Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

546 results found
Article

Fibrocartilaginous embolism

Fibrocartilaginous embolism (also known as nucleus pulposus embolism) is a rare cause of spinal cord ischaemia due to embolisation of nucleus pulposus material from intervertebral disc in a retrograde direction into a spinal artery or vein. Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a diagnosis of suspicio...
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Fifth lumbar vertebra (L5)

The fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is the largest of the five lumbar vertebrae and is considered an atypical vertebra due to its shape.  Gross anatomy L5 is the largest, most inferior lumbar discovertebral unit in the vertebral column, and participates in forming the lumbar lordosis (from L1 to L5...
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Filar cyst

A filar cyst is an incidental finding on neonatal lumbar sonography located in the filum terminale of the spinal cord. It is considered a normal variant and is often confused for a ventriculus terminalis, a smooth dilated cavity of the central canal, located within the conus medullaris. The inc...
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Filum terminale

The filum terminale is a filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris. Gross anatomy The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections: filum terminale internum: upper three quarters of the filum; covere...
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Fish vertebra

Fish vertebra, also known as codfish vertebra, describes the biconcave appearance of vertebrae (especially lumbar vertebrae). Pathology Seen in: osteoporosis  sickle cell disease hereditary spherocytosis homocystinuria renal osteodystrophy osteogenesis imperfecta thalassemia major (rare...
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Flat back syndrome

Flat back syndrome (FBS) refers to the decrease or absence of the normal lumbar lordosis resulting primarily in chronic lumbar pain. Terminology  Flat back syndrome is a different condition from straight back syndrome and the two should not be confused or conflated. Clinical presentation Mos...
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Flexion teardrop fracture

Flexion teardrop fractures represent a fracture pattern occurring in severe axial/flexion injury of the cervical spine. They are important to recognize because they indicate extensive underlying ligamentous injury and spinal instability. Associated spinal cord injury is common, especially anteri...
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Fluid sign (vertebral collapse)

The fluid sign is one of the radiological features of osteoporotic fractures, and can be helpful in distinguishing them from metastatic vertebral fractures, as it is seen more often in osteoporotic fractures and is rarely seen in metastatic fractures 1. It is not as helpful as identifying a para...
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Fluoroscopy guided lumbar puncture

Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (LP) is a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves the removal of a small volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from, or an injection of medication or other substance (e.g. radiotracer, chemotherapy agents) into the lumb...
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Fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally. Radiographic features Plain radiograph/CT Described features include: increased bone density...
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Focal fatty deposits in spinal bone marrow

Focal fatty deposits/replacement in spinal bone marrow are well-defined focal fat islands within the bone marrow of spine or other parts of axial skeleton. Epidemiology Common in older individuals, related to age but not to sex. Pathology This process is a normal variant. Histologically, it ...
Article

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome refers to presentation of spinal AVMs with progressive neurological deterioration. Initially, patients have a spastic paraplegia which progresses to flaccidity, loss of sphincter control and ascending sensory level. It is thought to be due to venous hypertension.
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Foraminal disc protrusion

Foraminal disc protrusions are an important entity to recognise for a number of reasons, these include: they are relatively easy to overlook as they do not impinge upon the spinal canal they do not narrow the subarticular recess, but compresses the exiting nerve root only, thus clinically mimi...
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Friedreich ataxia

Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common inherited progressive ataxia. It carries an autosomal recessive inheritance 1. Epidemiology Thought to have an estimated prevalence of ~1:50,000. There is no recognised gender predilection. Typically present in childhood to adolescence. Those with a h...
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Ganglioneuroblastoma

A ganglioneuroblastoma is a transitional tumour which lies on the intermediate spectrum of disease between a ganglioneuroma and a neuroblastoma. Epidemiology They are seen more commonly in children younger than 10 years. There is no definite gender predilection reported at the time of writing....
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
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Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
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Gibbus deformity

Gibbus deformity is a short-segment structural thoracolumbar kyphosis resulting in sharp angulation. Pathology There are a number of causes which can be divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital achondroplasia cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism) Apert syndrome Coffin-Lowry syndro...
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Ginkgo leaf sign (spinal meningioma)

The ginkgo leaf sign of spinal meningiomas (not to be confused with the ginkgo leaf sign of subcutaneous emphysema) has been described as a useful MRI sign in distinguishing a spinal meningioma from neurogenic tumour (e.g. spinal schwannoma).  It is seen on axial post contrast T1 imaging, with ...
Article

