Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

536 results found
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Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
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Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a synovial and fibrous joint between ilium and the sacrum. It has little movement and its main function is to transfer weight between the axial and lower appendicular skeletons. The SI joint is a symmetrical joint (i.e. is paired) with an oblique coronal orientation ...
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Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

 The PA oblique view of the sacroiliac joints can be performed in patients who cannot assume the supine position. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Oblique views can be taken either AP or PA....
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Sacrum

The sacrum is the penultimate segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior part of the bony pelvis. It transmits the total body weight between the lower appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton. Gross anatomy The sacrum is an irregularly-shaped bone, shaped roughly like an ...
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Sagittal balance (C7 plumb line)

Sagittal balance forms part of the plain radiographic assessment of spinal deformity including kyphotic or lordotic deformities and scoliosis. There are numerous ways of assessing this, using various bony landmarks and angles to evaluate whether or not a normal distribution of weight and stresse...
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Sandwich vertebral body

Sandwich vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the endplates are densely sclerotic, giving the appearance of a sandwich. This term and pattern are distinctive for osteopetrosis. Differential diagnosis the sandwich vertebrae appearance resembles rugger-jersey spine but can be diffe...
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Scalpel sign (spinal cord)

The scalpel sign has been recently described in dorsal thoracic arachnoid web on sagittal MRI spine studies. It relates to focal distortion of the thoracic cord, appearing anteriorly displaced. The enlarged dorsal CSF space mimics the profile of a surgical scalpel. It is helpful in distinguishi...
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Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
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Schmorl nodes

Schmorl nodes, also referred as intravertebral disc herniations, refer to protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent vertebra. The protrusions may contact the marrow of the vertebra, leading to inflammation. Epidemiology Qu...
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Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...
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Scoliosis erect lateral view

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualise the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile in cases of scoliosis. It is also often done upon first presentation and is useful for identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyphosis and/or lordosis 1,2. Patient posit...
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Scoliosis (lateral bending view)

Scoliosis lateral bending views are additional scoliosis projections accompanying the standard PA/AP views with the aim of assessing the patient’s lateral range of spinal motion 1. Patient position patient erect or supine patient bending their upper body laterally (right and left) from the h...
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Scoliosis PA/AP view

The scoliosis anteroposterior (or posteroanterior) view allows for the visualisation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of interest in scoliosis and allows for the severity of lateral spinal curvature to be assessed 1. Patient position patient erect (or supine depending on protocol) ...
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Scoliosis radiography

Scoliosis radiography is useful in identifying the degree of the scoliosis curvature (major/minor or primary/compensatory curves), as well as observe its progression to determine the best method of treatment 1.   Indications Scoliosis radiographs are performed specifically when the disease is...
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Scottie dog sign (spine)

The Scottie dog sign refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen on oblique radiographic projection. On oblique views, the posterior elements of the vertebra form the figure of a Scottie dog with: the transverse process being the nose the pedicle forming the eye the inferior...
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Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament

Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament are a relatively common anatomical variant that are usually asymptomatic and most commonly occur at the C5/6 or C6/7 vertebral levels.  Epidemiology They occur in ~7.5% of the population, with a male predominance of 3:1 1.  Radiographic features Plain...
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Shiny corner sign (ankylosing spondylitis)

The shiny corner sign is a spinal finding in ankylosing spondylitis, representing reactive sclerosis secondary to inflammatory erosions at the superior and inferior endplates (corners on lateral radiograph) of the vertebral bodies which are known as Romanus lesions. Eventually, the vertebral bod...
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Sickle cell disease (skeletal manifestations)

Skeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease result from three interconnected sequelae of sickle cell disease 5:  vaso-occlusive crises resulting in bone infarcts and subperiosteal haemorrhages chronic anaemia resulting in expansion of the medullary spaces infection These, in turn, can pre...
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Snake-eye appearance (spinal cord)

Snake-eye appearance refers to symmetric bilateral T1 hypointensity/T2 hyperintensity of the anterior horn of the grey matter on axial cervical MRI, evocative of a pair of snake's eyes. It can be seen in late phase CT myelography, an all but forsaken technique, where it is also known as fried e...
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Solitary bone plasmacytoma

Solitary bone plasmacytomas (SBP) may involve any bone, but they have a predisposition for the red marrow-containing axial skeleton: spinal disease is observed in ~50% (range 34-72%) of cases the thoracic vertebrae are most commonly involved, followed by lumbar, sacral, and cervical vertebrae ...
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Sorensen criteria

In typical Scheuermann disease of the thoracic spine the Sorensen criteria are met when three or more consecutive vertebrae are wedged by 5 degrees or more 1.
Article

Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect/spinal dysraphism which can occur to varying degrees of severity. It is often considered the most common congenital CNS malformation. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:1000-2000 live births 2. Clinical presentation A constellation of fe...
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Spina bifida occulta

Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida and is a type of neural tube defect.  Terminology While typically referring to asymptomatic posterior fusion defects, some authors 5 use it as a broad term that encompasses closed spinal defects such as: diastematomyelia diplomyelia d...
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Spinal anatomy

Spinal anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine, the spinal cord and its supporting structures. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature.  Overview The spine...
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Spinal arachnoid cyst

Spinal arachnoid cysts are relatively uncommon and may be either intradural (type III meningeal cyst) or extradural (type IA meningeal cyst). This article specifically focuses on spinal arachnoid cysts. For a general discussion of arachnoid cysts, refer to the main article: arachnoid cyst. Epi...
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Spinal arachnoid mater

The spinal arachnoid mater is a thin, delicate and avascular connective tissue membrane which forms the middle layer of the meninges and covers the spinal cord1. Gross Anatomy The spinal arachnoid mater becomes continuous with the cerebral arachnoid mater as it traverses the foramen magnum and...
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Spinal arteriovenous malformations

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by arteriovenous shunting with a true nidus. They represent ~25% of spinal vascular malformations.  Epidemiology Different types of spinal AVM (see below) have differing age of presentation, but overall 80% present between the age 20 ...
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Spinal astrocytoma

Spinal astrocytomas are the second most common spinal cord tumour overall, representing 40% of intramedullary tumours 3. They account for 60% of paediatric intramedullary tumours, making them the most common spinal cord tumour in children 6. This article specifically relates to spinal astrocyto...
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Spinal canal

The spinal canal, also known as the vertebral canal, is the cavity within the vertebral column which contains the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The spinal canal becomes progressively narrower from its superior opening at the foramen magnum to its inferior opening at the sacral hiatus 1. The canal...
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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system that is found within the spinal canal of the vertebral column. It is contained by the thecal sac, a continuation of the intracranial dura matter, and extends from the corticomedullary junction at the foramen magnum of the skull down to th...
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Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord sizable and formed...
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Spinal cord cavernous malformation

Spinal cord cavernous malformations, also known as spinal cavernomas, are vascular malformations that occur within the spinal cord. This article specifically relates to spinal cord cavernomas. For a discussion of cerebral cavernomas and a general discussion of the pathology refer to the main ar...
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Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of cord compression. These can be divided according to the location of the compressing mass: interverte...
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Spinal cord compression (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency and if unrecognised or untreated, can result in irreversible neurological damage and disability. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed caud...
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Spinal cord stimulator

A spinal cord stimulator is a surgically placed device to aid with symptom relief in individuals with chronic neurological pain resulting from, for example, post failed spinal surgery, brachial plexopathy, post laminectomy syndrome etc.) It uses low voltage electrical current delivered by elect...
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Spinal dermoid cyst

Spinal dermoid cysts are uni or multilocular cystic tumours lined by squamous epithelium containing skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) 6. They are congenital in origin. Forty percent are intramedullary, and 60% are extramedullary 6. This article specifically relat...
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Spinal dura mater

The spinal dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges that surround the spinal cord. Gross Anatomy The spinal dura mater is a fibrous, non-adherent, tough layer surrounding the spinal cord.  It is separated from the wall of the vertebral canal by the epidural space. This space contains ...
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Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term given to a group of anomalies where there are malformations in the dorsum of the embryo. Neural tube defects come under this group as well.  Pathology There is often abnormal fusion of the midline embryonic neural, vertebral and mesenchymal structures.  Subty...
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Spinal ependymoma

Spinal ependymomas are the most common spinal cord tumour overall, seen both in adult and paediatric population.  This article specifically relates to spinal cord ependymomas. For a discussion of intracranial ependymomas and for a general discussion of the pathology refer to the main article: e...
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Spinal epidermoid cyst

Spinal epidermoid cysts are cystic tumours lined by squamous epithelium. Unlike dermoid cysts, they do not contain skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) 10. They are usually extramedullary but rarely can be intramedullary 1. They may be congenital or acquired. This a...
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Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess represents infection of the epidural space, located between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral periosteum. It can present with rapidly deteriorating neurological function due to compression. Imaging is best performed with MRI and emergency surgery is often required. ...
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Spinal epidural haematoma

Spinal epidural haematomas (EDH) are a rare spinal pathology can result in serious morbidity with delayed or non-treatment. They are typically considered a surgical emergency.  Clinical presentation The patient's symptoms and signs will depend on the location of the EDH, and degree of spinal c...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...
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Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural haematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis
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Spinal epidural space

