Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

513 results found
Article

Meningeal melanocytoma

Meningeal melanocytomas are rare benign primary melanocytic tumours of the CNS that are derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes. They can occur anywhere along the neuraxis but are most commonly found in the spinal canal near the foramen magnum, as well as the posterior fossa, Meckel’s cave, or a...
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Meningocele

Meningoceles are protrusions of the meninges through a defect or weak point in the skull or spine, usually involving the soft tissues beneath the surface of the skin. They are typically categorized into congenital, iatrogenic (e.g. following a craniotomy, sinus surgery, or as a laminectomy compl...
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Meningocele manqué

Meningocele manqué (from French, literally "missed meningocele") is a rare condition characterized by focal dorsal tethering of the spinal cord. The term is used to designate a meningocele which failed to develop and became atretic. Epidemiology It has been reported in neonates, but median age...
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Modic type endplate changes

Modic type endplate changes represent a classification for vertebral body end-plate MRI signal, first described in 1988 1. It is widely recognised by radiologists and clinicians and is a useful shorthand for reporting MRIs of the spine. Recently Modic type I has received renewed attention due t...
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Modic type I endplate change

Modic type I endplate change is the most controversial and important of the three types described (see Modic endplate change).  It is seen on MRI of the spine and represents the presence of low T1 and high T2 signal within the bone marrow of a vertebral body adjacent to a disk. Type 1 change can...
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Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
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Movements of the spine

Movements of the spine are possible due to intervertebral discs, and with the fulcrum of movement occurring primarily around the nucleus pulposus. Specialized motion occurs at the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints, which do not contain a disc. The spine (vertebral column) forms the cent...
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MRI classification system for lumbar disc degeneration

Disc degeneration can be graded on MRI T2 spin-echo weighted images using a grading system proposed by Pfirrmann 1. This classification is not used on routine spine reports, being more important for research purposes. grade I: disc is homogeneous with bright hyperintense white signal intensity ...
Article

Musculoskeletal hydatid infection

Musculoskeletal hydatid infections are a very rare form of hydatid disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with slow growing swelling with or witho...
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Myelitis

Myelitis, is a collective term simply referring to any inflammation of the spinal cord. It is a form of myelopathy. The two major sub types include: leukomyelitis multiple sclerosis ADEM transverse myelitis ideopathic transverse myelitis secondary transverse myelitis: viral, neurosyphilis...
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Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be a...
Article

Naked facet sign (vertebral column)

The naked facet sign (also known as the hamburger sign or reverse hamburger bun sign) refers to the CT appearance of an uncovered vertebral articular facet when the facet joint is dislocated, most often in cases of locked facet.  This CT sign is characteristic of a flexion-distraction injury an...
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Neoplasms of the cauda equina (differential)

The differential diagnosis for masses of the cauda equina region is often considered separately to the remainder of the spinal cord. It is often difficult to determine whether masses in this region are intramedullary or intradural-extramedullary. Most common tumours myxopapillary ependymoma b...
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Neoplasms of the spinal canal

Neoplasms of the spinal canal encompass a range of tumours which arise from or involve the spinal cord, theca and spinal nerves. Pathology These can be divided according to the tissue/structure of origin within the spinal canal. Tumours of vertebral bodies are discussed separately: see vertebr...
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Nerve root enhancement

Nerve root enhancement is phenomenon described on post contrast MRI scans that can be observed in a number of situations. Common causes post-operative states post-operative nerve root enhancement arachnoiditis leptomeningeal metastases disseminated spinal leptomeningeal metastases HIV vac...
Article

Neurenteric canal of Kovalevsky

The neurenteric canal or canal of Kovalevsky is the transient communication of the amnion through notochordal canal to the yolk sac during notochordal formation at day 16-17. Abnormalities during this stage produce the neurenteric cyst spectrum.
Article

Neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a dysfunctional urinary bladder that results from an injury to the central or peripheral nerves that control and regulate urination. Injury to the brain, brainstem, spinal cord or peripheral nerves from various causes including infection, trauma, malignanc...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis is a rare condition characterised by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from non-tumour conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect the periphe...
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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