Gracile fasciculus

The gracile fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus gracilis or column of Goll, represents the medial portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from below and including T7 1. Function The gracile fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (d...
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Grey matter

The grey matter is the substance of the brain and spinal cord that contains the neuronal cell bodies of the central nervous system. Within the cerebrum the two main locations of grey matter are on the surface of the gyri (the cortical gray matter) and the nuclei of the basal ganglia. The brains...
Article

Grisel syndrome

Grisel syndrome is a rare cause of torticollis that involves subluxation of atlanto-axial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity following an infectious process in the head and neck, usually a retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemiology It usually occurs in infants or young children. Clinical p...
Article

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
Article

Haematomyelia

Haematomyelia refers to the presence of intramedullary haemorrhage or haematoma within the spinal cord. This is distinct from extramedullary haemorrhage such as that seen in epidural haematoma. Pathology Although haematomyelia can occur in the setting of trauma, the term is generally used to s...
Article

Haemosiderin cap sign

The haemosiderin cap sign refers to an MR imaging feature in some spinal tumours where a cap of T2 hypointense haemosiderin is above and/or below the tumour due to previous haemorrhage.  It is most often associated with spinal cord ependymomas (20-33% of cases) 1. It may also be seen in haemang...
Article

Hanging and strangulation (trauma)

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. The vast majority are sustained as a result of attempted suicide. Epidemiology In America, hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the r...
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Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
Article

Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It is a common cause of congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation anoma...
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Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterised by progressive degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and posterior column of the spinal cord. Clinical presentation Patients often tend to have progressive lower extremity weakn...
Article

Hirayama disease

Hirayama disease, also termed non-progressive juvenile spinal muscular atrophy of the distal upper limbs, is a type of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. It is considered a benign motor neurone disorder with a stationary stage after a progressive course. Epidemiology ...
Article

HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy

HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy, also known as AIDS-related myelopathy, is the most common chronic myelopathy associated with HIV infection and is typically seen in the late stages of the disease. Clinical presentation Patients tend to have slowly progressive weakness of the lower extremities,...
Article

Holocord presentation

Holocord presentation refers to a process which involves the spinal cord, from cervicomedullary junction to the tip of the conus. It does not relate to a specific condition nor does it distinguish between involvement by cystic expansion or solid tumour, or by a combination of both. It merely den...
Article

Honda sign (sacrum)

The Honda sign (H sign / H pattern) is a term used to describe the appearances of bilateral sacral insufficiency fractures on a radioisotope bone scan. Radiographic features Sacral insufficiency fractures are usually vertically through the sacral alae, paralleling the sacroiliac joint, often w...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (also known as tropical spastic paraparesis) is primarily seen in Japan, Melanesia and the Caribbean and presents with chronic spastic paraparesis.  Terminology This condition has been independently described in Japan (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy) and in the Carib...
Article

Hydromyelia

In hydromyelia, there is dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord. The dilatation is lined by the normal ependymal lining of the central canal. The term can refer to dilatation of the persistent central canal of the spinal cord which communicates with the fourth ventricle (cavity wall...
Article

Hyperextension cervical injuries

Hyperextension cervical injuries are not uncommon and extremely serious: avulsion fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) vertical fracture through the posterior arch of the atlas as a result of compression fractures of the dens of C2 hangman fracture of C2 hyperextension teardrop ...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
Article

Iliolumbar ligament

The iliolumbar ligament is a strong band of connective tissue which courses from the transverse process of L5 (in over 96% of cases) to the posterior iliac wing and crest of the ilium. It functions to maintain the alignment of L5 on the sacrum during various movements 1, 2. It is an important l...
Article

Imaging psoas sign (spondylodiscitis)

The imaging psoas sign is an MRI finding specific for spondylodiscitis and is seen as T2 hyperintensity in the psoas major muscle. The sign has a high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (92%) for spondylodiscitis and in the clinical context of a suspected infective process of the spine supports c...
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Incomplete cord syndromes

Incomplete cord syndromes encompass a variety of patterns of cross-sectional partial disruption of the spinal cord. Due to the spatial segregation of various ascending and descending tracts within the cord, regional dysfunction results in predictable and distinct clinical patterns of deficit. As...
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Insufficiency fracture

Insufficiency fractures are a type of stress fracture, which are the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone. They should not be confused with fatigue fractures which are due to abnormal stresses on normal bone, or with pathological fractures, the result of diseased, weakened bone due to foca...
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Intercalary bone

