epidemiology ...
Article

HIV vacuolar myelopathy

HIV vacuolar myelopathy is the most common chronic myelopathy associated with HIV infection and is typically seen in the late stages of the disease. Clinical presentation Patients tend to have slowly progressive weakness of the lower extremities, gait disorders, sensory abnormalities in the lo...
Article

Holocord presentation

Holocord presentation refers to a process which involves the spinal cord, from cervicomedullary junction to the tip of the conus. It does not relate to a specific condition nor does it distinguish between involvement by cystic expansion or solid tumour, or by a combination of both. It merely den...
Article

Honda sign (sacrum)

The Honda sign (H sign / H pattern) is a term used to describe the appearances of bilateral sacral insufficiency fractures on a radioisotope bone scan. Radiographic features Sacral insufficiency fractures are usually vertically through the sacral alae, paralleling the sacroiliac joint, often w...
Article

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (also known as tropical spastic paraparesis) is primarily seen in Japan, Melanesia and the Caribbean and presents with chronic spastic paraparesis.  Terminology This condition has been independently described in Japan (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy) and in the Carib...
Article

Hydromyelia

In hydromyelia, there is dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord. The dilatation is lined by the normal ependymal lining of the central canal. The term can refer to dilatation of the persistent central canal of the spinal cord which communicates with the fourth ventricle (cavity wall...
Article

Hyperextension cervical injuries

Hyperextension cervical injuries are not uncommon and extremely serious: avulsion fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) vertical fracture through the posterior arch of the atlas as a result of compression fractures of the dens of C2 hangman fracture of C2 hyperextension teardrop ...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body. It can be primary, secondary or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the PTH lead to increased osteoclastic activity...
Article

Iliolumbar ligament

The iliolumbar ligament is a strong band of connective tissue which courses from the transverse process of L5 (in over 96% of cases) to the posterior iliac wing and iliac crest. It functions to maintain the alignment of L5 on the sacrum during various movements 1, 2. It is an important landmark...
Article

Intercalary bone

Intercalary bones are common discal ossifications that are usually triangular in morphology, found in the anterior annular fibers of an intervertebral disc, and are thought to be degenerative in aetiology.  Differential diagnosis limbus vertebra flexion or extension teardrop fracture
Article

Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacobys’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiography 1,2 Intercristal line most often intersects the body of the L4 or its inferior endplate in men and t...
Article

Interspinous ligament

The interspinous ligaments join the spinous processes along their adjacent borders. They are composed of relatively weak fibrous tissue that fuses with the stronger, supraspinous ligaments.
Article

Interspinous processes spacer

A interspinous processes spacer (also known as decompression spacer or interspinous posterior device) is a device implanted between interspinous processes to open narrowed exiting foraminal nerve channels to treat lumbar radiculopathy caused by spinal stenosis. It is used as an alternative to l...
Article

Intertransverse ligaments

The intertransverse ligaments consist of fibrous tissue joining transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae. In the cervical region, intertransverse ligaments are scattered fibres that are largely replaced by intertransverse muscles. In the thoracic region, these are fibrous cords blending with t...
Article

Intervertebral disc

Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebral bodies of C2/3 to L5/S1, totalling 23 in the conventional spine. Together they account for approximately 25% of the total height of the vertebral column. This decreases with age as disc height is lost. The upper thoracic discs are the thinn...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.