  Neuromyelis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are closely related severe demyelinating diseases caused by an autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 water channel. The classic presentation of NMO is with the triad of optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, and...
Article

Nitrous oxide toxicity

Nitrous oxide (N2O) toxicity has serious medical sequelae including encephalopathy, myelopathy, neuropathy and endovascular effects 1. This results from demyelination and gliosis due to selective inhibition of vitamin B12. N2O is an established and widely used anaesthetic gas though also misuse...
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Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: paediatric - 12 years old example ...
Article

Nucleus pulposus

The nucleus pulposus is the central part of each intervertebral disc. Gross anatomy It is located within the annulus fibrosus and between the vertebral body endplates. It is composed of a thin lattice of collagen fibres (type II) which traverse though hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans.  With age...
Article

Nude nerve root

A nude nerve root is perhaps not as exciting as the name would suggest. It refers to an uncommon anatomical variant where nerve roots simply exit the theca without investing dural sleeves 1. These have been associated, at least in case reports, with spontaneous craniospinal hypotension 1. 
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma and is a specific and localized type of basilar skull fracture. Epidemiology The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3. Clinical...
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Occipital vertebrae

Occipital vertebrae is a very rare anatomical variant and results from incomplete or aberrant fusion of occipital bone ossification centres. There is a broad spectrum of occipital vertebrae variations and the four most common include: third condyle (condylus tertius) basilar process paracondy...
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Occult intrasacral meningocoele

Occult intrasacral meningocoele is a rare congenital lesion characterised by the presence of a cyst within the sacral thecal sac. It is an extradural sacral arachnoid cyst- Nabor's type Ib meningeal cyst. It is not a true meningocoele, since meninges are not involved. It is associated with spin...
Article

Ochronosis

Ochronosis, or alkaptonuria (AKU), is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. On imaging, the most particular presentation is on the spine, with osteoporotic bones and dense disc calcifications.  Terminology The term ochronosis usually refers to the bluish-black discolourat...
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Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
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Olisthesis

Olisthesis, also known as the etymologically less correct listhesis, means slipping or sliding. Pathology Types include: anterolisthesis spondylolisthesis spondylolisthesis grading retrolisthesis
Article

Oppenheimer ossicle

Oppenheimer ossicles are accessory ossicles associated with the facet joints found in ~4% (range 1-7%) 1 of lumbar spines.  Oppenheimer ossicles are thought to arise as a result of non-union of a secondary ossification centre of the articular process. They predominantly occur as a single, unila...
Article

Opticospinal multiple sclerosis

Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) is a demyelinating disease and has been considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) encountered in Asian populations, who are generally rarely affected by normal multiple sclerosis. It has similar clinical and imaging features to neuromyelitis optica (N...
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Os odontoideum

Os odontoideum is an anatomic variant of the odontoid process of C2 and needs to be differentiated from persistent ossiculum terminale and from a type 2 odontoid fracture. It can be associated with atlantoaxial instability.  Although it was originally thought to be a congenital lesion due to a ...
Article

Ossification centres of the vertebral column

Ossification of the vertebral column is complex but an overview of primary and secondary ossification centres is given below: Primary ossification centres The C3-L5 vertebrae typically have three primary ossification centres that start appearing at 9 weeks in utero and finish primary ossificat...
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Ossification of the ligamentum flavum

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a phenomenon where there is a formation of ossific-calcific components in the ligamentum flavum. It is recognised causes of myelopathy (especially in the thoracic and to a lesser degree the cervical region). Epidemiology The condition as a whole i...
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Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is typically an entity seen in patients of Asian descent, although it is seen in all ethnic groups. It is characterised by, as the name suggests, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Epidemiology There is a recognised g...
Article

Osteoarthritis of the vertebral column

Osteoarthritis of the vertebral column, also known as spondylosis deformans, is common and usually merely referred to as spinal "degenerative change". Complications such as spinal stenosis are important to recognise.  Radiographic features The hallmark of osteoarthritis in the spine, as is the...
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Osteoporotic spinal compression fracture