Intercalary bones are common discal ossifications that are usually triangular in morphology, found in the anterior annular fibers of an intervertebral disc, and are thought to be degenerative in aetiology.  Differential diagnosis limbus vertebra flexion or extension teardrop fracture
Article

Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacobys’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiography 1,2 Intercristal line most often intersects the body of the L4 or its inferior endplate in men and t...
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Interspinous ligament

The interspinous ligaments join the spinous processes along their adjacent borders. They are composed of relatively weak fibrous tissue that fuses with the stronger, supraspinous ligaments.
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Interspinous processes spacer

A interspinous processes spacer (also known as decompression spacer or interspinous posterior device) is a device implanted between interspinous processes to open narrowed exiting foraminal nerve channels to treat lumbar radiculopathy caused by spinal stenosis. It is used as an alternative to l...
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Intertransverse ligaments

The intertransverse ligaments consist of fibrous tissue joining transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae. In the cervical region, intertransverse ligaments are scattered fibres that are largely replaced by intertransverse muscles. In the thoracic region, these are fibrous cords blending with t...
Article

Intervertebral disc

Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebral bodies of C2/3 to L5/S1, totalling 23 in the conventional spine. Together they account for approximately 25% of the total height of the vertebral column. This decreases with age as disc height is lost. The upper thoracic discs are the thinn...
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Intervertebral disc calcification

Intervertebral disc calcification is seen with numerous conditions. Epidemiology It may be observed in paediatric 5 as well as adult populations. Pathology Causes degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% in routine abdominal radiographs in adults postoperative/traumatic o...
Article

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature has changed over the years, and a familiarity with current definitions is essential if clear communication is to be achieved via radiology reports or referrals, especially as lumbar disc disease is a common problem and a source of a great deal of imaging....
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Intervertebral disc vacuum phenomena

Vacuum phenomena involving the intervertebral discs is usually a result of accumulation of gas (principally nitrogen) within the crevices of the intervertebral discs or adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology It is a relatively common occurrence which can be observed in 1-3% of spinal radiographs and...
Article

Intervertebral foramen

The intervertebral foramina allow passage of structures out of and into the vertebral canal. When multiple vertebrae are joined, the foramina for the spinal canal. Boundaries anterior- lower posterolateral aspect of a vertebral body and the intervertebral disc below in the cervical region a p...
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Intervertebral joint

There are three intervertebral joints between each adjacent vertebra from the axis to the sacrum – one between the vertebral bodies and a pair between the facets of adjoining vertebral arches (zygapophysial joints, also called facet joints). Gross anatomy Movement flexion: the anterior interv...
Article

Intervertebral osteochondrosis

Intervertebral osteochondrosis represents the pathologic degenerative process involving the intervertebral disc and the respective vertebral body endplates (not necessarily symptomatic). It is believed to be different and a further stage of spondylosis deformans, which is a consequence of normal...
Article

Intradural disc herniation

Intradural disc herniations (IDH) occur when disc material related to an intervertebral disc hernia penetrates the spinal dura and lies in an intradural extramedullary location. Epidemiology IDH correspond to a rare presentation of a common pathology, comprising ~0.28% of all disc herniations ...
Article

Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour type...
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Intradural extramedullary spinal tumours

Intradural extramedullary neoplasms are located outside the spinal cord but within the dural sheath.  Clinical presentation The most common presenting symptoms include weakness, back pain and radicular pain. Pathology Schwannomas are the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions (...
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Intradural spinal lipoma

Intradural lipomas are a subset of spinal lipomas. They are typically intradural, subpial, juxtamedullary lesions 1 although they have occasionally been reported as entirely intramedullary lesions 2. Mature fatty tissue within the spinal dura can be seen in a number of entities: lipomyelomenin...
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Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Intramedullary spinal tumours

Intramedullary spinal tumours are rare, representing 4-10% of all CNS tumours and less than 10% of all paediatric CNS neoplasms 5. They account for 20% of all intraspinal tumours in adults and 35% of all intraspinal tumours in children 8. A long duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis is typica...
Article

Inverted Mercedes-Benz sign

The inverted Mercedes-Benz sign refers to the shape taken on by a spinal subdural haematoma on axial imaging at the level of the denticulate ligaments, best visualised on MRI. A pair of denticulate ligaments and the dorsal septum constitute the three radiating spikes of the sign, while blood exp...
Article

