Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

494 results found
Article

Haematomyelia

Haematomyelia refers to the presence of intramedullary haemorrhage or haematoma within the spinal cord. This is distinct from extramedullary haemorrhage such as that seen in epidural haematoma. Pathology Although haematomyelia can occur in the setting of trauma, the term is generally used to s...
Article

Haemosiderin cap sign

The haemosiderin cap sign refers to an MR imaging feature in some spinal tumours where a cap of T2 hypointense haemosiderin is above and/or below the tumour due to previous haemorrhage.  It is most often associated with spinal cord ependymomas (20-33% of cases) 1. It may also be seen in haemang...
Article

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
Article

Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It is a common cause of congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation anoma...
Article

Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterised by progressive degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and posterior column of the spinal cord. Clinical presentation Patients often tend to have progressive lower extremity weakn...
Article

Hirayama disease

Hirayama disease, also termed non-progressive juvenile spinal muscular atrophy of the distal upper limbs, is a type of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. It is considered a benign motor neurone disorder with a stationary stage after a progressive course. Epidemiology ...
Article

HIV vacuolar myelopathy

HIV vacuolar myelopathy is the most common chronic myelopathy associated with HIV infection and is typically seen in the late stages of the disease. Clinical presentation Patients tend to have slowly progressive weakness of the lower extremities, gait disorders, sensory abnormalities in the lo...
Article

Holocord presentation

Holocord presentation refers to a process which involves the spinal cord, from cervicomedullary junction to the tip of the conus. It does not relate to a specific condition nor does it distinguish between involvement by cystic expansion or solid tumour, or by a combination of both. It merely den...
Article

Honda sign (sacrum)

The Honda sign (H sign / H pattern) is a term used to describe the appearances of bilateral sacral insufficiency fractures on a radioisotope bone scan. Radiographic features Sacral insufficiency fractures are usually vertically through the sacral alae, paralleling the sacroiliac joint, often w...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (also known as tropical spastic paraparesis) is primarily seen in Japan, Melanesia and the Caribbean and presents with chronic spastic paraparesis.  Terminology This condition has been independently described in Japan (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy) and in the Carib...
Article

Hydromyelia

In hydromyelia, there is dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord. The dilatation is lined by the normal ependymal lining of the central canal. The term can refer to dilatation of the persistent central canal of the spinal cord which communicates with the fourth ventricle (cavity wall...
Article

Hyperextension cervical injuries

Hyperextension cervical injuries are not uncommon and extremely serious: avulsion fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) vertical fracture through the posterior arch of the atlas as a result of compression fractures of the dens of C2 hangman fracture of C2 hyperextension teardrop ...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
Article

Iliolumbar ligament

The iliolumbar ligament is a strong band of connective tissue which courses from the transverse process of L5 (in over 96% of cases) to the posterior iliac wing and crest of the ilium. It functions to maintain the alignment of L5 on the sacrum during various movements 1, 2. It is an important l...
Article

Insufficiency fracture

Insufficiency fractures are a type of stress fracture, which are the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone. They should not be confused with fatigue fractures which are due to abnormal stresses on normal bone, or with pathological fractures, the result of diseased, weakened bone due to foca...
Article

Intercalary bone

Intercalary bones are common discal ossifications that are usually triangular in morphology, found in the anterior annular fibers of an intervertebral disc, and are thought to be degenerative in aetiology.  Differential diagnosis limbus vertebra flexion or extension teardrop fracture
Article

Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacobys’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiography 1,2 Intercristal line most often intersects the body of the L4 or its inferior endplate in men and t...
Article

Interspinous ligament

The interspinous ligaments join the spinous processes along their adjacent borders. They are composed of relatively weak fibrous tissue that fuses with the stronger, supraspinous ligaments.
Article

Interspinous processes spacer

A interspinous processes spacer (also known as decompression spacer or interspinous posterior device) is a device implanted between interspinous processes to open narrowed exiting foraminal nerve channels to treat lumbar radiculopathy caused by spinal stenosis. It is used as an alternative to l...
Article

Intertransverse ligaments

The intertransverse ligaments consist of fibrous tissue joining transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae. In the cervical region, intertransverse ligaments are scattered fibres that are largely replaced by intertransverse muscles. In the thoracic region, these are fibrous cords blending with t...
Article

Intervertebral disc

Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebral bodies of C2/3 to L5/S1, totalling 23 in the conventional spine. Together they account for approximately 25% of the total height of the vertebral column. This decreases with age as disc height is lost. The upper thoracic discs are the thinn...
Article