Osteoporotic spinal compression fractures occur as a result of injury, commonly fall onto the buttock or pressure from normal activities, to the weakened vertebrae due to osteoporosis. Epidemiology They have a reported incidence of 1.2 per 1000 person-years after 85 years of age in the United ...
Article

Owl's eye sign

The owl's eye sign represents bilaterally symmetric circular to ovoid foci of high T2-weighted signals in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is seen on axial MR imaging. The sagittal corollary is a "pencil-like" vertical linear high T2-weighted signal extending usually over a number ...
Article

Pantopaque

Pantopaque is an oil-based contrast medium that used to be used for myelography. Its generic name is iodophenylundecylic acid and it was first used in 1944 and was officially discontinued in 1988 6. The iodine moiety of the compound causes high attenuation on radiography and CT 6. Its major dr...
Article

Paracondylar process

Paracondylar process is a rare anatomical variant of the occipital bone, where a bony exostosis extends caudally from the paracondylar region (lateral to the native occipital condyles), typically articulating with the superior surface of a transverse process of the atlas. This may be unilateral ...
Article

Parasyndesmophytes

Parasyndesmophytes or floating syndesmophytes are, as the name suggests, paravertebral dystrophic soft tissue calcifications or heterotopic ossifications. Pathology They are known to be seen in psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis 4. Radiographic features Initially they begin at a dist...
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Perched facet joint

Perched facet joint is a vertebral facet joint whose inferior articular process appears to sit 'perched' on the ipsilateral superior articular process of the vertebra below. Any further anterior subluxation will result in dislocation, with one facet "jumping" over the other and becoming locked ...
Article

Peripheral nerve sheath tumours

Peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) are a group of primary neurogenic tumours that arise from nerve sheaths outside of the central nervous system. The vast majority are benign, however, malignant transformation is seen particularly in large tumours and those associated with neurofibromatosis...
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Perivertebral space

The perivertebral space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy The perivertebral space is a cylinder of soft tissue lying posterior to the retropharyngeal space and danger space surrounded by the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia and extends from...
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Persistent ossiculum terminale

The ossiculum terminale appears as a secondary ossification centre of the dens between 3-6 years and normally fuses by 12 years. Failure of fusion results in a persistent ossiculum terminale (also called Bergmann's ossicle or ossiculum terminale of Bergmann) and is considered a normal anatomical...
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Picture frame vertebral body

Picture frame vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the cortex of the vertebral body is thickened. This sign can be seen in patients with Paget disease.  It is a result of disorganised new cortical bone formation after excessive osteoclastic activity causes the resorption of normal...
Article

Pine cone bladder

A pine cone bladder or christmas tree bladder is a cystogram appearance in which the bladder is elongated and pointed with thickened trabeculated wall. It is typically seen in severe neurogenic bladder with increased sphincter tone (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) due to suprasacral lesions (abo...
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Pneumatic nerve root compression

Pneumatic nerve root compression is a term given nerve root compression due to a presence of a juxtradiscal herniated gas locule. It is not a very common occurence 2. The gas locules in these instances typically arise herniation of intradiscal gas which occur as part of disc degenerative change....
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Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
Article

Polio-like paralysis

Polio-like paralysis refers to a paralytic state which is similar in clinical appearance to polio, but from which poliovirus is not isolated. Like polio, the main presenting symptoms is acute flaccid paralysis. Pathology There are many causes, some of which are infective, e.g. coxsackie A9 and...
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Polka-dot sign (vertebral haemangioma)

The polka-dot sign is the result of the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae surrounded by fat marrow or vascular lacunae in vertebral intraosseous haemangiomas 2. It is the axial equivalent of the corduroy sign seen on sagittal and coronal images. On CT the...
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Posterior apophyseal ring fracture

Posterior ring apophysis fractures occur in the immature skeleton, most commonly in the lumbar spine. Epidemiology Typically, adolescent males practicing sport activities. Clinical presentation​ back pain sciatica muscle weakness related with root innervation association with Scheuermann ...
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Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane attaches the upper border of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the outer margin of the foramen magnum. It is continuous with the posterior atlantoaxial membrane (inferiorly) and ligamentum nuchae (posteriorly) and lies immediately posterior to the t...
Article