The spinal epidural (extradural) space is distinctly separate from and not continuous with the cranial epidural space. Its exact definition and description are contentious 3.  Gross anatomy The spinal epidural space is located in the spinal canal between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral...
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
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Spinal fusion

Spinal fusion is a broad term to denote the joining of two or more adjacent vertebral segments. Fusion can be congenital or acquired as a direct result of disease or deliberately following spinal surgery.  Congenital fusion Fusion of two or more adjacent segments is encountered either as an is...
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Spinal ganglioglioma

Spinal gangliogliomas are rare, comprising 1.1% of all spinal cord neoplasms 2. They are more frequent in children, representing 15% of intramedullary neoplasms in the paediatric age group 4. This article specifically relates to spinal gangliogliomas. For a discussion on intracranial gangliogli...
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Spinal haemangioblastoma

Spinal haemangioblastomas are the third most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm, representing 2-6% of all intramedullary tumours 1,4,7. This article specifically relates to spinal hemangioblastomas. For a discussion on intracranial hemangioblastomas and a general discussion of the pathology ...
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Spinal hydatid disease

Spinal hydatid disease is an uncommon manifestion of hydatid disease, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis, and describes a spectrum of disease involving the spinal cord, the spine, or both. For a general discussion, and for ...
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Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumour related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilisation or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement amon...
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Spinal interventional procedures

Back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. Lumbar degenerative facet joints, lumbar disc disease and sacroiliac joint pain account for nearly 70% of cases of lower back pain. Unfortunately, as the incidence of degenerative changes in the spine is so high (e.g. disc abnorm...
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Spinal meningeal cyst

Spinal meningeal cysts are diverticulae of the arachnoid or dura mater or of the nerve root sheath. They are uncommon, usually asymptomatic and typically found incidentally at MRI.  Clinical presentation They cysts are usually asymptomatic, but if they are large, they may cause mass effect and...
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Spinal meninges

The spinal meninges are contained within the spinal canal and encase the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and the cauda equina. Gross anatomy They are composed of three layers (outer to inner) dura mater (also known as theca or pachymeninx) arachnoid mater pia mater Collectively the arachno...
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Spinal meningioma

Meningiomas arising from the coverings of the spinal cord represent a minority of all meningiomas (approximately 12% 5) but are the second most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumour representing 25% of all such tumours 2. Despite usually being small, due to the confines of the spinal ca...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
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Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of congenital neuromuscular disease affecting anterior horn cells of the brainstem and spinal cord. Epidemiology This disorder affects 1 in 6000-10000 infants 1. Clinical presentation The condition typically affects infants and young children, presenti...
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Spinal myxopapillary ependymoma

Spinal myxopapillary ependymomas are a variant type of spinal ependymoma that occur almost exclusively in the conus medullaris and filum terminale. They represent 13% of all spinal ependymomas, and are by far the most common tumours of the conus medullaris and filum terminale.   Epidemiology T...
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Spinal nerve sheath tumours

Spinal nerve sheath tumours are the most common intradural extramedullary mass. They include, in order of decreasing frequency: spinal schwannoma (30% of all intradural extramedullary lesions 6 and 65% of intradural extramedullary nerve sheath tumours 7) spinal neurofibroma spinal ganglioneu...
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Spinal neurenteric cysts

Spinal neurenteric cysts are a rare type of foregut duplication cyst, accounting for ~1% of all spinal cord tumours. They are usually classified as spinal or intracranial and are associated with vertebral or CNS abnormalities respectively.  Pathology Neurenteric cysts result from incomplete re...
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Spinal neurofibroma

Spinal neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours, usually of the localized subtype. This article specifically relates to spinal neurofibromas. For a general discussion of neurofibromas, including their epidemiology and pathology, refer to neurofibroma. For a discussion of the gen...
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Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumours of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina). They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochrom...
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Spinal pia mater

The spinal pia mater (or pia mater spinalis) is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges. In congruence to the cranial pia being closely related to the surface of the brain, the spinal pia is closely related to the surface of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy The spinal pia mater is continuou...
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Spinal pilocytic astrocytoma

Although rare, pilocytic astrocytomas are the most common spinal cord tumours in the paediatric population. This article specifically relates to spinal pilocytic astrocytomas. For a discussion on intracranial pilocytic astrocytomas refer to pilocytic astrocytoma. For a general discussion on spi...
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Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour

Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are rare. Most cases are secondary to metastatic spread through the subarachnoid space from a primary intracranial tumour although rare cases of primary spinal PNETs have been reported. This article specifically relates to spinal PNETs. For a dis...
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Spinal schwannoma

Spinal schwannomas are schwannomas arising from nerves within the spinal canal. They are the most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumours, representing 30% of such lesions. They are most frequently seen in the cervical and lumbar regions, far more frequently than in the thoracic spine. ...
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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition in which a portion of the spinal canal narrows to the point at which it can exert pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine (spinal cord or cauda equina). Spinal stenosis is not to be confused with foraminal stenosis which is the narrowing of the forami...
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Spinal subarachnoid space