Intervertebral disc calcification

Intervertebral disc calcification is seen with numerous conditions. Epidemiology It may be observed in paediatric 5 as well as adult populations. Pathology Causes degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% in routine abdominal radiographs in adults postoperative/traumatic o...
Article

Intervertebral disc vacuum phenomena

Vacuum phenomena involving the intervertebral discs is usually a result of accumulation of gas (principally nitrogen) within the crevices of the intervertebral discs or adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology It is a relatively common occurrence which can be observed in 1-3% of spinal radiographs and...
Article

Intervertebral foramen

The intervertebral foramina allow passage of structures out of and into the vertebral canal. When multiple vertebrae are joined, the foramina for the spinal canal. Boundaries anterior- lower posterolateral aspect of a vertebral body and the intervertebral disc below in the cervical region a p...
Article

Intervertebral joint

There are three intervertebral joints between each adjacent vertebra from the axis to the sacrum – one between the vertebral bodies and a pair between the facets of adjoining vertebral arches (zygapophysial joints, also called facet joints). Gross anatomy Movement flexion: the anterior interv...
Article

Intervertebral osteochondrosis

Intervertebral osteochondrosis represents the pathologic degenerative process involving the intervertebral disc and the respective vertebral body endplates (not necessarily symptomatic). It is believed to be different and a further stage of spondylosis deformans, which is a consequence of normal...
Article

Intradural disc herniation

Intradural disc herniations (IDH) occur when disc material related to an intervertebral disc hernia penetrate the spinal dura and lies in an intradural extramedullary location. Epidemiology IDH correspond to a rare presentation of a common pathology, comprising ~0.28% of all disc herniations 2...
Article

Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour type...
Article

Intradural extramedullary spinal tumours

Intradural extramedullary neoplasms are located outside the spinal cord but within the dural sheath.  Clinical presentation The most common presenting symptoms include weakness, back pain and radicular pain. Pathology Schwannomas are the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions (...
Article

Intradural spinal lipoma

Intradural lipomas are a subset of spinal lipomas. They are typically intradural, subpial, juxtamedullary lesions 1 although they have occasionally been reported as entirely intramedullary lesions 2. Mature fatty tissue within the spinal dura can be seen in a number of entities: lipomyelomenin...
Article

Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Intramedullary spinal tumours

Intramedullary spinal tumours are rare, representing 4-10% of all CNS tumours and less than 10% of all paediatric CNS neoplasms 5. They account for 20% of all intraspinal tumours in adults and 35% of all intraspinal tumours in children 8. A long duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis is typica...
Article

Inverted Napoleon hat sign

The inverted Napoleon hat sign is a radiologic sign seen on the frontal pelvic or lumbar radiograph at the level of the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum. It is seen when there is bilateral spondylolysis with marked anterolisthesis of L5 on S1 or marked exaggeration of the normal lordosis at t...
Article

Inverted "V" sign (spinal cord)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the inverted rabbit ears sign, is a radiological sign described in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord​. It refers to the appearance of the spinal cord on axial MRI slices 1-3. On these slices in a patient with subacute combined degeneration of...
Article

Iodophenylundecylic acid

Iodophenylundecylic acid (brand name = Myodil (Glaxo)) is an oily organic iodinated contrast material which was used for myelography. It is no longer used. Residual contrast remains for years. Has been implicated in development of arachnoiditis, perhapse of the order of 1%. See also pantopaque
Article

Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
Article

Jarcho-Levin syndrome

The Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) or spondylothoracic dysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder that can occur with variable severity. Previously the condition spondylocostal dysostosis was also considered as part of the JLS spectrum but is now considered a distinct pathologi...
Article

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
Article

Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. KFS has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,000 2. Clin...
Article

Kümmell disease

Kümmell disease is an eponymous name for osteonecrosis and collapse of a vertebral body. Pathology Kümmell disease represents delayed (usually two weeks) vertebral body collapse due to ischaemia and non-union of anterior vertebral body wedge fractures after major trauma. Risk factors Risk fa...
Article

Laminectomy

Laminectomy refers to unilateral or bilateral surgical removal of the lamina of a vertebra body. It is performed to decompress the spinal canal in spinal canal stenosis.  This is typically caused by degenerative changes. The most common site of the procedure is the lumbar spine. 
Article

Lateral corticospinal tract

The lateral corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids when the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate – the majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterior corticospinal tract, with only a few non...
Article

Lateral hemivertebra

A lateral hemivertebra is a form of hemivertebra which occurs when one of the two chondrification centre fails to develop. They can be single or multiple. and a usually associated this a resultant scoliosis.  Pathology Subtypes Various subtypes have been descrbied incarcerated hemivertebra ...
Article