Posterior cord syndrome

Posterior cord syndrome (also known as posterior spinal artery syndrome) is a rare syndrome associated with spinal cord injury. It is caused due to a lesion in the posterior column of spinal cord or occlusion of the posterior spinal artery. The syndrome is clinically characterized by isolated l...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Posterior ligamentous complex

The posterior ligamentous complex acts to stabilise the vertebral column and is made up of the following structures: facet joint capsule ligamentum flavum interspinous ligament supraspinous ligament In particular, it acts to hold the facet joints of the neighbouring vertebrae in fixed relat...
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Posterior longitudinal ligament

The posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) is a long and important ligament located immediately posterior to the vertebral bodies (to which it attaches loosely) and intervertebral discs (to which it is firmly attached). It extends from the back of the sacrum inferiorly and gradually broadens as ...
Article

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure that can be performed at a single level or a multiple adjacent levels. It relies on the introduction of pedicle screws with connecting rods posteriorly. A partial laminectomy is performed to gain access to ...
Article

Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema

Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema is a very frequent finding on MRI of the spine. Clinical correlation is almost always required to identify the significance of this. Terminology Due to its distribution, it is sometimes referred to colloquially as "tramp-stamp oedema".  Epidemiology It is...
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Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies are relatively common and should not be mistaken for fractures. They are thought to be both developmental and pathological (e.g. spondylolysis) but are typically asymptomatic and incidental, and considered as anatomical variants. There are six types of poster...
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Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Primary bone tumours of the spine

The most common tumour of the spine is metastatic deposits. A number of both benign and malignant tumours may arise primarily from the spine. Benign osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteochondroma giant cell tumour (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) eosinophilic granuloma (EG) haemangioma Ma...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
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Quadratus lumborum

The quadratus lumborum muscle is an irregular quadrilateral muscle that forms part of the posterior abdominal wall. Summary location: dorsal abdominal wall attachments: medial half of inferior margins of 12th ribs and upper four lumbar transverse processes blood supply branches of the lumba...
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Rachischisis

Rachischisis (somtimes known as complete spina bifida) refers to a severe form of spina bifida where there is a cleft through the entire spine. Pathology There is often a severe or complete defect involving the entire spine from the cervical region through to the sacrum. Associations A rachi...
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Radiation-induced MRI signal changes in bone marrow

Radiation-induced MRI signal changes in bone marrow are the earliest detectable changes in bone. Their severity correlate with increasing radiation dose. Pathology 1st week: decreased marrow cellularity with oedema and haemorrhage 2nd week: increased marrow cellularity due to influx from non-...
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Retrodural space of Okada

The retrodural space of Okada is a wishbone-shaped potential space which links the facet joints to each other at a single level across the midline, and thus acts as a potential pathway for the spread of injected material (contrast, air, steroid, local anaesthetic) as well as infection.  Gross a...
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Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (more rarely the synonyms retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis) refers to posterior displacement (backward slip) of a vertebral body relative to one below. Causes include trauma, facet joint osteoarthritis or congenital anomalies (e.g. underdevelopment of the pedicl...
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Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
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Romanus lesion

The Romanus lesion represents an early finding in inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis and enteropathic arthritis, and appears as irregularity and erosion involving the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral endplates 1. Healing response to these inflammatory...
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Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
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Rubrospinal tract

The rubrospinal tract contains neurons that carry signals from the corticorubral tract. The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The magnocellular portion of the red nucleus gives rise to the rubrospinal tract. It decussates...
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Rugger-jersey spine

Rugger-jersey spine describes the prominent subendplate densities at multiple contiguous vertebral levels to produce an alternating sclerotic-lucent-sclerotic appearance. This mimics the horizontal stripes of a rugby jersey. This term and pattern are distinctive for hyperparathyroidism. Pathol...
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Sacral agenesis

Sacral agenesis (also considered as part of the caudal regression syndrome) is a rare and severe sacral developmental abnormality. Epidemiology In normal pregnancy, the incidence is between 0.005 and 0.1%. However, in fetuses with diabetic mothers, the incidence rises to 0.2%. Of those with th...
Article