Inverted Napoleon hat sign

The inverted Napoleon hat sign is a radiologic sign seen on the frontal pelvic or lumbar radiograph at the level of the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum. It is seen when there is bilateral spondylolysis with marked anterolisthesis of L5 on S1 or marked exaggeration of the normal lordosis at t...
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Inverted "V" sign (spinal cord)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the inverted rabbit ears sign, is a radiological sign described in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord​. It refers to the appearance of the spinal cord on axial MRI slices 1-3. On these slices in a patient with subacute combined degeneration of...
Article

Iophendylate

Iophendylate (generic name is iodophenylundecylic acid) and sold under the tradename Myodil (except the USA where it was marketed as Pantopaque) was an oil-based contrast medium that was previously used for myelography. It was first used in 1944, but officially discontinued in 1988 6. The iodin...
Article

Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Aetiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age o...
Article

Jarcho-Levin syndrome

The Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) or spondylothoracic dysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder that can occur with variable severity. Previously the condition spondylocostal dysostosis was also considered as part of the JLS spectrum but is now considered a distinct pathologi...
Article

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
Article

Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. Klippel-Feil syndrome has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,...
Article

Kümmell disease

Kümmell disease is an eponymous name for osteonecrosis and collapse of a vertebral body. Pathology Kümmell disease represents delayed (usually two weeks) vertebral body collapse due to ischaemia and non-union of anterior vertebral body wedge fractures after major trauma. Risk factors Risk fa...
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Labelled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labelled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal MR head: T2 axial MR head:...
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Laminectomy

Laminectomy (whether unilateral or bilateral) refers to the surgical removal of the lamina of a vertebral body. By removing the lamina, we are able to decompress the spinal canal, and thus reduce the pressure on the spinal cord. Spinal stenosis may be caused by: arthritis of the spine (in olde...
Article

Lateral corticospinal tract

The lateral corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids when the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate – the majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterior corticospinal tract, with only a few non...
Article

Lateral hemivertebra

A lateral hemivertebra is a form of hemivertebra which occurs when one of the two chondrification centre fails to develop. They can be single or multiple. and a usually associated this a resultant scoliosis.  Pathology Subtypes Various subtypes have been descrbied incarcerated hemivertebra ...
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Lateral horn

The lateral horn of the spinal cord is the small lateral projection of grey matter located between the dorsal horn and ventral horn and contain the neuronal cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord, the spinal grey matter is describe...
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Lateral meningocele syndrome

Lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies and ne...
Article

Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...
Article

Lateral thoracic meningocele

Lateral thoracic meningoceles are a type of spinal meningocele. Pathology As with any meningocele, it results from herniation of the meninges through a foramen or a defect in the vertebral column.  Associations They are typically associated with neurofibromatosis type I but can rarely occur ...
Article

Leptomeningeal drop-metastases

Leptomeningeal drop-metastases correspond to a CNS primary neoplasm spread inferiorly along the cerebrospinal spaces. It is usually presented as diffuse enhancing nodules along the spine and cauda equina.  Please refer on leptomeningeal metastases to a broad discussion on this entity. 
Article

Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can originate from primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. This artic...
Article

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation

Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterised by slowly-progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact prevalen...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Lhermitte sign (spinal cord)

Lhermitte sign or the barber chair phenomenon is an electrical shock sensation running down the spine and into the limb on neck flexion. It suggests compression of the upper cervical spinal cord and/or brainstem. Pathology It is typically seen with multiple sclerosis but is also associated wit...
Article

Ligamentum flavum

The ligamentum flava are paired ligaments which run between adjacent laminae of the vertebral bodies and are present from C2/3 to the sacrum. Above the C2/3 level the equivalent structures are known as the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane (between the base of skull and C1) and the posterior ...
Article

Ligamentum nuchae

The ligamentum nuchae is a large median ligament composed of tendons and fascia located between the posterior muscles of the neck. It covers the spines of C1 to C6 vertebrae. It is a superior and posterior extension of the supraspinous ligament. It rises from the spinous process of C7 to the ini...
Article

Limbus vertebra

Limbus vertebra is a well-corticated unfused secondary ossification centre, usually of the anterosuperior vertebral body corner, that occurs secondary to herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the vertebral body endplate beneath the ring apophysis (see ossification of the vertebrae). These a...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufacture...
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...
Article

Lipomyelocele

Lipomyelocele is one of the most common closed spinal dysraphism. It is seen in thoracolumbar region and usually presents as a fatty subcutaneous mass. It is twice as common as lipomyelomeningocele. Clinical presentation Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic at birth, but many (~ 50%)...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
Article

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL), also known as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), represent extensive involvement of the spinal cord, with abnormal T2 signal traversing at least three vertebral body segments in length. Differential diagnosis They are typi...

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