Lateral horn

The lateral horn of the spinal cord is the small lateral projection of grey matter located between the dorsal horn and ventral horn and contain the neuronal cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord, the spinal grey matter is describe...
Article

Lateral meningocele syndrome

The lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies an...
Article

Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...
Article

Lateral thoracic meningocele

Lateral thoracic meningoceles are a type of spinal meningocoele. Pathology As with any meningocele, it results from herniation of the meninges through a foramen or a defect in the vertebral column.  Associations They are typically associated with neurofibromatosis type I but can rarely occur...
Article

Leptomeningeal drop-metastases

Leptomeningeal drop-metastases correspond to a CNS primary neoplasm spread inferiorly along the cerebrospinal spaces. It is usually presented as diffuse enhancing nodules along the spine and cauda equina.  Please refer on leptomeningeal metastases to a broad discussion on this entity. 
Article

Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. Thi...
Article

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterised by slowly-progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact prevalen...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Lhermitte sign (spinal cord)

Lhermitte sign or the barber chair phenomenon is an electrical shock sensation running down the spine and into the limb on neck flexion. It suggests compression of the upper cervical spinal cord and/or brainstem. Pathology It is typically seen with multiple sclerosis but is also associated wit...
Article

Ligamentum flavum

The ligamentum flava are paired ligaments which runs between adjacent laminae of the vertebral bodies and are present from C2/3 to the sacrum. Above the C2/3 level the equivalent structures are known as the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane between the base of skull and C1 and posterior atlan...
Article

Ligamentum nuchae

The ligamentum nuchae is a large median ligament composed of tendons and fascia located between the posterior muscles of the neck. It covers the spines of C1 to C6 vertebrae. It is a superior and posterior extension of the supraspinous ligament. It rises from the spinous process of C7 to the ini...
Article

Limbus vertebra

Limbus vertebra is a well-corticated osseous density, usually of the anterosuperior vertebral body corner, that occurs secondary to herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the the vertebral body endplate beneath the ring apophysis (see ossification of the vertebrae). These are closely related...
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...
Article

Lipomyelocele

Lipomyelocele is one of the most common closed spinal dysraphism. It is seen in thoracolumbar region and usually presents as a fatty subcutaneous mass. It is twice as common as lipomyelomeningocele. Clinical presentation Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic at birth, but many (~ 50%)...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
Article

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL), also known as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), represent extensive involvement of the spinal cord, with abnormal T2 signal traversing at least three vertebral body segments in length. Differential diagnosis They are typi...
Article

Loss of intervertebral disc space (differential)

Loss of intervertebral disc space can be due to a variety of causes: degenerative disc disease of the spine: most common cause trauma discitis neuropathic spondyloarthropathy dialysis related spondyloarthropathy ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis crystal deposition diseases sarcoidosis ...
Article

Low endplate signal on T1

Several conditions may give vertebral endplate T1 low signal on MRI. They include:   ankylosing spondylitis vertebral metastases disc infection haemodialysis
Article

Lumbar cistern

The lumbar cistern refers to the subarachnoid space in the lower lumbar spinal canal. The cistern is an enlargement of the subarachnoid space in the dural sac, distal to the conus medullar is. It contains cerebrospinal fluid and the nerve roots of the cauda equina. As the conus (usually) termin...
Article

Lumbar disc disease

Lumbar disc disease is a very common entity with a high asymptomatic prevalence. Intervertebral disc abnormalities are found in 25% of individuals below the age of 60, and over 50% in those over the age of 60. It is therefore not enough to demonstrate a disc lesion in someone with non-specific b...
Article

Lumbar enlargement

The lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord corresponds to the mild increase in cross sectional area of the cord from the T11 level to the conus medullaris. It is enlarged due to the present of spinal nerve anterior rami which contribute to the lumbar and sacral plexuses.
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Lumbar plexus

The lumbar plexus is a complex neural network formed by the lower thoracic and lumbar ventral nerve roots (T12 to L5) which supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower limb and pelvic girdle. Summary origin: ventral rami of T12 to L5 course: formed within the substance of the psoas ma...
Article

Lumbar plexus roots (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the roots of the lumbar plexus is: 2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3 Mnemonic 2 nerves from 1 root: ilioinguinal (L1), iliohypogastric (L1) 2 nerves from 2 roots: genitofemoral (L1/L2), lateral femoral cutaneous (L2/L3) 2 nerves from 3 roots: obturator (L2/L3/L4), femo...
Article