Sacral dimple

Sacral dimples are a clinical and radiological feature that is associated with occult spinal dysraphism (e.g. tethered cord syndrome) but are more frequently a non-significant isolated finding. Epidemiology Common in healthy children (~5%) 1. Pathology Simple sacral dimples have the followin...
Article

Sacral hiatus

The sacral hiatus corresponds to the posterior caudal opening at the end of the sacral canal, which usually occurs at the fifth sacral vertebra (S5), at the posterior surface of the sacrum. Gross anatomy Location Commonly, the sacral hiatus corresponds to the non-formation of S5 spinous proce...
Article

Sacral insufficiency fractures

Sacral insufficiency fractures are stress fractures, which are the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone, most frequently seen in the setting of osteoporosis. They fall under the broader group of pelvic insufficiency fractures. Clinical presentation They are usually seen in elderly female...
Article

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
Article

Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a synovial and fibrous joint between ilium and the sacrum. It has little movement and its main function is to transfer weight between the axial and lower appendicular skeletons. The SI joint is a symmetrical joint (i.e. is paired) with an oblique coronal orientation ...
Article

Sacrum

The sacrum is the penultimate segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior part of the bony pelvis. It transmits the total body weight between the lower appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton. Gross anatomy The sacrum is an irregularly-shaped bone, roughly an inverted tri...
Article

Sagittal balance (C7 plumb line)

Sagittal balance forms part of the plain radiographic assessment of spinal deformity including kyphotic or lordotic deformities and scoliosis. There are numerous ways of assessing this, using various bony landmarks and angles to evaluate whether or not a normal distribution of weight and stresse...
Article

Sandwich vertebral body

Sandwich vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the endplates are densely sclerotic, giving the appearance of a sandwich. This term and pattern are distinctive for osteopetrosis. Differential diagnosis the sandwich vertebrae appearance resembles rugger-jersey spine but can be diffe...
Article

Scalpel sign (spinal cord)

The scalpel sign has been recently described in dorsal thoracic arachnoid web on sagittal MRI spine studies. It relates to focal distortion of the thoracic cord, appearing anteriorly displaced. The enlarged dorsal CSF space mimics the profile of a surgical scalpel. It is helpful in distinguishi...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease (also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis) is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

Schmorl nodes

Schmorl nodes, also referred as intravertebral disc herniations, refer to protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent vertebra. The protrusions may contact the marrow of the vertebra, leading to inflammation. Epidemiology Qu...
Article

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...
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Scoliosis erect lateral view

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualise the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile in cases of scoliosis. It is also often done upon first presentation and is useful for identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyphosis and/or lordosis 1,2. Patient posit...
Article

Scoliosis (lateral bending view)

Scoliosis lateral bending views are additional scoliosis projections accompanying the standard PA/AP views with the aim of assessing the patient’s lateral range of spinal motion 1. Patient position patient erect or supine patient bending their upper body laterally (right and left) from the h...
Article

Scoliosis PA/AP view

The scoliosis anteroposterior (or posteroanterior) view allows for the visualisation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of interest in scoliosis and allows for the severity of lateral spinal curvature to be assessed 1. Patient position patient erect (or supine depending on protocol) ...
Article

Scoliosis radiography

Scoliosis radiography is useful in identifying the degree of the scoliosis curvature (major/minor or primary/compensatory curves), as well as observe its progression to determine the best method of treatment 1.   Indications Scoliosis radiographs are performed specifically when the disease is...
Article

Scottie dog sign (spine)

The Scottie dog sign refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen on oblique radiographic projection. On oblique views, the posterior elements of the vertebra form the figure of a Scottie dog with: the transverse process being the nose the pedicle forming the eye the inferior...
Article

Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament

Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament are a relatively common anatomical variant that are usually asymptomatic and most commonly occur at the C5/6 or C6/7 vertebral levels.  Epidemiology They occur in ~7.5% of the population, with a male predominance of 3:1 1.  Radiographic features Plain...

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