The spinal subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the spine and is continuous with the intracranial subarachnoid space.  It communicates with the intracranial subarachnoid space via the foramen magnum and ends at the level of the S2 vertebra.  It is a relat...
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Spinal subdural space

The spinal subdural space is a potential area between the spinal arachnoid mater and the spinal dura mater. Unlike the cranial subdural space, the spinal subdural space does not contain any bridging veins, and thus haemorrhage into this area only occurs in very rare cases 1.  It only contains a...
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Spinal synovial cyst

Synovial cysts of the spine are cystic formations connected to the facet joint and containing synovial fluid lined by a cuboid or pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They may be result in lumbar radiculopathy in a significant number of cases. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic an...
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Spinal vascular malformations

Spinal vascular malformations (SVM) are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications.  Pathology There are two main types of SVMs 1,2: spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF): 70% of SVMs pial: small, large, or giant dural AVF (DA...
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Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tracts are afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive data from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. There are anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts, the latter also referred to as Flechsig's tract. Both the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts lie in the peri...
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Spinothalamic tracts

The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other tracts main spinal tracts, the spinothalamic tracts de...
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Splenius capitis muscle

The splenius capitis is a strap-like muscles that, along with the splenius cervicis, comprise the superficial layer of intrinsic back muscles. Gross anatomy Attachments origin: ligamentum nuchae, and the tips of the spinous processes and associated supraspinous ligaments of C7 and the upper t...
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Splenius cervicis muscle

The splenius cervicis is part of the superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It is one of the two muscles in this group, the other being the splenius capitis. Summary origin: spinous processes of T3-T6 insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3 innervation: dorsal rami of the lower ce...
Article

Split fat sign

The split fat sign is feature that can be seen typically on MRI images with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. It is seen as a fine rind of fat around the lesion. It is best appreciated on T1 weighted images 1. On coronal or sagittal images (i.e.images along the direction of the nerve) a tapered r...
Article

Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis is characterised by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology Spondylodiscitis has a bimodal age distribution, which many authors consider essentially as separate entities: paediatric older population ~50 years Clinical presentation T...
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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) and c...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
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Spondylolisthesis Wiltse classification

Spondylolisthesis can be classified according to broad aetiologies as described by Wiltse in 1981 1. Typically when reporting studies with spondylolisthesis the Wiltse type is merely stated without referring to its number, whereas the grade of spondylolisthesis is explicitly stated: e.g. "Grade ...
Article

Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis is a defect in the pars interarticularis of the neural arch, the portion of the neural arch that connects the superior and inferior articular facets. It is commonly known as pars interarticularis defect or more simply as pars defect.  Epidemiology Spondylolysis is present in ~5% ...
Article

Spondyloptosis

Spondyloptosis is a term to denote grade V spondylolisthesis - a vertebra having slipped so far with respect to the vertebra below that the two endplates are no longer congruent. It is usually anterolisthesis of L5 on S1 but can be seen elsewhere rarely 1,2. 
Article

Spondylosis

Spondylosis refers to a broad descriptive term referring to degeneration of the spinal column from any cause. History and etymology  It derives from the the Greek term σπόνδυλος spóndylos, meaning "a vertebra",  See also spondylolisthesis spondylolysis
Article

Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to the loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis and associated decrease in anteroposterior diameter. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic. On precordial auscultation, individuals with this condition can have an ejection systolic murmur over the pulmona...
Article

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord (SACD) is caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency. Epidemiology Most common in patients older than 40 and especially older than 60 7.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of SACD is usually with loss of vibration and proprioception in the han...
Article

Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
Article

Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
Article

Sugar coating

The so-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) is seen in post-contrast images of the brain and spinal cord in patients with leptomeningeal drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from distant primaries as well as dir...
Article

Sulcal artery

Sulcal arteries are penetrating branches from the anterior spinal artery and extend posteriorly through the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord. The sulcal arteries supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord at any cross-sectional level. Successive sulcal arteries generally altern...
Article

Supraspinous ligament

The supraspinous ligament runs along the tips of adjacent spinous processes and is particularly thick in the cervicothoracic region. Above the level C7 spinous process the ligament no longer directly attaches to the spinous process but rather continues as the nuchal ligament up to its attachment...
Article

Swischuk line

The Swischuk line is helpful in differentiating pathological anterior displacement of the cervical spine from physiological displacement, termed pseudosubluxation. Measurement the line is drawn from anterior aspect of posterior arch of C1 to anterior aspect of posterior arch of C3 the anterio...

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