Lumbar rib

Lumbar (or 13th) ribs are a rare anatomical variant and represent transitional vertebrae at the thoracolumbar junction with a prevalence of ~1% 1. It presents as an additional rib coming off T13 or L1 (depending on numbering classification) and may be unilateral or bilateral. Lumbar ribs are mos...
Article

Lumbar spine

The lumbar spine consists of five adjacent vertebrae of the lower vertebral column. They participate in the lumbar lordosis, a natural curve in the spine, that is convex anteriorly.  Articulations of the facet (zygapophyseal) joints permit flexion/extension and abduction movements. Rotation is ...
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine AP view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imaging sho...
Article

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and can be seen in ~25% (range 15-35%) of the general population 1-3. Non-recognition of this variant and/or poor description in the report can lead to operations or procedures performed at the wrong level.  Depending on ...
Article

Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumours) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, repres...
Article

Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
Article

Magnetic resonance neurography

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a relatively new non-invasive imaging technique for dedicated assessment of peripheral spinal nerves. It is used to assess peripheral nerve entrapments and impingements as well as localization and grading of nerve injuries and lesions. Dedicated high-res...
Article

Matterhorn sign

The Matterhorn sign is a descriptive sign for a calcified disc herniation that impales the dural sac and sometimes the cord, typically located in the thoracic spine. History and etymology The Matterhorn sign is named after one of the most iconic mountains in the Alps: the Matterhorn.
Article

McAfee classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment. Classification wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression  stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
Article

McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or midsagittal section of CT or MRI, joining the basion and opisthion. Normal position of the tip of dens is 5mm below this line. If the tip of the dens migrates above this line it indicates the presence of basilar invaginati...
Article

Meningeal melanocytoma

Meningeal melanocytomas are rare benign primary melanocytic tumours of the CNS that are derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes. They can occur anywhere along the neuraxis but are most commonly found in the spinal canal near the foramen magnum, as well as the posterior fossa, Meckel’s cave, or a...
Article

Meningocele

Meningoceles are protrusions of the meninges through a defect or weak point in the skull or spine, usually involving the soft tissues beneath the surface of the skin. They are typically categorized into congenital, iatrogenic (e.g. following a craniotomy, sinus surgery, or as a laminectomy compl...
Article

Meningocele manqué

Meningocele manqué (from French, literally "missed meningocele") is a rare condition characterized by focal dorsal tethering of the spinal cord. The term is used to designate a meningocele which failed to develop and became atretic. Epidemiology It has been reported in neonates, but median age...
Article

Modic type endplate changes

Modic type endplate changes represent a classification for vertebral body end-plate MRI signal, first described in 1988 1. It is widely recognised by radiologists and clinicians and is a useful shorthand for reporting MRIs of the spine. Recently Modic type I has received renewed attention due t...
Article

Modic type I endplate change

Modic type I endplate change is the most controversial and important of the three types described (see Modic endplate change).  It is seen on MRI of the spine and represents the presence of low T1 and high T2 signal within the bone marrow of a vertebral body adjacent to a disk. Type 1 change can...
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
Article

Movements of the spine

Movements of the spine are possible due to intervertebral discs, and with the fulcrum of movement occurring primarily around the nucleus pulposus. Specialized motion occurs at the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints, which do not contain a disc. The spine (vertebral column) forms the cent...
Article

MRI classification system for lumbar disc degeneration

Disc degeneration can be graded on MRI T2 spin-echo weighted images using a grading system proposed by Pfirrmann 1. This classification is not used on routine spine reports, being more important for research purposes. grade I: disc is homogeneous with bright hyperintense white signal intensity ...
Article

Musculoskeletal hydatid infection

Musculoskeletal hydatid infections are a very rare form of hydatid disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with slow growing swelling with or witho...
Article

Myelitis

Myelitis, is a collective term simply referring to any inflammation of the spinal cord. It is a form of myelopathy. The two major sub types include: leukomyelitis multiple sclerosis ADEM transverse myelitis ideopathic transverse myelitis secondary transverse myelitis: viral, neurosyphilis...
Article

Myelomeningocoele

Myelomeningocoele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be ...
Article

Naked facet sign (vertebral column)

The naked facet sign (also known as the hamburger sign or reverse hamburger bun sign) refers to the CT appearance of an uncovered vertebral articular facet when the facet joint is dislocated, most often in cases of locked facet.  This CT sign is characteristic of a flexion-distraction injury an...
Article

Neoplasms of the cauda equina (differential)

The differential diagnosis for masses of the cauda equina region is often considered separately to the remainder of the spinal cord. It is often difficult to determine whether masses in this region are intramedullary or intradural-extramedullary. Most common tumours myxopapillary ependymoma b...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.